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348. Quo monstro: = ut eo monstro.

350. fallit furentem : 'beguiles her in her frenzy’; as in her excitement she does not perceive the serpent.

354. lues : 'the pest.' Before she feels the full power of the serpent's spirit (Vipeream animam), she has recourse to gentle entreaties.

360. O genitor: 'O (thou her) father.'
365. Quid : what of your solemn pledge (to Turnus).'
367. Latinis : ‘for the Latins.'

370. reor: 'Amata judges that since Ardea, the city of. Turnus and the Rutuli, is separate from (Dissidet, laken literally) and independent (libera) of the kingdom of Latinus, Turnus is a foreigner (externus), and that the gods so pronounce (dicere). The queen seeks to show how the oracle may apply to Turnus as well as to Aeneas.

372. Inachus Acrisiusque: according to the tradition which Virgil follows, Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, and granddaughter of Inachus, landed in Italy, and married the prince of the Rutuli, Pilumnus. Thus her descendant, Turnus, is of Argive extraction.

377. Immensam: “in its whole extent.” She roamed wildly (lymphata) throughout the city, in every street and by-way, unrestrained by any sense of decorum, and therefore not keeping within the limited circle of her palace and royal walks.

383. Dant animos: 'give life,' “velocity'; i.e. to the top.
385. numine: “the divine command.'
389. Euhoe: dissyllable.

389, 390. solum – Vociferans: exclaiming that thou (Bacchus) alone art worthy of the virgiri.'

390. molles.: the thyrsi are wreathed with vine and ivy leaves; hence, soft or pliant, with reference only to the leaves. sumere: the subject is eam, referring to Lavinia.

391. Te lustrare: “moves around thee'; i.e. in the dances around thy altar. sacrum pascere crinem : 'grows the sacred lock ’; referring to the custom in the worship of Bacchus, of growing a sacred lock in honor of the god.

405. stimulis — Bacchi: ‘on every side pursues with the goads of Bacchus’; i.e. with a power equal to the real influence of Bacchus.

406–474. Allecto now proceeds to Ardea, the city of Turnus, and appears to him in his sleep under the form of an aged priestess. Failing at first to rouse his spirit against Aeneas, she assumes her real form. Turnus awakes full of fury, and summons his followers to war against the Trojans.

412. ayis : dative.
413. fuit : “has been'; and so ‘has ceased to bę.' Çf. II, 325.



418. innectit: sc. crinibus.

421-426. The whole passage implies that Turnus has been the principal defender of Latium against its enemies, especially against the Tyrrhenians.

427. adeo : even '; join with haec. So important is the occasion that Juno herself has directed me to say this.

428. Saturnia : see note on I, 23.
429. The two infinitives depend on para, in the following line.

430. in arma: join with laetus ; eager for arms'; with a mind joyful in the expectation of war. Others take laetus with para, equivalent to an adverh.

432. magna: may be the accusative plural neuter with iubet ; 'the power of the gods demands great achievements (of thee) '; or may be joined with vis.

433. dicto parere fatetur: 'consents to fulfill (obey) his promise.' See above, l. 366.

446. oranti: while still speaking. Orare is used also in its etymological sense in X, 96.

447. tot hydris : cf. I. 329.

450. geminos: two serpents were made conspicuous on the heads of furies and of the Gorgons.

459. proruptus : with a middle force, “breaking forth.' corpore: for ex corpore.

460. toro, etc.: he seeks for his arms on the couch and in his dwelling; his sword especially on the couch. Heroes kept weapons by them, even when in bed.

462. Ira super : ‘(and) anger still more'; anger on account of the preference of Aeneas as suitor for Lavinia.

464, 465. aquai amnis: 'the bubbling stream of water.'

467. polluta pace: 'since the peace (between Latinus and Turnus) has been violated'; i.e. by Latinus in now promising Lavinia to Aeneas.

470. Se - Latinisque : ‘(he declares) that he comes (to the contest) a match (satis) for Trojans and Latins both.'

473. Hunc — iuventae: “the wonderful grace of his beauty and youth moves one'; admiration, i.e. of Turnus, who is young and beautiful. Others are stimulated by the renown of his regal ancestors (atavi reges), and still others by the memory of his former deeds in war.

See VI, 524.

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475-571. Allecto turns now to the Trojans, and finding Ascanius engaged in the chase, she causes his hounds to attack a stag which is the favorite of the family of Tyrrheus, the herdsman of King Latinus. The wounded stag flees to the house of Tyrrheus for shelter. The herdsmen call to arms; Ascanius is succored by his countrymen, and the first blood is shed. Allecto is

then dismissed by Juno to the infernal regions, by the way of Lake Ampsanctus.


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477. Arte nova: • with new device'; with the intention of devising a stratagem of mischief additional to those already executed.

quo litore: where on the shore.'

483. cornibus ingens: 'losty with his horns’; the prose form would be cornibus ingentibus.

492. Ipse : "himself '; of his own accord. sera, etc. : 'in the night, however late.'

494, 495. fluvio secundo Deflueret : 'was floating on the downward current.' 495. ripa : 'on the bank'; at times resting on the shore.

498. erranti deus: unaided, his hand might have erred, but a superior power (Allecto is meant) directed the arrow. For the use of deus, see note on II, 632.

504. conclamat: = clamore convocat.

505. pestis : the scourge'; Allecto. She has already made the rustics: aware of the outrage.

