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dancing trains. Talis, correlative to qualis, is expressed below, l. 503. The first syllable of Diana here is long. Eurotae, Cynthi: Diana, as the goddess of the chase, and therefore the patron goddess of Sparta, a city devoted to war and the chase, frequented the banks of the Eurotas, the principal river flowing through Sparta. Like her brother, Apollo, she was also believed to resort at times, with her nymphs, to Mount Cynthus. Cf. IV, 147.
499. quam secutae : ‘following whom '; the perfect participle as above in 1. 481.
500. Hinc atque hinc: 'on either side. See note on l. 162. illa — pectus: is parenthetical. Latona delights in the beauty of her children.
504. Per medios: as in l. 440. Instare is followed either by the dative or accusative. Cf. VIII, 433
505. foribus : 'in' or 'within the doors '; so near the portal as to appear to the spectator to be in it. The Queen had been advancing with her train toward (ad) the temple. She has now ascended the fight of steps, crossed the broad platform or colonnade in front, passed through the door, and taken her seat on a high throne placed directly in the rear of the wide portal. media testudine templi: 'within the vault of the temple.' Virgil has in mind, as before, Roman temples, in which extensive use was made of the arch and dome. Media is here very nearly equivalent to the preposition in; as any point within an inclosure is medius.
506. Saepta armis: 'surrounded by men at arms.' solio subnixa : 'seated (i.e. supported by) upon a throne. Cf. III, 402.
507. Iura dabat legesque viris : she was administering justice and giving laws to her people.'· Jura are .rights,' decisions,'' usages’; leges are ‘forms of law,' statutes.' operum laborem:. the execution of (public) works.' She was assigning the charge of these to various overseers, either directly, according to her own judgment, or else by drawing (trahebat) lots from an
The act of drawing the lots' is transferred, by a poetic turn of expression, to the ‘labor' which was to be determined by lots.
509. concursu: is the multitude of Carthaginians accompanying the Trojans.
512. penitus oras : and had conveyed far away to other shores'; i.e, other than those near Carthage, where Aeneas had landed.
513. Obstipuit: is understood with Achates ; and percussus, with ipse. For the adjective, see H. 395, 1; LM. 485; A. 187, a; B. 235, 1; G. 290; (H. 439, 1); for the verb, H. 392; LM. 471; A. 205, d; B. 255, 2; G. 285, 1; (H. 463, 1).
515. res incognita: i.e. the unknown circumstances of their friends. See ll. 517-519.
516. Dissimulant: “they remain concealed.' Not wholly of their own choice, it is true, for they have no power to dispel the cloud; but they would
not wish to emerge, at this moment, if they could; and hence they connive, as it were, with the divinity that is concealing them. speculantur : 'look out,' watch to ascertain what fortune, etc.
517. Quae fortuna viris : sc. sit; "what fate attends the men.' The present is substituted for the perfect, because the action is conceived as scarcely yet finished.
518. Quid : 'why?' lit. 'as to what '; adverbial accusative. cunctis navibus : ‘chosen from all the ships.' See note on Italiam, 1. 2.
519. Orantes veniam: ‘to sue for favor '; i.e. here, ' for protection. See 1. 526. The present participle is used to denote purpose. H. 638, 3; 533, 2; LM. 1017; A. 290, a, 3; 293, b, 2; B. 337, 4; (H. 549, 3).
520. introgressi: for the auxiliary to be supplied here, see note on l. 216. coram : sc. regina ; 'before the queen.'
521. Maximus : sc. natu. placido : “calm,' though like Neptune, l. 126, graviter commotus.
522. condere: for the infinitive, see note on 1. 66.
523. gentes superbas : ‘proud nations ’; refers to the neighboring barbarians, not to the Carthaginians.
524. Observe the emphatic position of Troes. maria : an extension of the cognate accusative with vecti, “having traversed all seas.' Cf. aequora curro, V, 235. A similar use is that with navigat, 1. 67.
526. generi: H. 426, 2; LM. 531; A. 227; B. 187, II; G. 346, 2; (H. 385, II). pio: “righteous'; obedient to the gods; hence, deserving to be received in a friendly manner. propius: render literally, ‘more closely ’; implying that their real character and circumstances have been misunderstood.
