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121-191. Aeneas lands in Crete without opposition, as King Idomeneus has fled from the country. His new settlement is soon visited with plague and famine, and the Penates declare to him in a vision that the Delian oracle referred not to Crete, but to Hesperia or Italy. Anchises recalls the tradition of the twofold origin of the Trojans (Teucer from Crete, and Dardanus from Italy), and advises him to set sail for Hesperia.

122. Idomenea: accusative of the Greek declension ('Idouevña). Idomeneus was one of the most distinguished of the Grecian chiefs at the siege of Troy. In fulfillment of a vow made during a tempest, to sacrifice to the gods the first object which should meet him on landing in Crete, he was compelled to make his own son, Merion, the victim. A pestilence which befell the people soon afterwards being attributed to this act, Idomeneus was expelled from his country, and, therefore, planted a new dominion in the Sallentine district of Southern Italy. See below, l. 400, and XI, 264 sq.

123. Hoste: H. 462; LM. 600; A. 243, a; B. 214, 1, c; G. 390; (H. 421, II). The thought is: There is no one left in the country who will oppose us.

125. Bacchatam iugis : 'where Bacchus is worshiped on the hills. There is no corresponding English term. This island, the largest of the Cyclades, was noted for the cultivation of the vine and for the worship of Bacchus.

126. niveam: referring to the white marble of Paros.

127. Cycladas: Aeneas has particularized some of the Cyclades and some of the Sporades, and now sums up the whole in the terms Cycladas and terris. legimus: 'we sail along.' It governs the accusatives, Naxon, etc. concita : • disturbed.' The idea is that the number and proximity of the islands render the sea, thus pent up and interrupted in its currents, rougher and more dangerous.

128. vario certamine: “in manifold strife'; i.e. with various cries of mutual encouragement and with rival effort.

129. petamus: see note on the use of hortor, 1. 134, below.

133. Pergameam: sc. urbem. The real name was Pergamum. cognomine: see note on I, 275.

134. arcem attollere tectis : 'to erect a citadel with (loity) buildings '; i.e. build the usual fortifications, temples, and public edifices on the acropolis. The infinitive with hortor is poetic. H. 608, 3; A. 331, a and g; B. 295, 5, N; G. 423, 2, N. 2; (H. 535, IV).

135. Iam fere: ‘now all was well-nigh done'; fere limits in a general way the thought of the sentences following. subductae : see note on 1. 71.

136. Conubiis : here a trisyllable; conubyis. .

137. Iura domosque dabam: ‘I was administering justice abad assigning dwelling places. Cf. I, 507. tabida : in an active sense; "wasting. membris : dat.; "on our limbs.'

138. Corrupto caeli tractu : “the expanse of heaven being infected'; i.e. the region, or tract, of atmosphere pertaining to Crete.

139. satis : 'upon our crops '; the same construction as membris. 140. animas: for vitas.

141. steriles: an instance of prolepsis ; as in l. 30. exurere : historical infinitive. Sirius: its rising, which occurs in the hot season, was supposed to produce drought, and sometimes pestilence.

143. Ortygiae : see l. 124.

144. ire: see note on attollere, 1. 134. mari: ablative absolute with remenso, as pelago remenso, II, 181. The deponent has here, as often, a passive signification. veniam precari: the favor to be asked of Apollo is a revelation, informing them what end, etc.'; the clauses introduced by quam, unde, and quo are thus dependent on the idea of responding or instructing implied in veniam.

145. fessis rebus: cf. I, 452. ferat: like da in l. 85, is said of Apollo, as being able to relieve them by declaring what the fates decree concerning them.

147 sqq. Cf. Tennyson, On a Mourner :

like a household god
Promising empire; such as those
Once heard at dead of night to greet
Troy's wandering prince, so that he rose
With sacrifice, while all the fleet
Had rest by stony hills of Crete.'

terris : ablative of place where.

148. Effigies : 'images.' 150. visi : it was a dream, as in II, 270. iacentis : sc. mei, limiting oculos. 151, 152. se fundebat: gives more fullness of meaning than lucem fundebat.

154. delato : 'when thou hast sailed.' dicturus est: ‘is on the point of saying '; 'would say.'

155. ultro: “unasked'; without being first invoked. See note on II, 145. This condescension is in return for the piety of Aeneas in saving the images of the Penates amidst such dangers.

156, 157. secuti, permensi: sc. sumus.

158. Idem: for Eidem. in astra: a phrase probably symbolical here, as ad aethera, l. 462, of the glory of the descendants of Aeneas in general.

159. magnis : is left indefinite, perhaps purposely. We may understand viris, or rebus; or dis, i.e. the Trojan Penates, who are speaking.

160. para: Aeneas was not actually to build the great city of Rome, but only to prepare the way for it by founding Lavinium. See note on II, 295.

161. Non suasit: did not point out.'


162. aut: see note on II, 602. Cretae: H. 484, 1; LM. 620; A. 258, C, R.; B. 232, 1; G. 411; (H. 426, 1).

163–166. Repeated from I, 530-533.

167. nobis : the Penates identify themselves with the Trojans. Dardanus : the brothers Dardanus and Iasius were natives of Corythus, a city of Etruria. They migrated from Italy to Samothrace, and from thence Dardanus passed over to the Troad, where he married the daughter of Teucer, and received with her a share of the kingdom, which thus took the name of Dardania. The later name of Troy was derived from his grandson, Tros.

168. pater: is applied to Iasius, as being, in common with his brother, an original member of the family, or one of the patriarchs.

quo: must be referred to Dardanus as the conspicuous name; Iasius being merely appended as naturally associated with Dardanus.

