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the order in which the servants stood, but to the arrangement of dishes of food or provisions (penum). To prevent confusion at such an entertainment, all the courses must be properly set out in the inner room by the servants (famulae), so that the waiters (ministri) might promptly perform their duty of carrying the dishes into the banqueting hall and changing the

courses.

704. struere: “to arrange'; i.e, before they are carried to the guests. flammis adolere Penates: “to keep the hearth aglow with fire.' The Penates are the gods of the larder (penus) and its contents, and their images were naturally kept near the hearth fire, so that to keep it up is óto magnify the Penates with fire' (Page).

706. Qui: H. 398, !; LM. 485; A. 198, a; B. 250, 2; G. 614, 5; (H. 439, 2). onerent, ponant: see note on l. 287.

707. Nec non et: ‘and also. The usage of nec non in juxtaposition to connect two single ideas is peculiar to poets and later prose writers. per limina laeta : 'through the festive halls.'

708. toris pictis : the embroidered coverings (aulaeis) mentioned above, 1. 697

iussi: 'invited.' 711. Cf. 648, 649. 712. pesti: 'to baneful passion. Cf. IV, 90.

713. mentem: with expleri, which has a middle force. Cf. 1. 481. nequit : H. 298; LM. 334; A. 144, 8; B. 137, 1; G. 170; (H. 296).

714. puero donisque : cf. 11. 659, 660.

715. complexu colloque: 'in the embrace and upon the neck. Pendeo is followed by ab, ex, or in, with the ablative, or by the ablative alone. Cf. II, 546; VII, 184; XI, 577.

716. magnum - amorem: i.e. all the endearments that his supposed father wished to bestow.

718. inscia Dido, etc.: “Unhappy Dido, not knowing what a powerful divinity she holds in her embrace.'

720. Sychaeum: see 1. 343.

721. praevertere : 'to prepossess.' The god causes her to forget her first love, and reawakens her dormant passions (resides animos), which he occupies with a living object (vivo amore), before her mind falls back into habitual thoughts of Sychaeus.

723. quies : sc. fuit ; 'when the feasting was first suspended'; referring to the change of courses (mensae). For the tense to be supplied, see note on l. 216.

724. vina coronant: 'they wreathe the wine cups.' Cf. III, 525. The Romans, in Virgil's time, were accustomed to put a wreath round the drinking cup as well as round the mixing bowl or crater.

725. Fit strepitus tectis : “the noise (of festivity) arises in the halls.'

726. laquearibus aureis: the concave spaces or panels formed in the ceilings by the beams intersecting each other were called laquearia or lacunaria,

and were decorated with gold. aureis: a dissyl-
lable, as in l. 698. Similar language occurs in
Pope, Temple of Fame, 144: —
'As heaven with stars, the roof with jewels glows,
And ever-living lamps depend in rows.'

Its Life and Art.

728. Hic: here, as frequently, an adverb of time. gravem gemmis auroque : "heavy with gems and gold'; i.e. a massive goblet of gold studded with gems.

729. pateram: see Fig. 28. quam: is the object of implere understood, dependent upon soliti.

730. A Belo : sc. orti.

731. nam : elliptical as in l. 65. hospitibus Fig. 11. — Bronze Hanging dare iura : ‘that thou dost appoint the laws of Lamp from Pompeii (1.726) hospitality. Jupiter is évios, the patron of (Taken from Mau's Pompeii: guests. “All strangers are from Jove, Odyssey,

By permission of the publishers.)

14, 57.

733. velis : H. 559; LM. 714; A. 266; B. 275; G. 263; (H. 484, 1). huius (diei): H. 454; LM. 588; A. 219; B. 206; G. 376; (H. 406, II).

736. laticum libavit honorem: “poured a libation of wine'; a small portion of the wine was poured upon the table as a drink offering to the gods.

737. libato : for the participle alone in the ablative absolute, see H. 489, 7; LM. 642; A. 255, c; G.410, N. 4; (H. 431, 4, N. 2). It is not necessary to supply any noun. summo ore : 'with her lips '; lit. the tip of the lips.'