509. Quadrifidam: proleptic.
514. intendit vocem : 'swells the blast.'

516, 517. The lake of Diana on the Alban mount, far to the southeast of the Tiber, and the river Nar and lake Velinus far to the northeast; i.e. the whole country far around heard the sound. The lake of Diana, now called Lago di Nemi, is near Aricia, fifteen miles south of Rome. The river Nar runs between Umbria and the Sabine country, and falls into the Tiber. The lake Velinus was produced by the overflow of the river Velinus, and was led into the Nar by an artificial channel.

523. Non certamine agresti agitur: “the contest is carried on not in the rustic manner.'

528. primo : = primum.

532. fuerat maximus : had been the oldest'; until now, when his life ends; when he is struck by the fatal arrow.

533. vulnus: as in II, 529, for the weapon itself. udae Vocis iter: of the moist passage of the voice.' Udae limits iter logically.

535. Corpora: sc. sternuntur.

541. Promissi facta potens: “having fulfilled her promise'; lit. ' having been made mistress of her promise.' dea : i.e. Allecto.

546. Ironical.
569. rupto Acheronte: 'where Acheron breaks forth.'
571. levabat: “relieved' by her disappearance.

572-640. The strife is continued by Juno. The shepherds hasten to Laurentum, and Turnus with them urges Latinus to war. The king, resisting in vain,


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leaves the control of things to other hands. On the refusal of Latinus, Juno her. self opens the Temple of Janus, as the signal of war. The Italians now make preparations for war, and their principal cities and nations are described.


572, 573. extremam manum : 'the finishing hand.' 574. ex acie : ‘from the battleground.' 577. igni: 'fiery passion'; as in II, 575. 578 sqq. The infinitives depend on an idea of saying implied in ingeminant. 580. attonitae Baccho: ‘maddened by Bacchus.'

581. Insultant: Srush through'; here a transitive verb. The husbands and sons of the Bacchanals, influenced by the name of Amata, importune ( fatigant) war.

591. ubi, etc. : 'when no power is given (the king) to overcome their mad purpose.

593. auras inanes : 'the empty air ’; the air that can not answer his prayers.

595. has poenas: 'punishment for this.' 597. seris : 'too late.'

598. omnis – portus: the port in which I am seeking my refuge is so near that it is all (omnis) open before me (in limine); the passage may be translated, 'my haven of rest is all in view.' 601. protinus : ‘perpetually'; continuously from that time.

601, 602. urbes Albanae: Alba, the mother of Latium, together with its colonies grouped about it in the Alban hills.

605 sqq. The deeds of Augustus are referred to. The Getae were a Thracian people, conquered about 25 B.C. The Hyrcanians were a Caspian tribe. See note on IV, 367. Augustus sent an army against the Arabs in B.C. 24. The Indi sent envoys to Augustus to sue for peace, at the time of his threatened invasion of the Parthians.

The latter people, or rather their king Fig. 63. — Temple of Janus (11. 607 sqq.)

Phraates, daunted by the preparations of

Augustus, B.C. 20, voluntarily sent back the standards which they had captured from Crassus. This event is often mentioned by the poets as one of the most brilliant successes of Augustus.

607. Belli portae: see note on I, 294. 609. aerei: here a dissyllable, ae-rei.

612. cinctu Gabino : 'with the Gabinian cincture’; a peculiar mode of adjusting the toga.

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613. stridentia limina: in apposition with Has (portas), 'these gates, harshly creaking portals.'

620 sqq. Only the king or consul (cf. l. 613) could open these gates to declare war; and since Latinus refused to, Juno performed this formality.

624. arduus: agrees with the gender of the individuals included in pars, · but the singular for the plural is anomalous.

629. adeo: even'; in addition to what is already declared, what is still more, five cities, etc.

631. The verse is spondaic, and the final syllable of turrigerae is not elided. 632. The alliteration of “t' “suggests the sound of forging.”

634. Spondaic. “The rhythm suggests the sustained effort of flattening the plates of silver.”

635. huc: i.e. to this employment. 639. trilicem : see note on III, 467.


641-817. After an invocation to the muses, the poet enumerates the Italian forces which assembled to the war, des their chiefs and the several localities and towns from which they were gathered.

643. iam tum : 'even then.'

652. nequiquam: because both father and son perished in the war. See X, 820, 908.

657, 658. clipeo, etc.: 'and on his shield he bears his father's symbol, the hundred snakes.' Hydram : is explanatory of angues.

662. Geryone : a giant monster of Gades in Spain, the keeper of beautiful cattle. He was slain by Hercules, who conveyed his cattle across the Alps to the valley of the Tiber (Tyrrheno in flumine).

664. gerunt: the followers of Aventinus are meant. 665. veru: a dart in the form of a spit.

666. torquens: “throwing around himself,' or around his body. Cf. VIII, 460.

668. Indutus capiti: supply the acc. illud = tegumen, 'having put this on his head. For the use of the participle, cf. note on 11. 74, 75.

669. umeros: Greek accusative.

671. gentem: for urbem, in apposition with moenia. Tibur was said to have been founded by three brothers from Argos; and the town to have been named after Tiburtus, the oldest of the brothers.

681. Caeculus: Cato says that some virgins, going for water, found Caeculus in the fire, and therefore called him the son of Vulcan. He was named Caeculus on account of imperfect eyes. late: •from far around.'

682. Praeneste was situated on a lofty hill at the entrance of the Campagna on the southeast. quique: both the men who,' etc. All the other places here mentioned are in the vicinity of Praeneste.

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