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518. caeco Marte: 'in the blind (uncertain) warfare'; in which, being under the testudo, they can neither see nor be seen. Cf. II, 335.

525. Vos: the plural has respect to all the Muses, though only Calliope is designated. Cf. vestras, I, 140.

527. Orco: the poetical dative of the goal for the accusative with a preposition.

528. ingentes oras belli: 'the (whole) wide field of the war'; the war in all its parts and aspects.

530. vasto suspectu: ‘of great elevation.' Cf. suspectus, VI, 579. pontibus: footways of plank leading from the tower back to the wall, in front of which it stood.

543. pectora : Greek accusative of specification limiting Transfossi. 546. Maeonio regi: “to a Lydian prince.'

547. vetitis: probably to be understood of the prohibition of the father, against whose will Licymnia had secretly sent Helenor to Troy.

548. inglorius: without device'; distinguished by no device on his white (unadorned) buckler. .

558. tecta : the battlemented top of the wall. socium: genitive plural. 566. Martius lupus: the wolf was sacred to Mars.

569-671. While the combat is raging, Numanus, a young Latin prince, and brother-in-law of Turnus, approaches the wall and taunts the Trojans with cowardice. Ascanius from the battlements hears the boaster, and, greatly incensed, for the first time aims his arrow at an enemy, first invoking the aid of Jupiter. His arrow pierces the temples of Numanus. But, through apprehension for the safety of Ascanius, Apollo descends, and in the guise of an old man warns him to abstain from further daring. The Trojans, recognizing the god as he vanishes, withdraw Ascanius from the ramparts.

572. Hic: Liger; hic: Asilas. longe fallente: lit. “stealing from afar'; more fully expressed, “thrown from afar and hitting its unsuspecting victim.'

Cf. X, 754.

575. pro: equivalent here to the preposition in; standing on the tops of the towers’; perhaps with the notion of defense involved; though pro is often used in the sense of 'on' or 'upon,' or on the front part' of some elevated piece, without any notion of defense, e.g. pro rostris.

580. Spiramenta animae: 'the passages of the breath'; the lungs.
581. Arcentis: a prince of eastern Sicily.
586. positis : ‘laid aside.'

588. liquefacto: “melted’; since the ancients believed that a leaden bullet melted in rapid passage through the air.

589. multa harena: 'on the spacious sand’; i.e. the space of sand over which his prostrate body extends, at the foot of the rampart from which he has fallen.

596. novo regno: 'with his new royalty,' or royal alliance by marriage. 602. fandi fictor: inventor of dissembling speech.'

603. ab stirpe : ‘by nature'; join with durum; inheriting hardiness from their parent stock. genus: in apposition with the subject of Deferimus. primum : at the first ’; as soon as born.

60g. Omne — ferro: 'our whole life is spent with the spear.'

618. biforem cantum: its twofold (double-toned) music’; referring to the two pipes, one of a lower pitch than the other, both inserted between the lips and played at once, or both united at the end in one mouthpiece.

619. buxus : "the boxwood’; synonymous here with tibia.
629. qui: subject of both verbs.
631. Intonuit laevum: a favorable omen.

632. adducta sagitta : 'the drawn (swift) arrow'; the arrow drawn back on the strained bowstring. Cf. V, 141, 507.

642. deos: Julius Caesar and Augustus.

643. Gente - resident: it is right that all wars destined to come should terminate under the race of Assaracus; i.e. under Augustus.

644. Nec te Tróia capit: nor does a realm so limited as this new Troy confine thee; thou hast a spirit for wider dominion.

647. Dardanio Anchisae: cf. 1, 617.

656. Cetera : 'as for the rest ’; accusative; as in III, 594. parce bello: abstain from war. Cf. I, 257.

661. avidum: “though desirous of,'' eager for.'

668. pluvialibus Haedis: “in the season of the rainy Kids'; ablative of time. The Kids are two stars in the arm of Auriga, the rising of which in September was attended with heavy rains.

670. Iuppiter: who regulates the seasons and the weather.

672–716. Pandarus and Bitias, youths of gigantic stature, sons of Alcanor and the mountain nymph Iaera, throw open one of the gates, and provoke the Rutulians to assail them. A bloody encounter follows, and Bitias is slain.

677. pro turribus: 'before the towers '; in front of the towers that flanked the gates.

697. Thebana : Thebes in Mysia, the native place also of Andromache. 698. cornus: the shaft of the spear, made of cornel wood.

705. phalarica: a heavy, spear-like missile, usually discharged by a machine. Nothing but such an instrument could have slain Bitias, and none of the enemy but Turnus could have hurled it.

706. duo terga : i.e. a shield formed of two hides.

707. squama et auro: hendiadys for aurea squama. The corselet was fortified with double or thick “scales,' or plates, ' of gold, Join the ablatives with fidelis, as ablatives of cause.

710. The Romans erected many palatial buildings at Baiae, the foundations of which often extended into the sea. The fall of Bitias is compared to masses of rock thrown into the sea for such foundations. Euboico litore: because Cumae, a short distance to the north, was founded by a colony from Chalcis in Euboea. See note on VI, 2.

715. cubile: in apposition with Inarime.

716. Jupiter is here supposed to have cast this island upon the giant Typhoeus. Cf. III, 578 sqq., and note.

717-818. Mars now inspires the enemy with fresh courage, and unnerves the Trojans. Pandarus closes the gate, and in doing this shuts in Turnus, whom he at once assails, incited by his brother's death. Pandarus is slain, and Turnus then attacks the daunted Trojans. He is soon surrounded, but finally saves himself by plunging from the battlements into the Tiber, whence he hastens to join his countrymen.

