Page images

344. gener : ‘as a (future) son-in-law.'
345. furentis : ‘prophetic.'
346. Audierit: cf. the use of esset, 1. 248.

347. Quos ubi vidi: see note on I, 72. audere: "venturing upon.' H. 613, 1; LM. 961; A. 272; B. 331, 1; G. 527; (H. 535, 1).

348. super : as in I, 29. “Besides' the enthusiasm they already manifest, I seek to enkindle more, and so begin with these words.' his : ablative of




349. Pectora : as animi, l. 144, put for persons. audentem : sc. me. si vobis, etc.: sc. the indicative, est, since there is no uncertainty. extrema: 'a last hazard.' cupido Certa: “a fixed resolve.'

350. sequi: for the infinitive depending on cupido, see note on l. 10.

351. Excessere: the ancients believed that the capture of a city or country was preceded by the departure of its tutelary gods.

352. quibus : “through whom'; ablative of means.

353. moriamur, ruamus: ‘let us die, and (to that end) rush into the midst of the enemy. Also taken as an instance of hysteron proteron. See on l. 259. Cf. III, 662.

354. Una salus: predicate nominative: “to hope for no safety (is) the only safety of the conquered.'

357. caecos : “blind,' or furious' from hunger.

360. nox atra: the moon is at times obscured. See 11. 397, 420, and 621. But night in general, whether with or without a moon, may be understood as dark,' contrasted with day.

361. fando: “in speech.'

364, 365. -que -que: both — and.' See note on I, 18. inertia : “lifeless,' referring to the corpses of the slain; or helpless, with reference to the bodies of old men, women, and children, and persons unfit for war.

366. poenas dant sanguine : «suffer punishment with blood’; i.e. suffer death. Cf. 1. 72.

369. pavor: H. 733, 5; LM. 1114; A. 359, f; B. 367, 2; G. 721; (H. 608, V). plurima imago : ‘many a vision’; innumerable corpses, representations of death, everywhere seen.

371. Androgeos: a Grecian hero, not mentioned in Homer. credens: sc.


[ocr errors]

nos esse.

372. ultro: 'at once,' 'first ’; as in l. 279; without being first addressed. 376. Responsa Fida: “reliable answers.'

377. sensit delapsus : lit. 'having fallen, he perceived (it)'; a Greek idiom for sensit se delapsum esse. 378. retro repressit: •

: 'checked.' 379. aspris : for asperis. sentibus : ablative of place where. 380. humi nitens : .with firm tread.' See note on 1, 193.


[ocr errors]

The possess

381. Attollentem iras: "rears its angry crest.' Iras is equivalent to iratum caput. colla : Greek accusative.

383. densis, etc.: 'and we surround them with our serried arms'; the verb is used in the middle sense; lit. 'we poured ourselves about them. Cf. implentur, I, 215; and teguntur, l. 227.

384. -que : connects the verbs circumfundimur and sternimus. 385. Adspirat: ‘smiles upon.' labori: conflict.'

386. successu, animisque: ablatives of cause; both success and boldness of spirit make the youth exult.

388. ostendit se dextra : for ostendit se dextram ; 'shows herself favorable.'

389. insignia: ‘martial ornaments’; the arms by which the Greeks were distinguished from the Trojans, especially their helmets and shields.

390. Dolus : sc. sit. requirat: see note on l. 8. 391. deinde : see note on I, 195.

392. clipei insigne decorum: 'the shield with its beautiful device'; insigne is a noun. Shields were often adorned with raised work in metal. For the accusative, see note on l. 275.

396. haud numine nostro: ablative of attendant circumstance; “under an unfavorable divinity’; lit. “under a divinity not our own.' ive sometimes has the force of secundus.

400. Fida: safe,' as affording a retreat to the ships. 401. conduntur: for se condunt. Cf. 1. 383.

402. nihil fas (est) fidere, etc.: ‘alas, men may not put their trust in unwilling gods’; i.e. the Trojans, in putting on Greek armor, placed themselves under the protection of the divinities who were unfavorable to them. The sentiment is intended to introduce the incident which immediately follows, and which turns the tide of success against the Trojans.

