Page images

37. -que: there are two plans suggested as to the disposition to be made of the horse: one, to destroy it at once; the other, to penetrate the fabric and ascertain what there is in it. These two main propositions are separated by aut. The first of them, however, contains two subordinate ideas as to the method of destroying the horse: some advise casting it into the sea; and others, burning it. Hence the propriety of -que, rather than -ve, a reading sometimes adopted here.

40. Primus : Laocoon was foremost, not in giving counsel, but in making any active demonstration.

42. procul: sc. clamat. insania : sc. est ista ?

43. Creditis : in vehement language the interrogative particles utrum and ne are often omitted.

44. carere dolis : cf. luctu, l. 26. sic notus Ulixes: you should suspect that the craft of Ulysses is in some way connected with the wooden horse.

46. machina - Inspectura : Virgil has in mind the siege towers of a later period, which, being rolled up to the walls of the besieged city, enabled the assailants from the several stories and from the summit of the tower to hurl their missiles, and to pass over upon planks to the battlements of the besieged. Thus the Greeks might have intended to use the wooden horse. For the use of the future participle here, see H. 638, 3; LM. 1017, 6; A. 293, b; B. 337, 4; G. 438, N; (H. 549, 3). Ventura desuper refers rather to the descent of those in the machina upon the city than to the fabric itself.

47. urbi: poetical use of the dative for in urbem.

48. aliquis: is occasionally employed, as here, in the sense of alius quis, some other.'

49. Quidquid — est: see note on I, 387. et: "even.' dona: see note on

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1. 31.


51. In latus inque — alvum: he hurled the spear with such violence that it penetrated not only the frame, but even the inner cavities of the beast. feri: as in V, 818. compagibus: is joined with curvam (= curvatam) as an ablative of means; curving with jointed work.'

52. illa : the spear.

53. gemitum : of the hollow sound given back by the wooden fabric. Cf. III, 555; IX, 709.

54. si fata : sc. fuissent; 'if the fates of the gods had so willed.' Cf. 1. 433. si — fuisset : if our minds had not been perverse'; referring to the infatuation of the multitude.

55. Impulerat: ‘he had induced us'; put for the subjunctive, impulisset, which would not so vividly have expressed the conviction of the narrator. H. 525, 4; A. 308, b; B. 304, 3; G. 597, R. 2; (H. 476, 2).

57. Ecce : a striking incident now diverts their attention from the horse. manus: see note on I, 228.



59. venientibus : join with Obtulerat.

60. Hoc ipsum : “this very purpose ʼ; namely, that of being brought before King Priam. strueret: ‘might execute.' The subjunctive denotes the purpose

of Obtulerat. 61. fidens animi: H. 452, 1; LM. 575; A. 218, C, R.; B. 204, 4; G. 374, N. 7; (H. 399, III, 1). in utrumque : ‘for either issue’; for either of the alternatives expressed in the following lines. For the gender, see H. 495, 2; LM. 487; A. 189, d; B. 237, 2, a; G. 204, N. (H. 441).

62. versare dolos: “to follow out his stratagems.'

64. Circumfusa ruit : more lively than circumfunditur; the youths' gather rapidly round. For the number of the verbs, see note above on l. 31.

65. ab uno omnes: ‘from one wicked act learn (to know) all the Greeks'; from the treachery of one, understand them all.

68. Observe the spondaic verse.

69. Heu: the first object of Sinon is to gain the pity and confidence of the Trojans by pretending to have been cruelly treated by his countrymen.

71. super : adverbially, ‘moreover.' 72. poenas cum sanguine : ‘bloody punishment. Cf. IV, 514; X, 617.

73. conversi: sc. sunt. et: in prose would stand before compressus. In poetry the conjunctions et, nec, sed, enim, are sometimes, as here, placed after the first word of the second of the two coördinate sentences.

74. quo sanguine cretus : ‘of what lineage he is sprung.' Sit is understood.

75. Quid ferat: 'what (information) he brings.' Cf. 1. 161; VIII, 119. memoret: ‘that he declare.' For the omission of ut, see H. 565, 4; LM. 780; B. 295, 8; G. 546, R. 2; (H. 499, 2). Hortari may be followed by either the infinitive or subjunctive; as here by fari and memoret. quae — capto : sc. sibi; “what ground of confidence he has as a captive.'

