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22. exscidio Libyae : ‘for the destruction of Africa. For the two datives, see note on regnum esse, l. 17. After the Scipios had destroyed the power of Carthage, the succeeding generations of Romans rapidly advanced to the conquest of the world, thus becoming late regem, everywhere supreme. volvere: decreed.' The three Parcae are Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. The first draws the thread from the distaff, the second winds or twists it by turning (volvere) the spindle, and the last decides the destinies of men by cutting the thread with the shears. But volvere may also have reference merely to the “revolving' or "circling' of events.


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Fig. 1.- - Judgment of Paris (1. 27) 23. Id: the destiny of Rome and Carthage above described. veteris : former.'

24. Prima: 'of old. quod : see note on qui, l. 1. pro Argis : 'for Greece.'

25. Necdum etiam : 'not even yet.' Not only was the war itself still fresh in her memory, with all the irritating circumstances attending the ten years' siege of Troy, but she had not ceased to think of the provocations which had preceded and brought about the war. The passage from 1. 25 to 28 inclusive, is parenthetical.

26. repostum : for repositum.

27. Iudicium: Eris, the goddess of strife, threw among the gods assembled to celebrate the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, a golden apple inscribed, 'to the fairest.' The prize was claimed by Juno, Venus, and Minerva; the shep. herd Paris, son of Priam, being summoned to act as judge, assigned the apple to Venus. See Fig. 1. iniuria is explanatory of iudicium. formae : an objective genitive.


28. invisum : 'hated,''odious’; on account of her jealousy of Electra, from whom and Jupiter the Trojan race had sprung. rapti: Ganymede, accord. ing to the myth, when hunting on Mount Ida, was seized by the eagle of Jupiter, and carried to Olympus. See Fig. 44.

29. The construction of the sentence, interrupted by the preceding parenthetical lines, is here resumed. His accensa super : ‘being inflamed by these things besides.' These old causes of hostility are added to her jealousy for Carthage. super : an adverb.

30. Troas : for this form of the accusative, see H. 110; A. 64; B. 47, 3; G. 65; (H. 68). reliquias Danaum: for reliquias Danais ereptas; referring to Aeneas and his followers.

31. Arcebat : "was repelling from.' She did this by stratagems, not by direct opposition; she instigated the inferior powers, as, for example, Aeolus and Iris, to injure the Trojans.

32. acti fatis : see note on fato profugus, l. 2. circum: see note on contra, l. 13.

33. molis : see H. 447; LM. 557; A. 214, d'; B. 203, 5; G. 366; (H. 398, 1, and 402).

34-49. Six years after the fall of Troy (see introductory note to Book Third) Aeneas and his followers arrived at Drepanum, in the west of Sicily, where they were hospitably entertained by Acestes, a prince of Trojan descent. During this visit Anchises, the father of Aeneas, died. The Tro. jans were now, in the seventh summer, setting sail again from Drepanum, joyful (laeti') in the hope of soon reaching Italy, the end of their wanderings. The narrative, therefore, begins in the middle of the adventures which form the subject of the poem. What had previously transpired is related by Aeneas himself in the second and third books.

34, 35. in altum Vela dabant: 'were unfurling their sails for the deep'; ventis is understood with dabant.

35. salis: sal is frequently used for mare. aere : ‘with the brazen prow.' The prow of a ship was sheathed with copper in Virgil's time. For the form of the ship, see Fig. 24; for the rostrum, or beak, Fig. 41.

36. aeternum servans vulnus : cherishing the eternal wound”; “the bitter wrath' mentioned in l. 25.

desistere : ‘am I to desist from my purpose, defeated?' H. 616, 3; LM. 976; A. 274; B. 334; G. 534; (H. 539, III).

39, 40. classem Argivum : “a,' not 'the, fleet of the Greeks.'

40. ipsos: “themselves, as distinguished from the ships. ponto: after mergo and summergo the ablative, either with sub or in, or without a prepo. sition, is used. See VI, 342; also below, l. 584.

