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578. triumpho: ablative absolute, with parto.

579. Coniugium : = coniugem. Cf. XI, 270. patres : ‘parents’; as soceros, l. 457 580. comitata: cf. I, 312, and note. turba, ministris: ablative of

In the Odyssey, books IV and XV, Helen is reinstated as queen in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta. It should be remarked that the impression given by Virgil of Helen is widely different from that which we get from the Iliad and Odyssey, where she is represented rather as the victim of misfortune than as a deliberate evil-doer. See Fig. 18.

581, 582. The future perfects express the bitter indignation with which he conceives of her about to return in triumph after having occasioned all this


Fig. 20. — Menelaus pursues Helen (1. 580)

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583: Non ita : it shall not be thus.'
584. Feminea : possessive, as Hectoreum, 1. 543.

585. Exstinxisse: the infinitive depends upon an idea of saying, implied in laudabor, which is equivalent to cum laude dicar. nefas: metonymy for nefariam.

586. explesse : more intensive than implesse.

587. Ultricis flammae: with avenging fury.' See note on I, 215. satiasse: 'to have appeased. The Manes of the slain cannot be quiet in the lower world until they are revenged.

590. pura luce : ‘in clear light ’; not in a cloud, as gods often appear.

591. confessa : put for the present, as comitata, l. 580; ‘her godhead manifest’; not disguised, as in I, 314 sqq.

592. quanta: so great as '; for the gods are conceived to be of lofty stature. dextra : she seized the hand with which he was about to slay Helen. prehensum Continuit: sc. me. See note on I, 69.


595. nostri: Venus is represented as including herself with the family of Aeneas. Cf. I, 250.

596. prius : ‘first ’; i.e. before you think of slaying Helen. ubi: interrogative.

597. -ne: in prose would be joined to superet. 599. resistat: see note on I, 58.

600. tulerint, hauserit: the perfects suppose the completion of the action at the present time.

601. tibi: ethical. “Not the hateful form of Helen, as you think, not the guilty Paris, but the stern will of the gods, is overthrowing this dominion for thee.'

602. -ve: trans. 'nor.'
603. opes: "might,' 'power.' a culmine: cf. 1. 290, and note.

604. Aspice : Venus now causes Aeneas to see all that the gods see. The great gods themselves are destroying the city.

605. tibi: dative of reference, equivalent to the genitive of possession. H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a ; B. 188, 1, N.; G. 350; (H. 384, II, 4, N. 2). umida caligat: 'gathers misty.'

606. ne qua parentis Iussa time: 'fear not to follow any commands of thy mother'; for now that your eyes are opened to things invisible, you may understand that her counsels are safe.

609. undantem : ‘rising in waves.' mixto pulvere : ‘mingled with dust.'

610. Neptunus: Neptune had built the walls of Troy for Laomedon, the father of Priam, and was defrauded by that king of his stipulated reward. Hence his hostility to Troy. tridenti: join with emota.

612. Scaeas: the Scaean gate was on the west side of Troy, looking toward the sea. By this the Grecians were still pouring into the city. Cf. 1. 330.

613. Prima: ‘foremost'; as leader of the Greeks.

615. Iam: now at length even Pallas joins in the destruction. She usually aids in building, not destroying. respice: cf. 1. 564. His attention had been directed thus far by Venus to the walls and the gate, where Neptune

and Juno are acting; now he turns to behold Minerva, who sits upon the top of the citadel, probably on the pediment of her own temple.

616. nimbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva : 'bright with her storm-cloud and Gorgon grim.' The nimbus refers to the aegis of Zeus, which the goddess often

wore, and from which, if shaken, proceeded storm and Fig. 21. - Gorgon

lightning. The Gorgon's head was in the center of the (1. 616)

shield. 617. Ipse pater: even Jupiter, though not unfriendly to the Trojans, must execute the decree of destiny.




619. Eripe fugam: 'hasten your flight '; while flight is still possible. 620. limine: for the case, see note on l. 244.

622. dirae facies : 'fearful forms ’; the gods now made visible to Aeneas, and exerting their powers against Troy.

624. Tum vero: ‘then indeed'; when my eyes were thus opened. visum (est): "was seen.'

625. Neptunia : Troy is thus called because Neptune constructed its walls. 626. Ac veluti Cum : 'even as when.'

627. ferro bipennibus: hendiadys for ferreis bipennibus. See note on 1, 61. accisam: limits ornum. instant: with infinitive, as I, 423.

628. minatur: threatens to fall.'

629. comam: ‘leaf-crown’; the foliage of trees is often so called. tice: join with nutat as an ablative of manner.

630. supremum: ‘for the last time '; adverbially. Cf. III, 68. 631. iugis : ‘from the hilltops'; join with avulsa.

632–746. Anchises at first refuses to join Aeneas in his flight, but yields at last to the signs and warnings sent by Jupiter. While they are making their way out of the city, Creüsa, the wife of Aeneas, is separated from her companions and lost; but she is not missed until they reach the place of rendezvous, outside of the gate. 632. Descendo: Aeneas descends from the Acropolis to his father's pal

ducente deo: ‘under the guidance of the divine one (Venus). Cf. 1. 620.

633. Expedior, recedunt: Aeneas, by the divine agency of his mother, is carried safely through the fire and the enemy, weapons and flames moving aside from him.

634. perventum (est a me): = perveni.

635. Antiquas: the necessity of forsaking his home is the more painful, as it has been the abode of a long line of ancestors.

636. primum: in both instances agrees with quem. Aeneas must carry his father; for he had been formerly disabled by a stroke of lightning. See 11. 648, 649.

