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68. in aequum : 'to the open field’; as opposed to the closed camp.

70. The ships, drawn up on the bank of the river, have one side of the camp in their rear and ramparts inclosing them on the Aanks, while the river protects them in front. Turnus approaches them on one flank, near the Tiber.

76–167. After invoking the Muses, the poet describes the interview of Cy. bele and Jupiter, which occurred at the time when the ships of Aeneas were built near Phrygian Ida, when Jupiter promised that these ships, after their arrival in Italy, should be transformed into nymphs. This promise is now fulfilled in the sight of the Rutuli. Turnus, however, nothing daunted, regards the omen as favorable to his own cause, and his troops encamp for the night on the plain.

79. Prisca fides facto, etc.: .credit was given of old to the story, but its fame endures for ever. The event received full credit in ancient times, but is more and more believed as time advances. The adversative idea (sed) in the second member due to Priscae.

86. arce: the summit of Mount Ida is meant.

88. iuveni: Aeneas. classis : genitive. H. 458, 2; LM. 594; A. 223; B. 212, 1; G. 383, 1; (H. 410, V. 1).

94. istis: either dative, ‘for those' (ships of thine); or ablative, .by those (prayers) of thine.'

95, 96. immortale Fas: “the privilege of immortality.' certus: “assured' of safety, "safe.' habeant, lustret: see H. 559, 4; LM. 723; A. 268; B. 277; G. 265; (H. 484, V).

98. defunctae: i.e. having fulfilled their destiny.
100. arva: for ad arva. See note on I, 2.
104. Stygii fratris : Pluto.

105. pice torrentes : ‘boiling with pitch. The banks were washed by the boiling pitchy flood. Per: governs ripas.

I11. ab Aurora: “from the east.' 112. Idaei chori: 'the Idaean trains'; the attendants of the goddess Cybele. 118. puppes: the sterns are toward the land. See VI, 3-5.

121. Reddunt se: the ships have plunged into the river and disappeared for a moment, and now again appear on the surface transformed into nymphs.

122. Probably an interpolation; occurs also X, 223.

125. ab alto: 'from the sea.' The river god withholds his waters a moment from the sea.

129, 130. non - Rutulos : "they (the Trojans) await not for Rutulian darts and firebrands'; i.e. to destroy them. Since the gods have already destroyed them by depriving them of their ships. The adjective R’utulos belongs to both substantives, but is attracted into the gender of the latter.

131. rerum pars altera: 'the one part of the world,' the sea. That final refuge which they had on the sea is cut off. They have now to take their chance on land, which is the other part.

132. gentes : in apposition with milia.

139. dolor : the wrong of Turnus in being robbed of his betrothed Lavinia is similar to that which the-Atridae suffered in the loss of Helen. -que: continues the force of the negation: Nor is it the lot of Mycenae alone to take arms for the recovery of a ravished wife.

140. Sed — est : ‘but (some one may say) it is enough that they (the Trojans) have perished once'; have perished as a nation.

140-142. peccare — Femineum: Turnus answers the supposed objection by saying: “Yes, indeed; but to have committed the crime once before (the crime, namely, of robbing men of wives) should have been enough for them hating utterly (after their first calamity) almost (only not'='all but') all womankind.” Any other race of men would have been deterred by one punishment; but the Trojans, who ought to detest the whole race of women as the cause of their downfall, even after losing their country, repeat the same offense.

141. perosos: agrees with eos, the subject (understood) of peccare.

154. faxo: for fecero, ‘I will have caused '; followed by the subjunctive (ut) ferant, that they think. Trans., ‘I will teach them not to say,' etc.

157. Quod superest: sc. diei; during that portion of the day which remains.'

159-161. portas, moenia, muros : refer to the Trojan camp. The Rutalians bivouac for the night, and detach fourteen companies to keep watch fires around the enemy's ramparts.

168–313. The Trojans having stationed their guards, Nisus and Euryalus, who are on duty together as sentinels, agree to undertake a journey by night in search of Aeneas, and they proceed to the council of chiefs, in order to lay their plan before them. The assembled princes approve the design and applaud the heroism of the two youths. They receive presents, and with the prayers and good wishes of the Trojans set out on their adventure.

170. pontes: perhaps footways of plank connecting different parts of the walls with the towers.

176. For an earlier reference to Nisus and Euryalus, see V, 294 sqq.
177. Ida: a nymph, mother of Nisus.
185. dira: strong,' wild '; a poetic use of the word.

187. mihi: the indirect object of agitat ; the infinitive being the direct object; my mind impels me (urges upon me) to venture upon fight,' etc.

194. Si, etc.: 'if they (the fathers) promise the things which I ask for thee.' I will demand that some recompense for my undertaking shall be bestowed on thee, and content myself with the glory, whether I come back or perish.

195. tumulo sub illo : 'under the rising ground yonder.'

205. hic: for meus ; this is a spirit which despises life.' est is repeated for emphasis : 'it is, in truth.'

205, 206. et Qui credat: "and (a spirit) such as believes.'
210. quae multa: the antecedent is contained in the idea of casus.

214. solita fortuna: 'wonted fortune'; fortune apt or wont to disappoint our hopes. With this punctuation, humo is dative of the indirect object with Mandet. Others join solita with humo as an ablative of place.

218. moenia Acestae: see V, 715 sqq. 223. regem : 'the prince'; Ascanius. Cf. reginae, VI, 28. 232. fore: dependent on an idea of saying implied in orant. 237. locum insidiis conspeximus :'we have seen a place for our secret exit.'

