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685. Quos, Amasene : sc. tu pascis. The head waters of the Amasenus were in the Volscian highlands, not far from Praeneste.

691. Messapus : a Tyrrhenian chief. His followers are from Fescennium and other places on the right bank of the Tiber, in southern Etruria.

695, 696. Hi — Hi: two different divi. Fig. 64. — Glans Plumbi (1. 686)

sions of his troops. Faliscos: the people

of the town of Falerii. 695. aequos : 'just,''equitable.' Others regard it as a proper adjective and join with the noun — the Aequi Falisci. With acies and Faliscos, sc. ducunt from habent — a case of zeugma.

698. aequati numero: “in equal ranks'; arranged so as to be equal in number, rank after rank, in the column of march. Others understand, moving with regular step.(numero).'

701. amnis: the river Cayster is meant.

703. Nec quisquam, etc. : 'nor would any one suppose that brazen-armed battalions were being massed out of such an immense host '; i.e. 'composed this mighty host.' It seemed more like a countless multitude of sea birds.

707. Clausus: the poet fancies the Claudian family, gens Claudia, so celebrated in Roman history, to be descended from the hero Clausus.

710. prisci Quirites: the early inhabitants of Cụres, an ancient Sabine town, which by popular etymology was the origin of the name of the Quirites, or Roman citizens.

716. Ortinae classes : 'the troops of Orta.' Classis is here used in its original sense (cf. kalów,

call'). Later its meaning was restricted to naval forces.

717. The Allia was an ill-starred name on account of the great defeat sustained by the Romans there in the battle with the Gauls, led by Brennus, 390 B.C.

720. Vel:'or (as many) as.' sole novo : 'by the early summer's sun.'

721. Hermi: the Hermus, a river in Lydia. 724. Halaesus: formerly under Agamemnon

Fig. 65. – Warrior advancat Troy; hence Agamemnonius.

ing to Battle carrying Spi725. felicia Baccho: fruitful in the vine.'

cula Bina (1. 687) 726. Massica : the Massic fields, on the southern border of Latium. The other places mentioned in this passage are in the same general region, the country of the Aurunci and Oscans.

[graphic]

728. Aequora: ‘plains'; subject of misere, supplied from the foregoing clause. Iuxta is an adverb.

730. aclydes: the aclys was a javelin which, after being hurled, could be recovered by means of a thong attached to the shaft.

732. comminus : ‘for the close encounter.'

734. Oebale : Oebalus was the son of Telon by the nymph Sebethis, daughter of the river god Sebethus in Campania. Telon had emigrated with his Teleboans from the island of Taphos, near Acarnania, to the island of Capreae, opposite Naples. Oebalus, dissatisfied with his small dominion, secured additional possessions on the mainland in Campania.

742. Tegmina — cortex: 'the coverings of whose heads were (made of) the bark,' etc. quis : quibus, sc. erant, of which Tegmina is subject and cortex predicate. H. p. 71, footnote 3; LM. 288; A. 104, d; B. 89 (footnote 2); G. 105, N. 2; (H. p. 74, footnote 5).

746. cui gens, etc.: 'whose nation, the Aequiculan, is most savage.' 747. duris glaebis : ablative of description.

761. bello: better taken with pulcherrima, 'most glorious in war.' The story of Hippolytus or Virbius is partly of Greek and partly of Italian origin.

762. mater Aricia : ' his mother (land) Aricia. Cf. X, 172. 763. Egeriae lucis: in the neighborhood of Aricia.

764. Litora : the shores of the Arician lake. placabilis : 'gentle,' used in a general sense, with no specific contrast with the altar of the goddess in Taurus.

765. novercae: Phaedra.

769. Paeoniis herbis : 'with the drugs of Apollo'; from Iacúv, 'the healer, an epithet of Apollo. Pronounce here Pae-o-nyis.

772. repertorem : Aesculapius, son of Apollo. 777. Virbius: this name was borne both by the restored Hippolytus and son,

the leader here described as coming to the war. 784. Vertitur: 'moves,' in a middle sense. 786. Aetnaeos ignes : i.e. flames as fierce as those of Aetna.

787. Tam magis, etc. : ‘so much the more it was raging.' illa : refers to Chimaeram. With fremens and effera suppiy erat.

790. This device was appropriate to Turnus, as the descendant of Inachus.

796. picti scuta : = pictis scutis ; 'with painted shields. For scuta, see note on 1. 74. The Labici were from Labicum, south of Rome.

803. Camilla : this heroine, leader of the Volsci, is more particularly described in XI, 532-596.

806. manus: see note on 1. 74.
807. pati and praevertere: sc. adsueta from preceding line.

808. intactae segetis : she could Ay over the summit of the blades of standing grain without seeming to touch them. Violaret, ferret, tingeret (1. 811) are potential subjunctives.

by his

8og. laesisset: for laesura esset. 814. ut: interrogative. 817. myrtum: shepherds made the shafts of their spears of myrtle wood.

BOOK VIII

The shield of Aeneas

The alliance of Aeneas and Evander. made by Vulcan.

1-101. While Turnus is opening the war, an envoy is sent by the Latins to solicit the aid of Diomedes, who has settled in Apulia and founded Argyripa. Aeneas is advised by the god of the Tiber, who appears to him in sleep, to seek assistance from Evander, an Arcadian prince, lately established at Pal. lanteum, afterward the Palatine Hill, on the Tiber. On the point of departing on this mission, Aeneas sees the sow with her thirty young on the shore, the omen mentioned by Helenus. He ascends the Tiber, which has slackened his current to favor him, and at midday comes in sight of the Palatine and the settlement of Evander.

1, 2. belli signum Extulit: Virgil, according to the Roman custom, represents Turnus as raising the “flag of war' from the battlements of Laurentum.