170. requirat: ‘let him (Anchises) seek. Anchises is recognized as the chief adviser and director of their movements.

171. tibi:. Aeneas.

173. Nec sopor illud erat: ‘nor was that (all) a dream'; it was preter. natural. illud : the regular construction would be ille. H. 394, 1; A. 195, d; B. 246, 5. Cf. VI, 129; (H. 438, 1).

174. Velatas comas: they were veiled or bound with the fillets..
175. gelidus: cf. 1. 30. corpore: “from my body.'

177, 178. munera Intemerata : libations of unmixed wine.' focis : 'on the hearth’; the altar of the Penates. laetus: join with facio, not honore. honore: offering.'

179. ordine pando: ‘I narrate.'

180. prolem ambiguam : “the twofold lineage.' Adgnovit: governs the accusatives and the infinitive deceptum esse as direct objects.

181. novo: it was natural that at this late day Anchises should be liable to err in deciding which of the early homes of his ancestors the oracle meant. veterum locorum : an objective genitive after errore; new mistake about the ancient land.'

183. tales casus: “such fortunes’; namely, as that we should wander so far and settle in Italy.

184. repeto : ‘I recall.' portendere: sc. eam ; that she prophesied.' 185. vocare: 'that she mentioned.'

187. Crederet, moveret: ‘who could believe,' etc.; deliberative subjunctive. H. 557; LM. 723; A. 268; B.: 277; G. 265; (H. 486, II).

188. moniti: 'warned'; i.e. by the vision.
189. dicto: the word' or 'command' of Anchises.

190. quoque: “also’ this settlement as well as the one in Thrace. paucis relictis: 'leaving a few (of our number).' In Virgil's time, Pergamum and the supposed descendants of the Trojan colonists still existed in Crete.

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191. aequor : accusative with currimus; we traverse.' See note on I, 67, and cf. V, 235.

192–266. The Trojans, having set sail from Crete, are driven about by a storm for three days and nights, and on the fourth reach the Strophades, small islands west of the Peloponnesus, where the Harpies dwell. They are annoyed by the Harpies and make an assault upon them. Celaeno, chief of the Harpies, pronounces a curse upon the voyagers, and they leave the island in terror.

193. caelum - pontus (apparet): sc. sed before caelum. 194. adstitit: a livelier word than surrexit.

195. inhorruit unda tenebris : “the sea became ruffled with darkness ’; the sea became rough, and was overspread with the gloomy shadow of the clouds. Cf. Tennyson's imitation (The Lady of Shalott, 12, 13): –

"Little breezes dusk and shiver
Thro' the wave that runs for ever.'

199. Abstulit: cf. I, 88. ingeminant, etc.: "the lightnings continually flash from the riven clouds.'

201. discernere, etc.: Palinurus does not perceive in the heavens (i.e. by looking at the heavens) when the day ends and the night begins. Caelo is the ablative of place.

202. With Nec supply dicit, which is occasionally omitted, as here, after negat. meminisse, etc.: sc. se; “and says that he does not distinguish his course in the midst of the wave.'

203. Tres adeo soles : 'three whole days '; adeo qualifies tres ; 'three, even so many. incertos caeca caligine: the days are called “uncertain,' since their course is uncertain on account of the profound darkness.

206. aperire montes : “to disclose its mountains '; to bring its mountains into view. volvere fumum : therefore the Trojans suppose it to contain the dwellings of men.

207. remis insurgimus: they exchange sails for oars, in order to have the ships more under their command as they approach the shore, where there may be rocks and shallows.

209. Strophadum: the name of the islands is said to be derived from otpépelv, since the pursuers of the Harpies, by the command of Jupiter, at this point ‘turned back' to Greece.

210. stant: ‘are situated’; a lively substitute for sunt, as incedo, I, 46, and colitur, above, l. 73.

211. Insulae Ionio in magno: the diphthong æ in insulæ is not elided, and is shortened. See H. 733, 2, N.; LM. 1110; A. 359, e, and 355, d ; B. 366, 7, a; G. 720; (H. 608, II, N. 3.)

212. aliae: the others, whose names are known, were Ocypete, Podarge, Nicothoë, and Aëllo.

213. Clausa : the house of Phineus was closed against the Harpies after they had been expelled by the Argonauts, Zetes and Calais, who pursued them over the sea. They had tormented Phineus by constantly devouring or defiling the food that was placed upon his table.

215. Pestis et ira: “plague and curse.'

216. Virginei volucrum vultus: “the faces of the winged creatures are like those of maidens '; "they are birds with the faces of maidens.'

220. laeta : abundant.'


221. Caprigenum: agrees with pecus. nullo custode: ablative absolute. They were sacred to the Harpies, and left to feed, as was usual with sacred animals, without a herdsman.

222, 223. divos — Iovem: we devote a portion of the prey as a sacrifice to the gods, out of gratitude for our preservation. In partem praedamque : hendiadys for in partem praeaae. Cf. 1, 61.

224. toros : couches,' or 'seats' of piled-up turf. dapibus : H. 476; LM. 645; A. 248, c; B. 218; G. 401; (H. 421, footnote 1).

225. subitae: instead of the adverb, subito. horrifico lapsu : with terrific swoop'; ablative of manner.

226. clangoribus : refers to the loud flapping of their wings. Cf. I, 397. 229, 230. Cf. I, 310, 311. 231. aris : altars erected for the sacrifices mentioned in 1l. 222, 223.

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