41. Unius: 'of one only.' Pallas was angry with Ajax alone, and friendly

37. Mene

to the rest of the Greeks, whereas Juno was angry with the whole of the Trojan race. The i in Unius is scanned short here, as frequently in genitives of this termination. H. 93, 4; LM. 1088; A. 347, a, 1; B. 362, 1, (; G. 722; (H. 577, 3, (3)). ob noxam : the outrage offered to Cassandra by Ajax the Less, or the Oilean Ajax, in the temple of Minerva, during the sack of Troy. See II, 403-405.

Pallas, enraged on account of this violation of her sanctuary, raised a storm against the fleet of Ajax, on his return from Troy, when passing near the Euboean promontory of Caphereus, destroying the fleet, and killing Ajax himself with lightning. His body was then cast by the waves upon the rocks. Oili: gen. of Oileus (cf. Achilli, 1. 30), here a patronymic, son of Oileus.'

42. Ipsa : signifies that Pallas did this "herself,' personally, without the interposition of any other divinity.

44. transfixo: 'pierced' by the lightning.

45. Turbine : with the lightning-blast,' the wind supposed to accompany the bolt. Infigo takes indifferently the dative or ablative. Cf. V, 504; IX, 746.

46. ego: contrasted with Pallas. diyum : for divorum. incedo : suggests a majestic mien. Cf. 1. 405. It is substituted here for sum to express in a livelier manner the conscious superiority of Juno. regina : H. 393, 10; LM. 465; A. 185; B. 167, 168; G. 325; (H. 362, 2, N. 1). 47. soror: Juno and Jupiter were children

Fig. 2. — Juno (Ludovisi) of Saturn.

48. Iunonis : is more forcible than meum would have been. See note on


V, 354.

49. Praeterea: for posthac, ‘hereafter.' The indic., adorat and imponet, expresses the idea more forcibly than the subj.; "surely no one henceforth adores, no one will bring sacrifice. The present is occasionally used for the future in lively or earnest discourse, indicating strong assurance. See II, 322.

50–63. Description of the realm of Aeolus in the Liparaean islands. 51. austris : the names of particular winds are often put for the general term.

52. antro : not the situation of Aeolus himself, but the place in which the winds are restrained and bound.

54. vinclis, carcere : ablative of means.

55. magno cum murmure montis : with the loud reëchoing of the mountain.' The hollow mountain resounds with the roaring of the winds, furious to burst the barriers. Cf. below, l. 245. Here and in 1. 53, the spondees,


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which predominate, suggest well the power of the struggling winds, and the alliteration their roar.

56. arce: the palace was built on the summit or slope of a mountain, and is called, in l. 140, aula. Virgil probably conceives of the king seated on a throne in the open air. Some, however, think that the poet has in mind a throne within the castle or palace.

58. Ni faciat, ferant, verrant: for the present subjunctive, see H. 576, 2; A. 308, e; G. 596, R. I; (H. 509, N. 2). Cf. II, 599; VI, 293. In prose the imperfect subjunctive would be used.

59. Quippe : ‘for,' because '; is removed from its proper place, at the beginning of the sentence, by poetic license. Trans. : •For should he not do this, they would swiftly bear away,' etc.'

60. speluncis : for the case, cf. II, 553; though the ablative also occurs after abdere.

61. molem et montis altos : an instance of hendiadys (two nouns joined by a coördinate conjunction, equivalent logically to one noun modified by an adjective or a genitive) for molem montium altorum. insuper : “above' or upon’ them. Cf. III, 579. Some render it moreover.' 62. foedere certo : 'according to a determinate law. H. 475; LM. 612;

: A. 245; B. 219; G. 408; (H. 416). Join with the infinitives.

63. premere : “to restrain (them).' sciret : who might' or 'that he might know. See note on l. 20. iussus : 'when ordered'; i.e. by Jupiter.