3. impulit arma: clashed his arms.'
8. latos — agros: “strip the fields of their husbandmen.'

9. urbem : Argyripa, which the hero Diomedes founded in Apulia after the Trojan war, on fleeing from Argos and Aetolia to Italy.

10. Qui:

10-14. All the infinitives depend on Edoceat, except posci, which depends on dicere.

11. Aenean: the subject of the infinitives, advectum (esse), inferre, and dicere.

12. regem se posci : “that he is called by the fates to be king'; i.e, of Latium.

15, 16. struat, cupiat: Aeneas is the subject.
25. laquearia : see note on I, 726.
27. Alituum: a lengthened form of alitum.

37. revehis: 'who bringest back'; since Dardanus, the founder of the Trojan race, was a native of Italy. See note on III, 167. nobis : for ad nos.

41. Concessere : ‘have subsided,' come to an end.'
42 sqq. The prophecy of Helenus repeated from III, 389 sqq.
47. Ex quo (loco): “whence.'

51. Virgil follows the early legend, which derives the word Palatium from the Arcadian Pallantium (founded by the Arcadian hero, Pallas), and which

= ut is.

Cf. VI, 900.

relates an Arcadian emigration under the leadership of Evander to the valley of the Tiber.

54. Pallanteum: the supposed original name of the city on the Palatine, of which Palatium was regarded as a corrupted form.

57. recto flumine : 'by the direct course of the stream.' 59. primisque — astris : i.e. at dawn.

65. Here (on the banks of this stream) is destined to rise my stately home, head of lofty cities. The reference is to Rome, which may be regarded as already rising; hence, exit.

66. lacu : here, 'the bed of the river.'

77. Corniger: river gods were sometimes represented with the heads and horns of bulls.

78. propius : ‘more manifestly' than in a dream.

84. enim : 'certainly.' He follows the instructions of Helenus, III, 437– 440, and of Tiberinus, above, l. 60.

87. refluens: 'flowing back' on his course, so as to stay the downward current.

89. aequor aquis: see note on V, 821.

90. rumore secundo: joined with celerant, is commonly understood of the song of the oarsmen, chanted to the movement of their oars; ‘with joyful cries.'

98. procul : the final syllable is long.

102–183. Evander and his people are engaged, at the moment when Aeneas arrives, in celebrating a sacrifice to Hercules. Pallas, the son of Evander, at first threatens to resist the landing of the strangers; but their friendly character being ascertained, they are invited into the presence of the king, who listens with favor to the proposition of alliance, and promises assistance to the Trojans. They are then invited to join the Arcadians in their religious festival.

104. huic una: poetic construction for una cum hoc. 110. quos : those who were attending the feast.

114. Qui genus: who by descent?'' of what descent?' genus, Greek accusative. Cf. genus, V, 285. unde domo: for ex qua domo.

118. bello superbo: by an unrighteous war’; a war which is occasioned by their pride and arrogance in denying us a shelter in their country.

125. subeunt — relinquunt: see note on hysteron proteron, II, 259.

130. coniunctus Atridis : both the Atridae and Evander are descended from Jupiter; the Atridae through Tantalus, and Evander through Mercury.

132. Cognati patres: Aeneas is descended from Electra, a daughter of Atlas, and the mother of Dardanus; Evander from Maia, another daughter of Atlas, and the mother of Mercury.

133. et fatis egere volentem : and have brought me here through fate, a willing (guest)’; i.e. I myself gladly obey their behest.

143. legatos: sc. misi from pepigi — a case of zeugma.

146. Daunia: Turnus was the son of Daunus, and hence the term Daunia is not inaptly applied to the whole Latin gens, or nation, of which he is at present the leading spirit.

149. supra, infra : the upper sea is the Adriatic, the lower the Tuscan. 151. Rebus spectata : “tried by warlike deeds.'

157. Hesionae regna: Telamon, king of Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf, married Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon and sister of Priam. Hence she was queen of Salamis.

169. mihi: dative of the apparent agent.

177. Praecipuum: Aeneas is honored above his followers by being placed upon a seat or throne covered with the hide of a lion. The frame of the throne is of maple wood.

178. solio: ablative of instrument; lit. welcomes with a maple throne.' 180. Viscera: the flesh'; as in I, 211.

183. Perpetui tergo: with long body.' Logically the word limits tergo. lustralibus: ‘expiatory'; pertaining to the expiatory, or lustral, sacrifice.

183–279. Evander now explains to Aeneas the origin of this annual sacrifice to Hercules, by relating the story of Cacus, a giant of Mount Aventine, whom the hero had slain on this spot.

190. saxis suspensam hanc rupem : 'this cliff with overhanging rocks '; Cf. I, 166. Saxis, ablative of instrument. How literally?

191. Disiectae (sunt) : the indicative with ut, 'how,' as in VI, 856. montis domus: the now empty cave on Mount Aventine, which had been the abode of Cacus.

197. tabo: join with pallida, 'ghastly.'

200. et nobis : 'to us also'; as well as others who were suffering from monsters. aliquando: .at length.'

202. Geryonae: see note on VII, 662.
203. hac: 'this way.'
204. amnem : the bank of the river Tiber is meant.

207. stabulis : ‘from the camp'; i.e. from their resting and feeding place in the valley.

209. pedibus rectis : ablative of description with vestigia ; lit. 'tracks with advancing feet.

212. Quaerenti: dative of reference, used indefinitely, “to one seeking.' 215. Discessu: "at their departure’; ablative of time. 215, 216. mugire, impleri, relinqui: historical infinitives. 218. custodita: though 'guarded.'

221. aërii: the Aventine, even now, is quite a bold eminence, especially toward the river, though much diminished from its original height.

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