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232. diverso caeli: ‘from an opposite part of the heaven.' Cf. II, 716. 233. pedibus : see l. 217.

235. Edico: 'I order '; as a verb of commanding, followed by the subjunctive (ut) capessant, and, as signifying 'I declare,' also followed by the infinitive, gerendum esse.

236. iussi: sc. facere.
236, 237. tectos, latentia: proleptic. See note on I, 637.
239. specula : some high rock serves as a watch-tower.
241. foedare: in apposition with proelia. See note on 1. 60.
242. tergo : 'on the body.'

246. Infelix: “ill-boding. rumpit: shrieks forth'; the word describes her fury.

247, 248. Bellum etiam pro caede, bellumne: 'war then in return for the slaughter of our oxen, is it war?' in return (pro) for the oxen of which you have robbed us. Laomedontiadae : in this passage a reproachful epithet, as Laomedon was faithless. Cf. IV, 542. But this is not always the case. See VII, 105; VIII, 18 and 158.

249. patrio: ‘hereditary'; since the Harpies were daughters of Pontus or Poseidon.

251. pater omnipotens: Jupiter was the source of all the attributes of his children, and thus imparted to Apollo the gift of prophecy, and the power to inspire others with prophecy.

252. Furiarum: the poets do not always distinguish the Harpies from the Furies.

253. ventis vocatis : “having invoked the winds.' Cf. above, 1. 115. 254. Italiam: see note on I, 2. 256. nostrae caedis : 'of the murder of us’; your attempted slaughter of us.

257. Ambesas: see note on summersas, I, 69. subigat: after antequam. H. 605, I; LM.878; A. 327, b; B. 292; G. 577; (H. 520, I, 2). malis : join with absumere. The prophecy was fulfilled, VII, 109 f.

259. gelidus : cf. l. 30.

260. armis, etc.: ‘nor do they now wish to seek security with arms, but with vows and prayers.'

262. sive — sint: their vengeance is to be deprecated if they are goddesses; their continued persecution, if they are only horrible monsters. The subjunctive is that of indirect discourse, dependent on an idea of saying contained in exposcere.

266. funem: the ‘hawser,' or cable, which moors the ship to the shore.

267-277. The Trojans sail by the islands of the Ionian Sea, Zacynthus, Dulichium, Same, Neritos, Ithaca, Leucate, and reach Actium in Acarnania, on the bay of Ambracia.

267. excussos - rudentes (see note on l. 257): 'to loosen and fling free the sheets. The rudentes were ropes which were fastened to the lower corners of the sails, and by which the sail was adjusted to the direction from which the wind blew. See V, 830 and note.

270. Iam apparet, etc.: they coast along the west side of Greece to Buthrotum.

271. Neritos: probably a small island near Ithaca, though some understand it to refer to the mountain of that name on the island of Ithaca.

275. Et aperitur Apollo: ‘and (after we have passed by Leucadia) the temple of Apollo opens to the view.' This was situated on the promontory of Actium, near the town of the same name, at the entrance of the Ambracian gulf. Shipwrecks frequently occurred here, and hence the temple is said to be dreaded by sailors.

278-289. At Actium they celebrate games in honor of Apollo, and leave a shield suspended on the doorpost of the temple, with an inscription to commemorate their visit.


278. insperata : because they have encountered such dangers on the sea, and sailed so near the homes of their enemies.

279. Lustramur Iovi: 'we perform lustral sacrifices to Jupiter,' because of the recent adventure with the Harpies; the verb is used in the middle

Cf. II, 383. Virgil represents Aeneas and his followers as performing a lustration according to the practice of the Romans, thus referring that custom to their Trojan ancestors. Augustus had ordered quinquennial games to be celebrated in honor of Apollo at Actium, to commemorate his decisive victory achieved there, in 31 B.C., over Antony and Cleopatra. By representing Aeneas as performing lustral games at the same place, and as thus being the founder of the Actian games, the poet pays a high compliment to Augustus. votis: meton. for sacris, 'sacrifices.'