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64-80. The address of Juno to Aeolus, and his reply.

65. namque : is elliptical here, as enim above, 1. 19. It introduces the ground of her appeal to Aeolus : 'I come to thee, for — Cf. I, 731; VII, 195.

66. mulcere, tollere: are governed by dedit as accusatives, instead of being in the form of the participle in -dus. H. 622; LM. 994; A. 294, d; B. 337, 7, b), 2); G. 423; (H. 544, N. 2).

67. Tyrrhenum aequor : “the Tuscan sea’; that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. For the accusative after navigat, see H. 409; A. 237, d; B. 176, 4; G. 333, 2, R. 2; (H. 371, II).

68. victos: the household gods of Troy, as its protectors, must be considered vanquished in suffering the city to be captured and destroyed.

69. summersas obrue puppis : lit. 'the ships being sunk, bury (thou) in the waves ’; a Latin idiom which should be turned into English by two independent verbs, ' Sink and bury the ships in the waves.' H. 639; A. 292, R.; G. 664, R. 1; (H. 549, 5).

70. diversos : *(their crews) asunder.'

71. bis septem : bis or ter with a numeral is a favorite mode of expressing numbers in poetry, corpore : an ablative of description. See note on l. 164.


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72. Quarum quae, etc.: ‘and Deiopea, who (is) the fairest of these in beauty, I will unite to you in lasting' wedlock, and pronounce your own.' The nominative, Deiopea, is put by attraction in the case of the relative quae, instead of the accusative, which would have been the regular construction. H. 399, 3; A. 200, b; B. 251, 4; G. 616; (H. 445, 9). Quarum is translated as if earumque. The preference for the relative in Latin often gives rise to the construction, which we have here, of two relatives in the same sentence; cf. the frequently recurring expression in Cicero, quae cum ita sint. The genitive is governed by the superlative, pulcherrima, as a genitive of the whole. See note on 1. 96.

73. Conubio : is scanned as a trisyll. H. 733, 3, N. 4; LM. 1112; A. 347, c; B. 367, 1; G. 723; (H. 608, III, N. 2). propriam : is a strong word, denoting sure and perpetual possession.

75. pulchra prole: seems to modify faciat in the same way as if the expression were enixa pulchram prolem ; 'that she may make thee a parent, having borne to thee (by bearing to thee) a fair offspring. Thus it is an ablative of means.

76. haec: supply ait or dicit. See H. 388, 5; LM. 461; A. 206, c; B. 166, 3; G. 688; (H. 368, 3). Tuus — labor : it is thy task to consider what thou desirest'; i.e. I have not the responsibility of deciding whether that be right or wrong

which 77. Explorare: to look into the nature of the request. Aeolus will excuse himself, when called to account for trespassing on the dominion of Neptune, by pleading the command of Juno, and his duty to her.

78. Tu mihi: in ascribing to Juno's intercession with Jupiter the power and dignity conferred upon Aeolus, Virgil has probably followed some ancient myth, in which Juno, as the impersonation of the air, was represented as exercising some influence over the winds and in the creation of a king under whose control they were placed. quodcumque hoc regni (est) : “this domin. ion, such as it is.' sceptra: as above, l. 57, and below, l. 253, indicates the kingly power with somewhat more fullness than the singular number. For the case of epulis, see H. 429; LM. 532; A. 228; B. 187, III; G. 347; (H. 386).

79. accumbere: the infinitive with dare, as in l. 66.

80. Nimborum: H. 451, 2; LM. 573; A. 218, a; B. 204, 1; G. 374; (H. 399, I, 3).

81-123. The storm; the despair of Aeneas, the loss of one ship, and extreme peril of his whole fleet.

81. conversa cuspide : 'with his shifted spear’; not with the point turned downward, but turned from a vertical to a horizontal position. While still seated, Aeolus strikes the point of the spear, which he had previously held as

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