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226. paterna: ‘his father's '; Vulcan's. 228. The final -e in this verse is elided before the initial vowel of the next. 236. iugo: join with prona as ablative of manner. 237. nitens: i.e. with his shoulders. 245. super: 'from above.' 248. insueta rudentem : roaring hideously.' 259. vana: because they avail not against Hercules.
260. in nodum complexus : i.e. forcing Cacus's body and limbs by his powerful grasp into a knot. Others understand, “twining his (Hercules') limbs about him as in a knot.' angit Elisos oculos : Hercules makes the monster's eyes start out by choking him.
261. siccum: here equivalent to privatus, ' drained of,' and so followed by the ablative of separation. Cf. IX, 64.
263. abiuratae: 'the possession of which he had denied on oath.' 268. Ex illo : 'from that time.'
269. primus — auctor, etc. : ‘Potitius, the first institutor, and the Pinarian house, the guardian of the worship of Hercules, established this altar in the grove.' Some editors make a new sentence begin with 1. 271, and regard Hercules as the understood subject of statuit. Both the Potitian and Pinarian families were engaged from the first in this worship of Hercules at Rome.
274. porgite: for porrigite.
276. bicolor : referring to the silvery color of the poplar leaf on the under side and the green on the other.
.280–368. After completing the rites of Hercules, Evander conducts Aeneas to the city and points out to him the places of interest around, and entertains him for the night in his dwelling.
285. Salii: the Salii were appointed priests of Mars by King Numa. Perhaps they were originally priests of Hercules.
286. tempora : what construction? 288. novercae: Juno.
291. Oechaliam: destroyed by Hercules because Eurytus refused him his daughter Iole. mille : here, a round number.
315. That the aborigines of different countries sprung from the rocks and trees was a common notion.
317. parcere parto: “to husband their gains '; to be provident.
319. Saturnus: an Italian deity, who presided over agriculture (from root sa-, seen in the supine stem of sero, “sow'), was identified by the Romans with Kronos, who was overthrown by his son Jupiter from the supremacy of heaven.
322. Composuit : assembled together.' Latium from lateo is only a fanciful derivation.
326. decolor: ‘of debased color'; an age of baser metal than gold; i.e. the brazen age.
329. posuit: for deposuit; i.e. laid aside its name of Saturnia, and then Ausonia, and several others, which successively gave place to newer names. 331, 332. Itali Diximus :
we Italians called (it).' Albula: as it was originally called.
336. Carmentis: an Italian divinity, here assigned to Arcadia.
338. The porta Carmentalis in Rome was at the foot of the Capitoline Hill. The order of the words is et portam, quam Romani Carmentalem memorant.
339. honorem : the name of this gate was a mark of honor to the nymph, dating from the earliest times.
343. Rettulit: ‘made into,' made'; a doubtful signification of the verb, but at least as satisfactory as any of the interpretations proposed for it here. Lupercal: a cave on the Palatine, sacred to Lupercus, an Italian deity, identified with the Greek Lycaean Pan, who was worshiped on Mount Lycaeus in Arcadia. Lupercus was derived from lupus and arceo, ‘warder off of wolves,' and Lycaeus from Xúkos, 'wolf.'
344. “Called after Parrhasian ( = Arcadian) fashion, the place of Lycaean Pan.' See note to preceding line.
345. Argileti : the Argiletum was a spot near the foot of the Capitoline Hill. The name was supposed to commemorate the murder of Argos (Argi, letum), a guest of Evander, who had been put to death by some of the people without the king's knowledge. Evander calls the place to witness his innocency of the murder (Testatur locum), while he recounts the history of it (docet letum).
347. Capitolia : the Capitoline, afterward covered with the buildings of the Capitol, of which the chief was the temple of Jupiter, roofed with plates of gold. Tarpeius = Capitolinus.
358. Ianiculum: the name of the hill opposite the Capitoline, and on the right bank of the river.
361. Carinis: the Carinae was a quarter or street of Rome on the Esquiline, occupied by wealthy citizens; hence, lautae, elegant.'
367. Ingentem: see note on VI, 413. 365. Finge : ‘make.'
369-453. While Aeneas is reposing under the humble roof of Evander, Venus applies to her husband, Vulcan, for a suit of armor for her son, which the god of the forge, on rising from sleep, orders the Cyclops to make ready. He himself directs their labor in his workshop in the Vulcanian islands, near the coast of Sicily.
372. aureo: pronounced au-ryo. 375. Debita (vastari): ‘fated (to be destroyed).' Cf. IX, 107. 381. constitit: Is (Aeneas) is the subject. 382. eadem : 'the same. I, therefore, who made no request for your
aid during the siege of Troy. sanctum mihi numen rogo: 'I pray the godhead I revere’; i.e. as thy wife.