280. celebramus litora ludis: hypallage for celebramus in litoribus ludos. Cf. note on 1. 61. Celebrare may perhaps be used here in its original sense of “throng.'

281. oleo labente: ablative absolute. The oil with which they were anointed flowed from their bodies while wrestling. palaestras: here athletic games.'

284. circumvolvitur, etc.: “the sun completes the full year.' The accusative expresses duration of time.

286. Aere cavo: ablative of description. gestamen Abantis : 'the equipment of Abas'; carried by Abas. This was an ancient king of the Argives, some one of whose descendants, Virgil imagines, was slain by Aeneas at Troy, thus leaving to the victor his shield as a trophy. This is now fastened upon the doorpost (facing the visitor, adversis), so as to meet the eye of one entering the temple.

287. rem : 'the fact' that it is an offering made by Aeneas. carmine: with the verse'; the verse following.

288. Aeneas : sc. dedicat ; ' Aeneas (consecrates) these arms (taken) from the victorious Greeks.'

290-505. Aeneas sails again to the northward, and lands at Pelodes, the seaport of Buthrotum, in Epirus. At Buthrotum he has an interview with Helenus, the brother of Hector, and Andromache, formerly the wife of Hector, and more recently the slave of Pyrrhus, but now the wife of Helenus. By a wonderful combination of events, Helenus and Andromache have come to be the rulers of Chaonia, a district in Epirus. Just before parting with Aeneas, Helenus, who is a priest and prophet, gives him instructions about his future course; informing him that his new kingdom is to be planted, not on the nearest (or Adriatic) shore of Italy, but on the farthest (or Tyrrhenian) shore; that he must pass round the peninsula, shunning the new Greek colonies established by Idomeneus, the Locri, and Philoctetes; that he must not enter the straits of Scylla and Charybdis, but sail round Sicily by the south, and enter the Tuscan Sea from Drepanum; that he must seek an interview with the prophetess or Sibyl at Gumae, who will give him directions for his future guidance.

291. abscondimus : 'we lose sight of.' arces: ‘heights' or mountains.' 292. portu: dative.

293. Chaonio: the harbor is so called because situated in Chaonia, a region of Epirus. The name of the port pertaining to Buthrotum was Pelodes. celsam: a common appellative of walled cities. The city was at some distance from the port, but not on high ground.

295. Helenum: one of the sons of Priam, renowned as a prophet. Being made prisoner by the Greeks, he was carried by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, to Epirus. That the son of the principal enemy of the Greeks should now be a king in Grecian cities fills Aeneas with wonder. The position of the words aids the contrast of ideas.

296. Coniugio: as in II, 579.

297. patrio marito: 'a husband of her own country'; i.e. of Troy, the country which had become hers by marrying Hector. iterum cessisse : ‘has again become subject to.' Helenus is her second Trojan husband.

299. The infinitives after amore, as in II, 10.

300. Progredior: Aeneas goes attended with a part of his companions only and without Ascanius. Afterwards the Trojans are all entertained by Helenus. portu: ablative; see note on I, 2.

301. Sollemnes dapes: 'annual funeral sacrifices.'

302. falsi Simoentis : "the fictitious' or 'pretended Simois.' Helenus and Andromache had indulged their love of country by applying Trojan names to this stream and to other objects in their new kingdom. See 11. 335, 336, 349, 497

304. Hectoreum ad tumulum : 'at the tomb of Hector.' This was a ceno. taph. The real tomb was at Troy. viridi, etc. : 'which (formed) of green turf, a cenotaph (lit. empty), she had consecrated.'

305. geminas aras: see note on arae, l. 63. causam lacrimis: 'an occasion for tears'; because the tomb and the altars would remind her of Hector. For the dative, see note on scaenis, I, 429.

307. magnis exterrita monstris: ‘astounded at the great prodigy.' To her the sudden apparition of Aeneas and his followers was the more likely to seem supernatural, because her mind was on the deceased Hector.

309. longo tempore: for longo post tempore. H. 479; LM. 655; A. 250; B. 223; G. 403; (H. 430).