76. formidine: he lays aside his pretended fear. Since this line is inconsistent with l. 107 below, it is believed to have been interpolated here. The line occurs in its proper connection, III, 612.

77. quodcumque fuerit: “whatever the result shall have been"; put for erit. Quodcumque is used here substantively for quidquid.

78. me: subject of esse understood.

79. Hoc: object of fateor understood. Sinonem : the name is here an emphatic substitute for me. Cf. I, 48.

80. Finxit: H. 573. CLASS 1; LM. 933; A. 305, 306; B. 302; G. 595; (H. 507, I).

81. Fando: ‘by heresay.' aliquod — nomen: 'any mention.' 82. Palamedis Belidae: Palamedes, the descendant of Belus.' 83. falsa sub proditione : ‘under a false charge of treason.'

84. infando indicio : 'on outrageous testimony.' Through the contrivance of Ulysses, a letter, purporting to be signed by King Priam, and a quantity of


gold, were secreted in the tent of Palamedes; and these being produced against him, he was stoned to death by the Greeks, on the charge of correspondence with the enemy.

85. Demisere neci: “they condemned to death'; so morti demittere, V, 692. lumine: “life.' H. 465; LM. 604; A. 243, d; B. 214, 1, d; G. 390, 3; (H. 414, 1). lugent: they now mourn him because they need his wise counsels. It was his reputation for wisdom which had excited the jealousy of Ulysses. Supply et or quem before nunc luget.

86. Illi — annis : conclusion of the condition introduced by si (1. 81). et: connects comitem and consanguinitate propinquum as two considerations on account of which Sinon was sent.

87. Pauper: the term is calculated to excite compassion in the hearers. in arma: for in bellum.

88. stabat regno: “stood safe in his royal dignity. regum vigebat Conciliis : ‘had weight in the assemblies of the princes.' The Grecian chiefs held frequent councils in their camp below Troy.

89. et nos: 'I also’; the plural, as in l. 139. que — que: cf. I, 18.

91. Haud ignota : "things by no means unknown.' The cunning of Sinon shows itself in connecting his pretended misfortunes with the real ones of Palamedes, the account of which has doubtless already reached the Trojans. superis — ab oris : 'from the upper world ’; from this region of the living to the lower world, sub umbras. Cf. IV, 660. For the tense after postquam, see note on I, 216.

92. in tenebris : 'in gloomy solitude.'

94. me: subject of fore understood. tulisset : "should bring it about.' The pluperfect subjunctive represents a future perfect indicative of the direct discourse. H. 644, 2; LM. 804; A. 286, R.; B. 269, 1, b; G. 657, 4; (H. 525, 2).

95. Argos: for Graeciam.' Cf. I, 285. Palamedes was from Euboea. 96. odia : the hatred, namely, of Ulysses.

97. Hinc: ‘from this cause'; others regard it as temporal, “from this time.' prima labes: “the first ruinous step,''the beginning of misfortune.'

98, 99. The infinitives are historical. H. 610; LM. 708, 709; A. 275; B. 335; G. 647; (H. 536, I). Cf. the language of Milton (Par. Lost, 5, 703):

* Tells the suggested cause and casts between
Ambiguous words and jealousies.'

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


conscius : conscious (of wrong)'; i.e. conscius sibi sceleris; knowing his own guilt, and the danger of being exposed by me. arma: weapons ’; means for my destruction.

100. Calchante ministro: with Calchas for his tool.' Sinon artfully breaks off here, in order to excite the Trojans to further inquiries.


101. Sed autem : 'but indeed.'. The phrase is colloquial, intended to give naturalness to the narration. ingrata : 'unwelcome. Sinon pretends to think that the narrative possesses no interest for the Trojans.

102. si: nearly equivalent to quoniam. omnes: all the Greeks, whether such as Palamedes and Sinon or such as Ulysses.

103. Id : i.e. me Achivum esse. Iamdudum : ‘now at once.' It implies that the act has already been long delayed.

104. magno: for the case, see H. 478; LM. 652, 653; A. 252, d ; B. 225; G. 404; (H. 422). With velit and mercentur the protasis, si possint, is to be supplied.

107. Prosequitur : ‘proceeds. This verb in this sense, and without an object, seems to occur only here.

109. Moliri : the term implies effort to overcome difficulties. bello : join with fessi.

110. Fecissent: 'would that they had so done.' See note on I, 576. If they had gone away at that time, Sinon would not have been condemned as the victim for sacrifice.