638. integer aevi: “unimpaired in age.' H.452, 1; LM. 575; A. 218, ; B. 204, 4; G. 374, N. 6; (H. 399, III, 1).

639. Sanguis and vires are also thus connected in V, 396. stant robore, etc.: whose strength remains firm in its own vigor’; needing the aid of

For the ablative, see note on regno, I, 268. 640. agitate: 'urge forward’; implying both planning and executing.

642. Satis superque: there is an ellipsis of est - quod; “it is enough and more, that I have seen,' etc. The plural as in l. 89. una: H. 166, 1; LM. 1081; A. 94, a; B. 81, 4, 6; G. 97, 3; (H. 175, N, 1). Troy had been





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captured and sacked by Hercules during the reign of Laomedon. Anchises has survived that capture.

643. superavimus: for superfuimus; as in l. 597.

644. Sic — positum : “thus lying, yea, thus.' He reclines on a couch, in the position of one dead, or dying. Cf. IV, 681. adfati: ‘having bid farewell to my body. It was the custom, immediately on the decease of a Roman, for the nearest relative at the bedside to call on the dead by name, and utter three times in a loud voice the word vale. See note on vocatos, I, 219.

645. manu: ‘by violence'; 'in conflict ’; i.e. by provoking the enemy to attack me. miserebitur: “the enemy will show compassion '; i.e. they will put me out of my misery by slaying me, while seeking to plunder my house and person.

646. facilis iactura sepulcri: 'the loss of burial is a light thing,' lit. easy (to bear). This sentiment is very unusual for a Greek or Roman, but not unnatural for an old man in despair. Cf. IV, 620; VI, 333.

648. Demoror: H. 533, 1; LM. 732; A. 276, a; B. 259, 4; G. 230; (H. 467, III, 2). ex quo: sc. tempore.

649. Fulminis adflavit ventis: “breathed upon me with the blasts of lightning. See note on I, 45. Anchises was struck with lightning, and thus crippled, for divulging to mortals his amour with the goddess Venus.

650. perstabat: figuratively; "he persisted.' fixus : used literally; ‘fixed' in his position and place. Cf. 1. 654.

651. Nos: cf. 1. 139; the plural for the singular. effusi lacrimis (sumus): equivalent to effusi in lacrimas; we were dissolved in tears.'

652, 653. ne — vellet: the purpose of the entreaty implied in the forego. ing words.

653. fato urgenti incumbere: “to add fresh weight to the fate (death) already impending.'

654. haeret: by a kind of zeugma is both figurative and literal in its use respectively with incepto and sedibus. in: prepositions belonging alike to two terms are sometimes joined by the poets to the second, instead of the first. See note on l. 293.

655. in arma feror: 'I rush to arms ’; “to the combat.'

656. iam : after every plan has been tried in vain to save my father. fortuna: "resource.'

658. Sperasti exspectavisti ; as in IV, 419. tantum nefas: 6 so impious a thought ’; as that a son should forsake his father in peril.

660. sedet hoc animo: sc. tibi ; 'this is fixed in your desire. For parallel expressions, cf. IV, 15; V, 418; VII, 368.

661. isti leto: “to that death (which you choose).' 664. Hoc erat (illud) quod : was it this for which?' Cf. IV, 675. For


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up arms.'

the accusative quod, see note on l. 141. quod Eripis: equivalent to a substantive idea, 'your saving me,' subject of erat, of which hoc is predicate. For the use of the present, cf. note on l. 275.

667. in alterius sanguine : 'in the blood of each other.' mactatos: H. 395, 2; LM. 479; A. 187, 2, b; B. 235, 2, 6), a; G. 286, 1; (H. 439, 2). cernam: the present subjunctive is used, since the time of the main thought is really present; “this is, I now see, the purpose of, etc.

669. revisam: see note on memoret, 1. 75.
670. Numquam: is an emphatic substitute for non.

671. clipeo: dative. The arm passes through the leather straps, the insertoria, which are fastened across the middle of the shield, and the hand grasps the handle between the center and the circumference. Observe the imperfect tense in this passage, as in l. 588.

674. patri: for ad patrem. 675. et: "also.' 676. expertus: taught by experience.' sumptis in armis : 'in taking

See note on l. 413. 678. quondam : 'once called, but now not treated as your wife. 680. dictu: see note on I, III.

682. levis apex: 'a light, pointed flame.' It was the appearance of a flame, pointed like the peak of a priest's cap, and called “light,' because it was unsubstantial. vertice summo: 'from the crown of his head'; his head being uncovered.

683. tactu innoxia : 'harmless with its touch.'

685. metu: join with pavidi. trepidare: the historical infinitive. See note on 1. 99.

686. sanctos.: because sent by the gods. 688. caelo: for ad caelum ; as in l. 186.

690. Aspice : 'look upon us’; i.e. with favor. hoc tantum: sc. peto a te ; this only I ask of thee'; one look of pity.

691. haec omina firma: Anchises thinks he sees in this prodigy a token of divine favor, but desires some additional sign to confirm his hope.

692. It is customary for the poets to treat as coördinate two clauses, of which the first is introduced by vix, the second by et, as in III, 8, V, 857, or by -que, as in the present passage, or by no conjunction at all, as in II, 172, III, 90. In all these cases the second clause is logically dependent on the first in a temporal sense; i.e. the second clause may be translated as if it were introduced by cum. Cf. I, 586.

693. Intonuit is impersonal, and laevum is an adverb; "it thundered on the left, - a good omen in Roman augury.

694. Join multa cum luce with facem ducens. 695. tecti: the palace of Anchises.

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