310. Vera facies : 'a living form.' te: addressed to Aeneas.

311. recessit: 'has departed (from thee). The sense is: If thou art dead, and comest from the lower world, and from the assembly of Trojan heroes there, tell me where in that world is my Hector ?

313. clamore: 'with loud lamentations.' 314. Subicio: 'I answer in reply.' raris, etc. : 'I gasp in faltering words.' 316. Answer to the question in l. 310. 317. deiectam: “deprived of'; lit. “cast down from.' 318. Excipit: "awaits.'

319. Hectoris Andromache, etc.: dost thou, once the Andromache of Hector, preserve the marriage ties of Pyrrhus?' Not said in reproach, but in grief that her hard fate is such. With the genitive, Hectoris, cf. Oili, 1, 41. e in the interrogative -ne is elided.

320. Deiecit: she is the victim of necessity and fate, but she can not escape some sense of shame in the thought of her connection with Neoptolemus.

321. virgo: the allusion is to Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, slain as a sacrifice at the tomb of Achilles, who had been enamored of her, and had sought her hand in marriage.

323. Iussa : 'when commanded.' The participle indicates the cause of felix. sortitus: "allotments,' • distributions by lot. Compare the style of this passage with that of I, 94 sqq.

325. Nos: for ego ; in contrast with Polyxena.
326. Stirpis Achilleae: for filii Achilli, i.e. Pyrrhus.

327. Servitio enixae: “having borne children in bondage. According to Pausanias, I, 11, she bore three sons to Pyrrhus, – Molossus, Pileus, and Pergamus.

328. Lacedaemonios: Hermione was the daughter of Menelaus of Lacedaemon, and of Helen, the daughter of Leda. Her grandparents, Tyndarus and Leda, had promised her in marriage to Orestes, but her father gave her to Pyrrhus. Orestes, already frantic with the consciousness of having murdered his mother (scelerum Furiis agitatus), and still more maddened at the loss of his betrothed (ereptae coniugis), came upon Pyrrhus either at Phthia, his paternal home, or at Delphi, where he was worshiping at the altar erected to Achilles (patrias aras), and slew him.

329. famulamque: the particle -que is grammatically unnecessary; 'gave me to Helenus a slave, (being) also myself a slave.'

332. patrias : equivalent to patris.

333. Morte: ablative of time; ‘at the death.' -reddita : 'being delivered up.'

335. Troiano a Chaone: Chaon was a friend or brother of Helenus, for whom he is said to have sacrificed his life.

336. Pergama Iliacamque arcem : the second term defines the first by epexegesis. Cf. I, 2: Italiam Lavinaque litora. iugis: dative with addidit.

339. Quid: sc. agit; how fares the boy?' vescitur: cf. I, 546.

340. Quem tibi, etc.: this is the only fragmentary verse of the Aeneid in which an idea is not fully expressed. See note on I, 534. The general sense seems to be: "whom Creüsa bore to thee when Troy was being besieged.'

341. tamen: still, (though she be no more). The story of Creüsa's disappearance at Troy may have reached Andromache during the several years of the wanderings of Aeneas.

342. Ecquid: an emphatic indefinite interrogative particle. See H. 416, 2; LM. 507; A. 240, a ; B. 176, 2; G. 333, R. 2; (H. 378, 2). Do their deeds, and the knowledge that he is related so nearly to them, stimulate him in any respect to noble conduct?

343. avunculus: Hector, according to one account, was the brother of Creüsa.

345. Incassum: 'in vain,' for grief can not restore the dead. 347. suos: ‘his countrymen.'

349–351. Troiam, Pergama, etc.: see note on l. 302. arentem - rivum : the shallow stream with the name of Xanthus.' For the ablative, see H. 473, 2; LM, 643; A. 251; B. 224; G. 400; (H. 419, II). amplector: it was the ancient custom to embrace and kiss the threshold, the gate, and the doorpost, either on leaving or revisiting the ancestral roof. The Trojan names bring Aeneas to his home again.

352. Teucri: after the interview between Aeneas and his friends above described, all the Trojans are summoned, and invited to share in the hospitalities of King Helenus.

Cf. II, 490.

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