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46. regebat: ‘was ruling.'
47. Fauno : a deified prince of ancient Latium, regarded as a god of shepherds, as well as a god of prophecy. He was identified by the Greeks and later Romans with the Greek Pan. Marica : the guardian deity of the river Liris. She is here called Laurentian, or Latian, because Latium was bounded at one period by the Liris.
48. Accipimus : 'we learn' by tradition. No doubt this is a genuine Italian tradition, unmixed with the fables of the Greeks, which confounded Saturnus, Faunus, Mavors, and other Italian deities, with the Greek Kronos, Pan, Ares,
51. primaque — est: "but he (proles virilis), when growing up, was snatched away in early youth.' -que has here a slight adversative force.
52. tantas sedes: "so great a kingdom.' filia : Lavinia.
68. Externum: as the bees had come through the air, trans aethera, and not from the immediate neighborhood, the arrival of foreigners was portended; as they had settled upon the summit of the sacred laurel, this indicated the occupation of the palace and kingdom by the strangers.
69. partes easdem : 'the same quarter' to which the bees have directed their course.
70. dominarier: H. 244, 6; LM. 389; A. 128, e, 4; B. 116, 4, a ; G. 130, 6; (H. 240, 6).
74, 75. ornatum, comas, coronam : 'in respect to her apparel,' etc., the accusative with a passive verb, in imitation of the Greek. See note on oculos, I, 228.
78. ferri: "was noised abroad.'
80. portendere: ‘that she was destined to bring. Others trans., “it portended.'
81. oracula Fauni: the oracle of Faunus was in a grove near the fountain of Albunea, a deified prophetess. To her a sulphurous fountain was consecrated near Tibur, but the place mentioned here may not have been so far away. The name is applied both to the nymph and the fountain.
82, 83. sub alta Albunea: i.e. under the height from which the fountain of Albunea descended.
83, 84. nemorum - sonat: the best interpretation seems to be to regard Albunea as the antecedent of quae, with maxima agreeing with it, and nemorum a partitive genitive depending on maxima. Albunea then is the general name of the locality — including the forest. mephitim: the noxious exhalation rising from the sulphurous fountain.
87. cum tulit- incubuit: this is a general account of the manner in which
this oracle gave the desired information; it was revealed to the priest by visions and voices while he was sleeping on the hides of the victims previously slain in sacrifice. In the present instance Latinus acted as priest himself; for in Latium the priestly office was a royal prerogative.
91. Acheronta: 'Acheron’; put for the powers of the lower world. Avernis: ‘in Hades.'
97. mea: the voice is that of Faunus, the ancestor of Latinus.
104-147. While the Trojans are partaking of food on the shore, and using their loaves of bread for dishes on which to lay the gathered fruits, after the bread itself was finally eaten, Ascanius exclaims, “We are eating our tables !”
and thus the prediction of the Harpy and of Anchises is fulfilled.
109. adorea liba : 'wheaten loaves’; usually for sacrifice, but not here.
110. epulis: ‘their food ’; i.e. the sylvan fruits they have gathered in the neighborhood.
111. Cereale solum : 'the wheaten surface'; the wheaten table.
114, 115. orbem, quadris : describe the loaves, which were either circular, or stamped into squares.
119. Eripuit - pressit: “the father caught the word instantly (primam) from the lips of (the boy) speaking, and, amazed by the divine revelation, fol. lowed up (the omen)'; i.e. with the words following.
123. Anchises : cf. III, 257, and note.
136. primam: ‘first of the deities '; to be worshiped before all others on taking possession of a new land. Cf. primum, III, 437.
139. Phrygiam Matrem : Cybele. See III, 111.
140. duplices parentes : ‘his two parents ’; Anchises in Hades and Venus in Olympus.
147. vina : i.e. the wine cups.
148–194. On the following day the Trojans explore the neighborhood of their camp around the Tiber and the Numicius, and Aeneas sends a hundred envoys to confer with King Latinus, while he commences the building of his new camp or city of Troy.
150. Diversi: “in different directions.' haec stagna: sc. esse depending on explorant, or a verb implied in it; “they ascertain that these are the still waters of the fountain Numicius.' The Numicius, or Numicus, a little stream on the coast of Latium, issues from a swamp.
154. ramis Palladis : ‘with boughs sacred to Pallas'; the olive, emblem of peace. velatos : ‘veiled '; it is used here not of wreaths bound round the head, but borne in the hand, because being carried in the hand, they shade the person. Cf. VIII, 116; XI, 101.
158. Molitur locum : 'builds the place up'; i.e. he builds houses, erects dwellings, in the place. Cf. 1. 9o. Others trans., 'breaks (prepares) the ground.'
160. Latinorum : elides with Ardua of the next line; i.e. the line is hyper. metric. In such lines the syllable elided is usually -que or -ve. 167. ingentes: ‘mighty'; `of noble aspect.' The men are of heroic stature.
168. tecta: here, the temple; according to the Roman custom of receiving envoys in temples.
169. medius: 'in the midst’ of his attendants. 171. Urbe summa: i.e. on the Acropolis.
174. omen: 'auspicious beginning’; a solemn usage ominous of good to the reign of the new king.
176. Perpetuis mensis: ‘at continuous tables ';
the tables arranged in one unbroken line. Fig. 61.- Janus (1. 180)
178. cedro : the final letter is not elided. 180. Janus was an old Italian deity, who presided over the beginnings of things, and over gates and gateways. From the latter conception, he is represented in works of art as having two faces (bifrons). See Fig. 61.
186. -que in spiculaque is long under the ictus.