738. increpitans : ‘challenging'; calling upon him to drink the pledge. impiger : ‘not backward.' hausit: ‘drained.'

739. se proluit : ‘drank deeply, lit. ‘drenched himself.' auro: meton. for the golden goblet. H. 752, 3; A. 386, metonymy; (H. 637, III).

740. proceres : sc. bibunt. Cithara : ablative of means. He sings, accompanying himself with the harp. Cithara is often used for any stringed instru

See Fig. 60. crinitus : Apollo, the god of the lyre, wore long, flowing air, and hence his votaries are so represented. See Fig. 26.

741. docuit: refers not to the music, but to the natural science taught him by Atlas. Atlas: Virgil adopts here the idea that Atlas was a real personage, and an astronomer, and in IV, 247, that he was symbolized in Mount Atlas.

742. Hic: refers to lopas.
743. unde ; sc. sint. ignes : 'lightnings '; as in l. 90.

ment.

745. tantum : ‘so much'; 'so early'; i.e, making the day so short in winter.

746. vel quae mora, etc.: refers to the winter nights, lingering and retarded in their progress to the dawn.

748. Nec non et: as in l. 707. 750. Multa — multa : observe the chiastic order of the words in this line. 751. filius Aurorae : i.e. Memnon. See note on l. 489. 752. quantus : 'of what stature’; heroes were conceived to tower above

common men.

753. Immo age : 'nay, come (these disconnected details do but irritate our curiosity), recount to us from their very beginning the wiles of the Greeks.' origine : does not refer to the beginning of the siege of Troy, but to the final stratagem which led immediately to the sack of Troy; for it is with this stratagem of the “wooden horse” that Aeneas begins his narrative in the Second Book.

755. septima aestas : = septimus annus. See introductory note to Third Book.

BOOK II

Aeneas recounts to Dido the capture and sack of Troy.

1-249. After a brief introduction, Aeneas enters upon his narrative, which begins with the story of the wooden horse. The Greeks, now in the tenth year of the siege, disheartened by their ill success, resort to stratagem. On the night which precedes the burning of the city, they pretend to have abandoned the siege, and to have taken ship for Greece; they leave upon the plain, before the walls of Troy, an immense fabric of wood, made to resemble a horse, and of such size that it can be carried into the city only by enlarging the gate or breaking down a portion of the wall.

Within this fabric are concealed many of the Grecian chiefs, while the army, under the command of Agamemnon, instead of continuing the voyage, lies hidden beyond the island of Tenedos, a few miles from Troy.

The Trojan multitude issues from the gates, and, gathering round the strange image, hesitate whether to convey it into the city or to destroy it.

At this moment the cunning Sinon, who has purposely suffered himself to be made prisoner, is brought before King Priam, and by his artful story gains the confidence of the king, and leads him and his people to believe that the wooden horse, once placed within the citadel, will become, like the Palladium, the safeguard of Troy. The device of Sinon and the Greeks is aided by Minerva, who sends two serpents to slay the priest Laocoön for attempting to destroy the image consecrated to her. This prodigy confirms the Trojans in the purpose already formed, and by means of ropes and rollers they convey the wooden horse through the city up to the citadel.

1. Conticuere : *(all) were silent ’; a completed action; tenebant: an action continuing intenti: may be rendered adverbially, 'intently,' .earnestly.' The beginning of this line has been found scratched upon the walls of Pompeii.

3. renovare : sc. me.

4. ut: ‘how,' interrogative, as in I, 466. The indirect question depends on renovare dolorem, which here implies the notion of narrating.

5. quaeque : ‘and (the things) which '; the antecedent, ea understood, is in the same construction as dolorem.

6. fando: "while uttering’; a gerund in the ablative expressing the rela. tion of time and equivalent to a present participle. This usage also occurs occasionally in prose.

7. Myrmidonum, Dolopum : join with Quis as a partitive. The Myrmi. dons and Dolopians were Thessalian soldiers, followers of Achilles, and, after his death, of his son Pyrrhus, or Neoptolemus. They are specified here as being the most bloodthirsty enemies of Troy. Before miles sc. quis.