527. Non: is rendered emphatic. by its position. nos: H. 387, I; LM. 456; A. 194, a; B. 242, 1; G. 207; (H. 368, 2, N.). Libycos : see note on 1. 446. populare : the infinitive, after the Greek idiom, to denote a purpose, H. 608; LM. 950; A. 318; B. 326, N.; G. 421, N. 1, (a); (H. 533, II). Penates: by metonymy for 'hearths' or 'homes.'
528. raptas — vertere: 'to seize and drive away. See note on 1. 69. Vertere is for avertere (cf. VIII, 208), and refers especially to the captives and the cattle, which would form the most valuable part of the booty.
529. ea: 'such.' animo, victis : sc. est.
530. Hesperiam : 410; LM. H 521; A. 239; B. 177; G. 340; (H. 373). The other accusative here is quam understood.
532. Oenotri: these people were said to be kindred with the Pelasgi of Greece, and also with the Siculi, and to have occupied Bruttium and Lucania, in the south of the Italian peninsula. Italia was originally another designation for the same part of the peninsula, but was gradually extended in its application, until it came to signify, as now, the whole country south of the Alps. See note on primus, l. 1. fama : sc. est, of which the following clause is the subject. H. 615; LM. 971; A. 272, R.; B. 327; G. 535; (H. 538), minores, etc.: ‘that their descendants have called the country Italy.'
533. gentem: metonymy for terram. ducis: this leader was Italus, a king of the Oenotri, or, according to Thucydides, of the Siculi.
534. hic: not the adverb. This verse, like many others (fifty-four in all in the twelve books of the Aeneid), was left unfinished, though the sense is complete; in fact, the only example of such a hemistich that is incomplete in sense occurs III, 340.
535. adsurgens fluctu: ‘rising from the wave.' See note on Italiam, l. 2. subito: may be joined to tulit, or connected, as an adjective, with fluctu, thus, with a sudden wave' or 'sea. The setting of the constellation Orion in November was proverbial in the ancient writers as portending stormy weather. In consequence, Orion was supposed to exert a direct influence upon the weather, even though represented as rising, as in the present passage. The first 0 in Orion here is short; in III, 517, it is long.
536. penitus: as in l. 512.
538. pauci: ‘few in number'; i.e. as compared with the whole fleet, a large part of which is missing. oris : cf. 1. 377.
539. Quod genus, etc.: refers to the Carthaginian subjects of Dido. 540. hospitio : H. 464; LM. 600; A. 243; B. 214, 2; G. 390, 2; (H. 414).
541. Bella cient: refers to the same Carthaginians, stationed to guard the shore. Dido has commanded her people to oppose the landing of strangers. prima terra : 'the very shore'; lit. the first part of the land.' H. 497, 4; LM. 565; A. 193; B. 241, 1; G. 291, R. 2; (H. 440, 2, N. 1).
543. sperate, etc.: «expect the gods to be mindful.”
544. quo iustior, etc.: sc. neque before alter. Trans. : 'Aeneas was our king, than whom there neither was any more righteous, nor more renowned in piety, or in war and in arms.'
547. Aetheria: the poets sometimes use aether and aetherius for aer and aerius. Cf. below, 1. 587, and VI, 762; VII, 557. umbris : for in umbris.
548. Non metus : sc. est nobis ; 'we have no fear'; i.e. as to our ultimate safety. priorem, etc. : ‘nor would you regret having tried to anticipate him in kind offices.'
549. et: = praeterea. The thought is : Besides the consideration that there is a hope of recovering our chief, and that he will return your favors, we have also Trojan friends and cities in Sicily ready to receive us; you need not fear any attempt on our part to settle here in your country.
552. silvis: see note on Italium, l. 2. stringere remos: “to trim oars ’; for facere remos.
553. Si datur : protasis of ut petamus. rege, sociis : ablative absolute of attendant circumstance. recepto: agrees with the nearest noun, and is
understood with sociis. H. 395, 1; LM. 485; A. 187, 1; B. 235, 1; G. 290; (H. 439, 1).
554. ut petamus : here, and in l. 558, is the purpose of subducere, aptare, and stringere.
556. nec spes — Iuli: ‘our hopes in Iulus no longer exist.' Cf. VI, 364.
557. At — saltem : 'yet at least (even though Aeneas be lost) that we may seek the waters of Sicily.' freta: as in l. 607. sedes paratas: the settlement already established in Sicily under King Acestes. See note on l. 195.
558. Unde - advecti: they have just left Sicily. See l. 34.
561. vultum : see note on sinus, l. 320. demissa: “downcast,' not only through modesty, but also on account of the outrages charged upon her subjects, 11. 525, 539-541.