403. Priameia: “daughter of Priam.'

404. Crinibus : see note on I, 480. a templo Minervae: she had fled to the shrine of Minerva for refuge. adytis : ‘from the inner sanctuary.' This was the outrage referred to in 1, 41, which provoked the wrath of Minerva against Ajax Oileüs. 407. speciem : 'spectacle.'

Coroebus: see ll. 341 sqq.

furiata mente: ablative absolute.

408. periturus : see note on l. 46.

409. densis armis : ablative of manner, as in l. 383. Eis, or hostibus, in the dative, is understood after incurrimus.

410. delubri culmine: a party of Trojans was hurling down missiles from the top of the temple of Minerva on the citadel.

411. obruimur: for the quantity of the last syllable, see note on pavor, 1. 369.

412. Armorum facie, etc. : ‘on account of the appearance of our arms, and the mistake arising from our Grecian crests'; so facies is used in V, 768.

[ocr errors]

413. ereptae virginis: ‘at the rescue of the virgin’; a subjective genitive, like iubarum above. For the use of the participle, see H. 636, 4; LM. 1013; A. 292, a; B. 337, 5; G. 664, R. 2; (H. 549, 5, N. 2).

414. Undique: with collecti. acerrimus : Ajax was angered by the loss of Cassandra.

416. Adversi : opposed (to each other)' and hence 'opposing. turbine rupto: when a whirlwind bursts forth’; ablative absolute, expressing time.

417. Cf. I, 85, 86.


[graphic][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small]

This stone tablet represents scenes from the Trojan war. Only a portion, showing the walled city, is reproduced here. The upper scene represents the strife and bloodshed that followed immediately after the Greeks descended from the horse (11. 265 sqq.). The scene just below represents a court in the palace of Priam. The aged ruler is seated upon an altar. from which Pyrrhus is about to tear him (11. 506 sqq.). On the right, Menelaus seeks to kill Helen. In the foreground at the left. Aeneas receives the Penates from a priest (cf. II. 318321). Directly in front, Aeneas, guided by Mercury, is issuing from the city gate, bearing his father on his shoulder and leading Ascanius. Just behind is Creusa. Cf. 11. 721 sqq.


418. equis : with laetus. Cf. tegmine, I, 275.

The winds are sometimes described as riding on horses.

419. imo fundo: cf. I, 84 and 125.
420. si quos : = quoscumque. per umbram : cf. l. 397.
421. insidiis: see 11. 389 sqq.

422. primi: “the foremost ’; those in front. Cf. 1. 334. mentita: de. ceptive,' with the regular active use of deponents. Mentitos is understood also with clipeos.


[ocr errors]

423. Adgnoscunt: 'they recognize’; they perceive that our arms and shields are theirs, though worn by enemies. ora sono discordia signant: 'they (the primi, l. 422) mark our speech, differing (from theirs) in sound.' Virgil seems to have regarded the speech (ora) of the Greeks and Trojans as being dialects of the same language.

424. Ilicet: ‘instantly,' 'thereupon.'

425. dextra : cf. I, 98. ad aram: the great altar stood at the foot of the steps in front of the pronaos, not within the temple itself.

426. unus: emphatic, as in I, 15.

427. aequi: H. 451, 3; LM. 574; A. 218, b; B. 204, 1, a; G. 375; (H. 399, II).

428. Dis aliter visum: he deserved to live, but the gods willed it differently. Cf. below, 1. 430.

429. a sociis : ‘by their friends' on the summit of the temple, who are ignorant of their real character. See l. 410. Panthu: see l. 322.

430. infula : put by metonymy for the priestly. office.

431. flamma meorum (civium). Aeneas speaks as if burning Troy were a funeral pile, in which his slain countrymen had been consumed.

432.. vestro: may be referred both to Troy, implied in Iliaci, and to meorum.