8. Temperet : 'could refrain.' See note on nesciat, I, 565. caelo: for de caelo.

9. Praecipitat: sc. se, as in IX, 670; XI, 617; 'is swiftly descending.' On the journey of night through the heavens, see note on l. 250. suadent: cf. IV, 81.

10. amor: sc. est tibi ; 'if such a desire possesses you.' The infinitives cognoscere and audire depend upon amor est, which has the governing power of cupis or vis; the infinitive is thus equivalent to the genitive of the gerund. H. 608, 4, N. 2; LM. 956; A. 298, N.; G. 423, 2; (H. 533, II, N. 3).

11. supremum laborem : the final disaster.'

12. meminisse – refugit: “though my mind shudders to recall it, and hath shrunk from it with grief. The perfect may be used with the present, for while the mere act of shrinking is now past, the feeling of horror remains. Cf. also X, 726, 804.

14. tot — annis: 'while so many years were passing by. The present participle denotes an action which has been going on and is still continuing. H. 533, 1; LM. 732; A. 276, a; B. 259, 4; G. 230; (H. 467, III, 2).

15. Instar: in apposition with equum, with the genitive depending upon it. It may be translated as large as.' divina Palladis arte: the actual builder of the horse was Epeos. See below, l. 264.

16. intexunt: “they construct.' abiete: an ablative of means, scanned here as a trisyllable, ab-ye-te. See note on I, 73, and cf. parietibus, l. 442.

17. Votum: sc. esse. The Greeks possibly indicated by some inscription on the image that it was a 'votive offering,' or votum, to Minerva, and was intended to secure, through her favor, a safe return to their country.

18. Huc: equivalent to in equum. lateri (1. 19) explains huc, and refers more definitely to the interior of the horse. Both terms limit includunt. Trans. as if it were written huius in latus. virum corpora : for viros.

20. milite: 'with soldiery'; used collectively.

21. in conspectu : 'in sight,' i.e. of Troy. 22. opum: for the genitive, see note on 1, 14.

23. Nunc tantum sinus: ‘at present there is only a bay’; it no longer an opulent seaport. male fida: 'unsafe.' So male amicum, below, l. 735; male sana, IV, 8.

24. Huc: join with provecti.

25. abiisse : sc. eos as subject. Mycenas: put for the whole of Greece, as in I, 284.

26. Teucria : for Troia. luctu : the ablative of separation. See H. 462; LM. 600, 601 ; A. 243, a; B. 214, 1, a; G. 390; (H. 414, 1). The woe occasioned by the ten years' siege is the long (continued) grief' referred to.

27. Dorica : for Graeca.

29. tendebat: "encamped ’; "stretched' (his tents). See note on I, 469. 30. locus : subject of erat understood.

Fig. 12. — Athena (Farnese) 31. stupet, mirantur: H. 389, 1, N.; LM. 472; A. 205, C, 1, N.; B. 254, 4; G. 211, EXC.; (H. 461, I, N. 2). donum: the horse was at once a gift to the Trojans (see 11. 36, 44, 49) and to Minerva (see above, l. 17). exitiale : the idea is that of the narrator, not of the Trojan multitude. Minervae: an objective genitive; “the gift (offered) to Minerva.'

32. Thymoetes: is mentioned in the Iliad, III, 146, as one of the elders of Troy. A soothsayer had predicted that a child should be born on a certain day who should cause the destruction of Troy. On that day both Paris, the son of Priam, and Munippus, the son of Thymoetes, were born. Hence Priam, supposing the prophecy had reference to Munippus, ordered both the infant and his mother, Cylla, to be put to death. Aeneas, therefore, is in doubt whether the advice of Thymoetes to carry the horse into the city is given out of resentment and treachery (dolo), or under the influence of fate (sic fata ferebant).

33. arce : see note on I, 2.
34. ferebant: 'tended' or directed.'

35. Capys: a Trojan chief, not mentioned by Homer, but by Virgil, I, 183, VI, 768, and elsewhere. quorum — menti: sc. erat; "who entertained a better purpose.' The expression is equivalent to quibus melior sententia erat.

36. pelago : dative for in pelagus. See notes on I, 6 and 181.

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