187–189. Ipse - gerebat: the image of Picus, to whom the temple is dedicated, is represented in a sitting posture, and was in a conspicuous place, perhaps at one end of the court. It held the lituus, or augur's staff, and was clothed in a trabea, or striped toga. The lituus is called Quirinalis (= of Quirinus, i.e. Romulus), since Romulus was the first augur at Rome. With lituo, sc. some such word as instructus, easily suggested by the following succinctus.
The Lituus 190. Aurea : here pronounced in two syllables,
(1. 187) au-rya.
191. avem: Circe, the lover (coniunx) of Picus, transformed him into a woodpecker.
192. intus: adverb. templo: ablative of place.
195-285. Latinus gives the envoys a kind reception, and Ilioneus, on their part, makes known the condition and wants of the Trojans, and presents the gifts sent by Aeneas. The king promises them a peaceful home in Latium, and, in obedience to the oracle, offers his daughter in marriage to Aeneas. The envoys are dismissed with presents for themselves and Aeneas, and return to the camp.
196. auditique cursum: 'and no stranger to fame do you turn your course hither on the sea.'
197. egentes: by metonymy is transferred from the voyagers to the ships. 203. Saturni gentem : in the time of Saturn, the golden age, men acted uprightly, not by compulsion, but from goodness of heart, Sponte sua, and by habit inherited from that ancient deity.
206. Auruncos senes: the Auruncan fathers.' The Aurunci were an ancient tribe of Italians, situated between Latium and Campania. ut: interrogative; *(namely) how.'
207. Dardanus : for the tradition, see III, 107 sqq., and note.
208. Threïciam Samon: the island of Samothrace, in the upper part of the Aegean.
209. Hinc — ab sede : "hence (namely) from the Tyrrhenian abode.' Cf. huc, II, 18. Corythi: the Etruscan Cortona.
211. auget: by receiving Dardanus as a god to be worshiped, the golden palace of Olympus increases (by one) the number of the altars of the gods.
215. regione viae : ‘in respect to the direction of our voyage.' 219. Ab Iove: cf. note on I, 28.
225. et si quem, etc.: ‘both if the farthest land holds any one afar where Ocean turns again, and if the belt of the torrid zone stretched between (in the midst of) four zones separates any one (from our part of the world), he (such an one) has heard how great,' etc. Refuso Oceano, in the extreme north, where the ocean, which was supposed to surround the earth, 'turns back again. The last vowel of Oceano is not elided.
232. que: continues the negation.
237. vittas : i.e. the fillets attached to the olive branches borne in their hands. Cf. 1. 154, and note. precantia : pronounced here pre-can-tya.
241. Huc repetit: 'calls (us) back hither. The subject is Apollo.
255. Meditatur, or some similar verb suggested by volvit, is understood upon which the infinitives depend; "that this was that son-in-law,' etc.
258. quae occupet: 'which is destined to possess '; such that it is des. tined to possess.
261. rege Latino: as long as Latinus shall be king.'
271. Hoc Latio restare canunt: 'they predict that this destiny awaits Latium.'
274. numero omni: ‘for the whole number'; i.e. for every Trojan envoy (one hundred in number).
277. ostro : the coverings of the horses are of purple cloth embroidered with gold.
282–284. patri — creavit: the cunning (daedala) Circe had bred these bastard horses by secretly putting a common mare to one of the horses of her father, the Sun-god. Thus she stole them from her father. The dative as in V, 845.
286–340. Juno, enraged that she can not ultimately prevent the success of the Trojans, determines, at least for the present, to visit them with her wrath, She summons the fury Allecto 'from the lower world to forward her plan of kindling strife between the Trojans and Latins.
286. Inachiis: Argos is termed Inachian from Inachus, its ancient king and founder.
294, 295. Num potuere: 'could they?' was it possible that they should fall? etc. No! they found a way through the midst of battalions and flames.
297. credo : 'I suppose, forsooth'; in bitter irony.
300. Ausa (sum): ‘I have dared'; i.e. even against the known decrees of fate.
304, 305. Mars — valuit: Pirithoüs, king of the Lapithae, invited all the gods to his wedding feast, excepting only Mars. On account of this slight, Mars stirred up the Centaurs to make war on the Lapithae.
305, 306. concessit Calydona Dianae: Calydon, an ancient state of Aetolia, had neglected the worship of Diana, who therefore punished its king, Oeneus, and his people, by sending a fierce wild boar to ravage their land.
307. scelus : for poenam sceleris. The accusatives Lapithas and Caly. dona are in apposition with gentem and Calydona in the foregoing clause. 310. Quod si : ‘but if.'
suorum : “at this sacrifice (mercede, 'reward,''price') of their people let the son-in-law and father-in-law consummate their alliance.'
320. Cisseis: the daughter of Cisseus '; Hecuba. The allusion is to the dream of Hecuba before the birth of Paris. As she dreamed that her offspring would be a fire-brand, and the cause of the destruction of Troy, so has Venus brought forth in Aeneas a like offspring (ide n)- -- one attended with the same destiny, who shall in like manner, by becoming betrothed to a foreign princess, occasion disaster to the new or restored Troy (Pergama recidiva), and thus he shall be a second Paris.
326. cordi: "(are) a pleasure'; probably originally a locative.
329. atra: “dark' and 'black' are common appellations of all objects connected with the lower world, including both the ghosts, the gods, and monsters, and even Proserpine. The Romans conceived the hair of the furies to be composed wholly of serpents.
336. versare : 'to involve in,' distract with.'
339. crimina belli: j.e. crimina, ex quibus bella oriantur; mutual wrongs and accusations which may lead to war.
341-405. The fury Allecto takes possession of the mind of Amata, and stimulates her to resist the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia. Unable to dissuade Latinus from his purpose, Amata conveys Lavinia to the woods, under the pretext of celebrating the rites of Bacchus.