383. filia Nerei: 'the daughter of Nereus,' Thetis, who had obtained from Vulcan a suit of arms for Achilles, her son. The wife of Tithonus, Aurora, had secured the same favor for Memnon. See note on I, 489.
385. moenia : .cities.'
391, 392. tonitru, etc.: 'when the fiery rent, torn (in the cloud) by the flashing thunder-bolt, gleaming with light, darts through the clouds.' The lightning often appears like a zigzag chink or crack of fire running along the clouds. Cf. III, 199.
395. ex alto: "far-fetched'; remote reason.
399. decem alios: the fates would have permitted the siege of Troy to be lengthened; they had only decreed the destruction of the city sooner or later, without fixing any limit to the duration of the siege.
402. electro : a mixture of gold and silver in such proportion (four parts of gold to one of silver) as to have the color of amber.
403. animae : refers to the blasts of the forge.
407, 408. medio — Curriculo: “in the midst of the track (or revolution) of departing (lit. driven away) Night. Cf. III, 512, and the kindred description of the passage of Aurora beyond the meridian, VI, 535, 536.
409. tenui Minerva : with the scanty loom'; Minerva (i.e. here, the art of spinning and weaving) yielding but a scanty living to the poor weaver. Tenui may also refer to the fineness' of the work of Minerva.
417. Liparen: Lipara, one of the Aeolian or Liparian islands. The island of Vulcan is in the southern part of the group, and is still called in modern times Vulcano. It contains the town of Vulcanello. 419. Aetnaea : i.e. like those of Aetna. incudibus: ablative of place;
'made on the anvil.'
421. Stricturae Chalybum: "the masses of iron.'
The Chalybes were a people of Pontus, skillful workers of iron; hence the word is used by mętonymy for iron,' steel.' Others translate “the smeltings of the Chalybes.'
422. domus, tellus : in apposition with Insula (1. 416).
423. Hoc: an old form for huc.
426. His manibus : = horum manu. informatum: 'shaped out'; in the rough and unfinished.
427. For the form of the Fulmen,
see Fig. 74. Fig. 67. – Vulcan at his Forge (from an ancient gem)
435. Aegida: see Fig. 12 for repre
sentation of the aegis. 436. squamis— polibant: 'were ornamenting with polished golden scales of serpents.'
448, 449. septenos - Impediunt: they weld together layer upon layer, seven in number.' The shield is made of seven circular plates of metal joined plate upon plate, in order to secure the proper thickness and strength.
453. In numerum : in order '; each striking his blow in turn, and in regular time. versant: while the blows are alternately given by two, the mass is turned from side to side on the anvil by the third workman. The plural indicates that this is a part of the common work of the forge in which all three are engaged. 454-553. Evander and Aeneas in the morning confer together. Evander advises Aeneas to seek the aid of the Etrurians, who have thrown off the authority of the wicked King Mezentius; placing under his command at the same time all the forces he himself can raise, and with them his son Pallas. While they are engaged in this conference the clang of gleaming armor and the sound of a trumpet are heard in the sky. Aeneas sends back a part of his followers to Ascanius with tidings of his success, while with the rest he prepares to depart into Etruria.
454. Lemnius: Vulcan, according to mythology, was cast from heaven, and fell upon the island of Lemnos, where he was nurtured, and afterward worshiped as the tutelary deity of the island.
456. volucrum: roof-swallows are meant. 457. inducitur artus : 'clothes his limbs'; middle use. See note on II, 275. 458. Tyrrhena : “Tuscan’; i.e. primitive.
461. limine ab alto: to be understood literally. The threshold was commonly of stone, and elevated from the ground.
461. 462. gemini custodes canes : 'two dogs, guardians (of the house).' 463. secreta : 'retirement.'
468. licito: now at length the important conference was 'permitted' by the circumstances, — both leisure and privacy.
472. pro nomine tanto: for such reputation as is ascribed to me, the aid I can afford is small.
473. Tusco: the Tiber is frequently called Tuscan, because it rises in Etruria and flows along its borders.
475. populos: the Etrurians were divided into twelve nations or populi, each having its own king, or lucumo, and when assembled for war one of the lucumones was appointed chief. Their camp, or army, thus composed, is rich in kingdoms'; i.e. made up of many royal armies.
479. There was a tradition current among the Romans that the Etrurians came originally from Lydia in Asia Minor. See note on II, 781.
481. deinde: 'then' or afterward'; join with tenuit.
497. puppes: i.e. = populi. They are assembled on the sea-shore, not far from Caere, ready to sail for the coast of Latium, near Ardea.
499. Maeoniae : an older name for Lydia. See note on 1. 479.
504. Hoc: Evander points across the Tiber in the direction of Caere, where the Etrurians are encamped. Their territory extends to the Tiber, opposite Evander; hence Hoc campo.
506. Tarchon: the lucumo in temporary command of the Etrurians. Cf. note on l. 475.