718. stimulos: cf. VI, 101. 720. conveniunt: sc. Rutuli.

729. ultro: with his own hand.' Turnus under any other circumstances could have effected an entrance only by force; but now he is admitted by Pandarus without resistance.

733. mittit: sc. Turnus as subject. 736. Emicat: ‘darts forward.'

748. is: 'such'; equivalent to talis ; 'not such (as thou) is the sender of the weapon and the wound.'

763. Excipit: 'overtakes,' catches.' raptas: 'captured'; taken from those already slain.

765. comitem: 'a companion’; i.e. to the others whom he has just killed.

766. Ignaros, etc. : this and the following line refer to Trojan combatants on the wall, who are intent on the conflict outside, and are ignorant that Turnus is inclosed within the walls. Some of these Turnus, springing upon the wall, strikes down while their backs are turned toward him.

767. Noëmonaque: the final e is lengthened here.

768–770. Lyncea - Occupat: while Turnus, on the embankment behind the battlements, was slaying those mentioned in l. 767, Lynceus thought to advance

upon

him from behind, and take him at a disadvantage; but Turnus, from the rampart on the right (dexter), anticipates (Occupat) the attack, and, with a blow of his descending sword, severs the head of Lynceus from his body.

773. The infinitives are explanatory, depending upon felicior (1. 772).

776. numeros intendere nervis : 'to string the tuneful chords '; a poetic transposition for ad numeros intendere nervos.

781. deinde: still farther.'

785. The verbs are future perfect.
787. segnes : 'cowards’; accusative agreeing with vos (understood).
803. Sufficere : “to afford,' or “supply '; as II, 618.
804. germanae: Juno. See I, 47, and XII, 830.

806. subsistere: “to withstand.' tantum : 'so much '; so much as would be necessary to maintain the fight. Cf. V, 21.

813, 814. piceum Flumen agit: ‘urges along a pitchy stream'; the sweat breaking out from his face and body flows mingled with blood and dust, and looks black, like pitch.

816. Ille: refers to fluvium; the Tiber.

BOOK X

Cf. I, 374.

Council of the gods. Pallas, Lausus, Mezentius.

1-117. Jupiter calls the gods to a council in Olympus, and persuades them to put an end to discord. Venus complains of the hard persecution of the Trojans, and Juno bitterly replies. Jupiter declares at last that the fates shall decide

the conflict without any • interference of the gods.

1. Panditur: Olympus was opened in the morning and closed in the evening.

The general sense of the line is there. fore 'at daybreak.' omnipotentis: 'supreme' or ‘sovereign,' as the seat of the all-powerful Jupiter.

5. bipatentibus : 'with folding doors.

See note on II, 330.

Others trans., with double gates.'

7. Versa retro: i.e. turned back again to the same bitter hostility as in former times during the

Fig. 74. – Jupiter and the Olympian Gods Trojan war.

9, 10. hos, hos: the two opposing forces, Trojans and Italians.

13. Alpes immittet apertas: 'will open a way over the Alps'; a bold expression for hostes per Alpes apertas immittet ; the reference is to the inva. sion of Hannibal.

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24. Aggeribus murorum : cf. IX, 769. For murorum some Mss. give the archaic form moerorum.

28. Arpis : called Aetolian because Diomedes, its founder, was of Aetolian descent.

29. vulnera : Diomedes had inflicted a wound on the hand of Venus in battle at the siege of Troy. The occasion was the same as the one alluded to in I, 94 $99.

40. movet: sc. Iuno as subject.

42. super imperio : 'concerning the supreme dominion’; namely, that promised to the Trojans in I, 257.

47. nepotem : since Venus was the mother of Aeneas.

53. hic: i.e. domi meae, “in my home' in either or all of the three favorite resorts mentioned.

54. (ut) premat: te infinitive is the regular construction with iubere. inde: 'from that quarter ’; i.c. from Ascanius and his posterity.

64. Obductum : 'concealed.'
70. summam belli: 'the direction of the war.'

71. Tyrrhenam — quietas: “to stir up an Etrurian league or peaceful tribes.' To excite the peaceful Tyrrhenians to a warlike alliance. Agitare is used rather with reference to gentes than to fidem.

73. hic: ‘here'; in this present difficulty, where is the hand of Juno or Iris?

77. Quid : “what do you think of this, that the Trojans, etc.?' The infinitive with subject accusative results from the influence of Indignum est (l. 74). face atra: see IV, 384. 79. soceros, pactas: referring to Latinus and Lavinia. 80. praefigere arma: see note on I, 183.

83. It was by Cybele that the ships were actually transformed; but every favor to the Trojans, by whomsoever effected, is ascribed by Juno to Venus.

go. The use of the infinitive is an irregular construction with quae causa fuit. The prose would be quae causa fuit Europae Asiaeque consurgendi ?

102. tremefacta solo: “trembling in its foundations.' Sc. silescit.
103. placida: is proleptic.
108. fuat: an archaic form for sit.

109. Italum: genitive plural, to be joined with fatis. castra: i.e. of the Trojans.

110. Sive errore, etc.: 'or whether by a mistake of Troy (i.e. of the Trojan party in the departure of Aeneas at this crisis), and by the fatal warnings (of Iris to Turnus, now working mischief).' Some editors see no special reference in errore and monitis.

111. Sua exorsa, etc.: ' his own enterprises (lit.“ beginnings ') shall bring to each,' etc.

113-115. Cf. IX, 104-106.

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