111. euntes : 'when departing’; not actually on their way, but when on the point of going.

114. Suspensi : ‘uncertain’; not knowing what to do. scitantem : 'to consult’; a present participle denoting purpose. See note on I, 519.

115. adytis : ‘from the sanctuary.'

116. placastis : for placavistis. See note on I, 201. virgine caesa : "by the sacrifice of a maiden. For the construction, see note on 1. 413. The Grecian chiefs had assembled at Aulis before sailing for Troy, and being detained by contrary winds, were instructed to sacrifice Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, as a propitiatory offering to Diana.

118. quaerendi: sc. sunt. litandum : 'heaven must be appeased.'

119. Argolica : ‘Grecian.' A Greek must now be slain, just as the victim at the beginning of the war was a Greek. Vulgi: 'of the multitude'; i.e. the common soldiery. vox: “response.' ut: 'when.' See note on I, 216.

120, 121. ima Ossa : 'our inmost marrow.' Cf. III, 308; VI, 54.

121. cui fata parent: ‘for whom the fates are preparing (death). This and the following question depend on tremor, which implies some such word as incertorum. quem poscat Apollo: i.e. who it is that the oracle of Apollo


122. Hic: ‘here'; as an adverb of time.

123. Protrahit: Calchas pretends to be reluctant. ea numina divum: “these commands of the gods.' Ulysses demands of Calchas what person is meant by this revelation of Apollo.

124. iam canebant: 'were already foretelling.' 125. Artificis : 'of the plotter.' The cunning of Ulysses, as Sinon wished

[ocr errors]



the Trojans to understand, was exercised in turning the oracle to his private purpose by causing his tool, Calchas, to single out Sinon as the victim. ven. tura: 'what was to come.'

126. Bis quinos : cf. I, 71, 381, and notes. tectus : concealing his thoughts’; possibly also in its literal sense, “shut up in his tent.' 129. Composito: for ex composito, ‘by agreement ’; i.e. with Ulysses.

131. conversa (ea): equivalent to earum rerum conversionem. See note on l. 413. “They (readily) suffered the turning of those ills, which each feared for himself, to the destruction of one unhappy wretch'; i.e. when once I had been declared the victim, they were all relieved from farther apprehensions for themselves.

132. parari: historical infinitive.

133. salsae fruges: for mola salsa, “the salted Fig. 13. – Head of Bull

meal. Cf. IV, 517. Grain, parched, crushed, and adorned with Vittae

mixed with salt, was thrown upon the victim. vittae : (1. 133)

fillets,' or twisted bands of white and red wool.

134. fateor : the term implies that it might be considered culpable to have shrunk from a sacrifice demanded by religion. vincula: the cords with which he was bound when being led to the altar.

135, 136. obscurus Delitui : *I lay hid and unseen.' si — dedissent: "if perchance they should set sail.' See note on l. 94. dedissent is put by the law of sequence of tenses (after delitui) for the fut. perf. dederint. The clause is virtually in indirect discourse, depending upon the idea of thinking in Sinon's mind. There was the uncertainty whether the Greeks would, after all, set sail without having made the appointed sacrifice of one of their own countrymen.

139. Quos: accusative of the person; poenas: of the thing; ‘from whom, perchance, they will also exact punishment. H. 411; LM. 522; A. 239, c; B. 178, 1, a; G. 339; (H. 374).

141. Quod : 'wherefore,' lit. 'as to which.' H. 416, 2; LM. 507; A. 240, b; B. 176, 3; G. 334; (H. 378, 2). te: addressed to Priam.

142. Per: the following clause suggests the object : 'if there still be any inviolable pledge anywhere among men, by this I adjure thee.' For the separation of per from its case in adjurations, see note on IV, 314. quae restet: clause of characteristic.

143. laborum : for the case, see H. 457; LM. 586; A. 221, a; B. 209, 2; G. 377; (H. 406, I).

144. animi: 'a spirit'; put for the person. non digna : 'undeserved.'

145. lacrimis: ablative of cause; “by reason of these tears.' ultro: 'besides,' ‘moreover.' This word is capable of a variety of significations, arising from the fact that it means that “beyond 'what is expected or required.


« PreviousContinue »