562. corde : see H. 462; LM. 600; A. 243; B. 214; G. 390, 2; (H. 414).
563. Res dura: ‘hard necessity'; my hard condition’; for she is in constant danger of invasion from the warlike Libyans (see l. 339) and from her hostile brother. See ll. 347 sqq. talia Moliri: “to take such precautions”; to devise such things; namely, as patrols (custode). For the mood, see note on III, 134.
565. Aeneadum : = Aeneadarum. quis nesciat: see H. 557; LM. 723; A. 268; B. 277; G. 265; (H. 486, II). How Dido has heard of the Trojans is explained below, 11. 619 sqq.
566. Virtutes : 'the prowess.'
568. aversus: "remote'; i.e. we are not so far from the world that our minds are stupid or uninformed (obtunsa).
569. Saturnia arva: an appellation of Latium, because it had been the retreat of Saturn, when driven by Jupiter from his throne in Olympus. Cf. VIII, 319. It has here the same restrictive relation to Hesperiam as, in l. 2, Lavina litora to Italiam.
571. Auxilio: join with tutos as an ablative of means. 572. Vultis et: ‘or would you.' mecum pariter : ‘on equal terms with me.' 573. Urbem quam: for urbs quam. See note on quae litora, l. 157. 574. mihi: see note on ulli, l. 440. agetur : shall be governed' or treated.' Note the singular instead of the plural. 575. Noto: for vento; as austris, l. 536.
576. Adforet: H. 558, 1; LM. 712; A. 267; B. 279; G. 260; (H. 483, 2). certos: ‘trusty.'
577. lustrare: “to explore.' For the mood, see H. 614; LM. 968; A. 271, b; B. 331, 2; G. 423, 2, N. 2; (H. 535, II).
578. Si: “if perchance,' “in case,' not to see if,' which would require the subjunctive. silvis, urbibus : should be joined with errat, as ablatives of place. Urbibus is taken in an indefinite sense for inhabited places.
579. animum: see note on l. 228.
581. Ardebant: ‘had been desiring. H. 535, 1; - LM. 738; A. 277, b; B. 260, 4; G. 234; (H. 462, II, 2).
582. Nate dea: 'O goddess born’; a frequent appellation of Aeneas, as the.son of Venus.
584. Unus abest: i.e. Orontes, who was lost in the storm, ipsius ante oculos, as described in 11. 113–117.
585. dictis matris : see ll. 390, 391.
590, 591. lumen Purpureum: ‘the ruddy glow'; the brilliant complexion supposed to belong to the gods.
591. laetos honores : sparkling beauty'; a beauty full of the joy of youth; expressing and giving joy; honores is for the singular honorem, in the sense of decus. adflarat: 'had imparted.'
592. Quale decus: see note on l. 430. manus : 'the hands (of artists).' Cf. 1. 455. aut ubi: ‘or (such beauty as appears, quale decus est) when. In works of art ivory was sometimes combined with gold or with wood (see X, 136); marble and silver also are made to appear more beautiful by contrast with a setting of gold.
594. cunctis : dative, with improvisus.
597. miserata : a participle, equivalent to a relative clause, quae miserala es; as passi, 1. 199.
598. que — que: for et - et. See note on l. 18.
599. omnium : H. 451, 2; LM. 573; A. 218, a; B. 204, 1; G. 374; (H. 399, I, 3). 600. Urbe domo socias : ‘biddest us share thy city and thy home.'
The ablative denotes that in respect to which they are made associates.
601. Non opis est nostrae : = non possumus. H. 447; LM. 557; A. 214, d; B. 198, 3; G. 366; (H. 402). nec quicquid, etc.: “nor (is it in the power of the Trojan race) whatever of the Trojan race exists anywhere.'
603. pios: Dido is pius in fulSlling the duty of kindness and hospitality towards strangers. “If the conscientious fulfillment of duty is properly appreciated by any divinities in the universe.'
604. iustitia, mens conscia recti: refer to her scrupulous performance of such duties. For sibi and recti, see H. 451, 2, N. 2.
607. montibus : dative of reference with lustrabunt used for montium limiting convexa. See note on cui, l. 448. Trans., “While the shadows move along the sides of the mountains,' i.e. as long as the sun shall pursue his diurnal course.
608. pascet: the sky or aether was supposed to feed the stars, or to furnish the subtle fiery element which nourished and kept them burning.