238. in bivio portae: “in the double road of the gate.' From the gate nearest the sea there was one route toward the south, occupied by the enemy; another passed along in the rear of their camp, and led toward Pallanteum.

241. Quaesitum : ‘in order to seek.' The supine depends upon the phrase fortuna uti. The active supine does not always depend on verbs of motion.

243. Adfore : sc. nos.
255. integer aevi: cf. II, 638.
268. praedae dicere sortem : 'to appoint the division of the spoil.'
273. omnibus: this probably is meant to refer only to captivos.

274. Insuper: preposition. campi quod : “whatever of land’; partitive genitive.

281, 282. Me Dissimilem – cadat: 'no day shall have proved me unequal to such daring exploits, provided only the (present) hopeful fortune do not end adversely.'

288. In: is separated from salutatam by -que, by tmesis; 'unsaluted.' 291. tui : the final vowel is unelided here.

294. patriae pietatis : ‘of his love for his father.' His own filial affection made him feel more deeply that of Euryalus.

296. Sponde: ‘promise (thyself )'; be assured of things worthy, etc.

305. habilem : 'fitted for use'; 'well formed.' Others refer the word here to fitness for the sheath.

309. iuvenumque senumque : ‘both young and old'; in apposition with Primorum.

314-366. Nisus and Euryalus penetrate into the quarters of the enemy, and slay many of them while buried in slumber. 315, 316. multis

Exitio : (doomed to die,) yet destined first (i.e. before they perished) to bring destruction to many. How literally? I have supposed an ellipsis of morituri, which the context seems naturally to suggest.

329. iuxta : ‘near by Rhamnes.

337. Membra: a Greek accusative limiting victus. deo : = Baccho or vino. 343. in medio: ‘in the midst'; just as they lay directly in his path.

348. multa morte recepit: drew it back with streams of blood,' which gushed forth as the weapon was withdrawn.

361. iungeret: sc. eum ; i.e. Remulum.
363. Post mortem : sc. Remuli.
364. nequiquam: because he was so soon to die.
365. habilem : see note on l. 305.

367-449. Nisus and Euryalus leave the camp of the enemy, and are proceed. ing on their journey, when the helmet of Euryalus, gleaming in the obscurity of the night, attracts the attention of a hostile party of horsemen, who are just approaching the camp. The youths flee to the woods. Nisus, having already escaped, misses his friend, and returning finds him surrounded by the pursuers. He kills two of the enemy with javelins hurled from his place of concealment, and thereupon the commander, Volscens, lifts his sword to slay Euryalus. Nisus rushes into the midst, but too late to save his friend, whose death, however, he revenges by slaying Volscens, and then falls, pierced with many wounds.

368. Cetera legio: “the rest of the army'; i.e. the whole body of the heavy infantry of King Latinus, which had remained in the rear near Laurentum. Three hundred horsemen under Volscens had been dispatched during the day to carry news to Turnus. So much must be inferred, though not narrated. Note the early use of legio, “the levy' (from lego), and hence the army.' See note on VIII, 604.

369. regi — ferebant: 'they were bearing a reply (from the commander of the infantry, legio) to Turnus the king. Regi is preferred here by the best commentators to regis.

372. flectentes : sc. se.

374. immemorem: ‘unmindful’; not considering that his helmet would thus betray them.

377. Nihil — contra : 'they made no reply.' 386. imprudens : "unconscious'; not noticing the absence of Euryalus. 388. Albani: some part of the wood, called the Alban forest.

393, 394. He is at first distant from the enemy (dumis silentibus); but soon he comes nearer (Audit).

407. si — auxi: ‘if I myself have increased (added) any (offerings) by the chase.

412. aversi: “turned away’; looking away from Nisus.

427. In this rapid, passionate utterance, me, me is left without apparent grammatical government. Some word like interficite may be supplied. Later the structure of the sentence is made clear.

433. leto: ablative.

449. pater Romanus: probably means the emperor Augustus and his suc

cessors.

450-502. The Rutulian horsemen bear the heads of Nisus and Euryalus with the body of Volscens to their camp, which they find agitated on account of the slaughter, just discovered, of Rhamnes, Serranus, Numa, and others. At dawn the enemy display the heads of Nisus and Eurya to the Trojans on the walls.

Their grief, and the lamentations of the mother of Euryalus, are described.

458. phaleras: 'the trappings' which had been seized by Euryalus. See above, l. 359.

459. spargebat: see IV, 584. 464. rumoribus : with reports ʼ; news of the last night's bloody work.

471. maesti: 'gloomy’; because of the threatened attack, and the absence of Aeneas.

477. femineo: retains its final vowel unelided.

480. dehinc: one syllable.

481. Hunc te aspicio: is it thus I see thee?' the full expression would be hic tu es, quem aspicio ? tune ille ? etc.: couldst thou, that one, (who wast) the last hope of my old age?'

486. tua funera: ‘(even) thy corpse”; thy body laid out for burial.

491. funus lacerum : 'thy mutilated body.' Hoc: refers to the ghastly head which she sees raised by the Rutuli on the point of a spear.

492. hoc: same reference as in the preceding line.

493. pietas : "feeling.'
499. infractae: 'broken,''nerveless.'

[graphic]

503–568. The Rutulians commence the assault on the camp.

Invocation to the Muses. Many Trojans perish in the burning and fall of a tower, and Helenor and Lycus,

Fig. 73. — The Muse Calliope

(1. 525) who had alone escaped from it, are slain.

503. Note the purely dactylic line, which ‘well indicates the sudden trumpet flourish.'

505. testudine: see note on II, 441.

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