433. vices Danaum: “encounters with the Greeks.' Vitavisse, meruisse : the subject, me, is omitted. fata fuissent: contain the notion of decreeing,' commanding '; hence, the following subjunctive with ut. 434. manu: 'by my hand '; i.e. by my bold deeds.

435. Iphitus et Pelias mecum: sc. divelluntur; are separated (from the rest) with me.'

436. vulnere Ulixi: 'the wound of,' i.e. 'inflicted by, Ulysses.' 437. vocati: sc. sumus.

438-558. Aeneas is now attracted by the noise of the combatants to the palace of Priam. On reaching the palace, he finds the great body of the Greeks, led on by Pyrrhus, making a furious assault on the front. He effects an entrance by a private postern gate, and ascending to the roof, aids the defenders in hurling down missiles and masses of the building material on the assailants. From the roof he sees the Greeks under Pyrrhus finally burst through the principal gate, and rush into the interior courts. He sees Pyrrhus slay Polites, a son of Priam, at the feet of his father, and Priam himself, after a feeble resistance, near the family altar.

438. ceu, etc. : 'as if other battles were nowhere going on’; i.e. as if all the fighting were concentrated here. H. 584, 4; LM. 944; A. 312; B. 307, 1; G. 602; (H. 513, II).

440. Sic: explanatory of the foregoing words, and qualifies indomitum, ruentes, and obsessum. Martem : 'conflict.' For the participle after cernimus,

1 One party,



see H.613,4; LM. 1019; A. 292, e; B. 337, 3; G. 536; (H.535, 4). The Greeks make an attack on the front of the palace in two divisions. headed by Pyrrhus, storms the gate, under cover of their shields. These they join together above their heads, by lapping one shield over another, like the tiles or shingles of a roof, forming thus a testudo, under the shelter of which they are safe from the missiles hurled down upon them by the defenders (11. 441 and 469 sqq.). The other party attempts, by scaling ladders, to gain the battlements (11. 442-444).

441. acta testudine: 'with an advancing testudo.' limen: “the gate.'

442. parietibus: for the case, see note on 1, 226. On the pronunciation of the word here, paryetibus, cf. note on abiete, 1. 16. postes sub ipsos : *close to the very posts’; i.e. of the palace gate.

443. Nituntur: 'they climb’; referring to the assailants. gradibus : ‘on the steps' of the ladders. Join sinistris with obici unt. They present their shields with their left hands against the missiles (of the defenders), shielding themselves (thus, while) they grasp the battlements with their right hands.' -444. fastigia : ‘battlements’ of the parapet. See note on 1. 458.

445. tecta Culmina: refers to the whole roofing, including also the gilded rafters, auratas trabes, underneath the tiles.

446. His telis: 'with such weapons,' or 'missiles, as these.' Notice the emphatic position of His. ultimą: “the end of things '; when they see that things have come to the last extremity.

447. Extrema in morte: “in death's extremity.'

449. alii: these are Trojans in the vestibule and court, standing ready with drawn swords to meet the enemy, if they should burst through the doors. imas fores : “the doors below,' as distinguished from the roof where Aeneas stood.

451. Instaurati animi: refers both to himself and to his two companions. 452. vim : 'force'; i.e. new impulse.

453. Limen erat, etc.: this passage serves to explain how Aeneas and his comrades made their way into the palace in the rear, while the host of Greeks was swarming round the front walls and the principal entrance. Limen, fores, and postes all refer to the private entrance in the rear (relicti a tergo). Within this were corridors, affording an easy communication (pervius usus) of the various buildings or parts of the palace with each other (inter se).

456. incomitata : in a more public place the custom of the Trojans and Greeks would have required the matron to be attended by a female servant.

457. Soceros : Priam and Hecuba. So patres, below, 1. 579.

458. Evado: 'I make my way’; by the private passage just described. ad summi fastigia culminis: to the battlements on the top of the roof.' Cf. 1. 302, and note. The poet has in mind a roof resting in the rear, on the colonnade which surrounds the courts, and sloping upward to the top, or

« PreviousContinue »