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354. Aulai medio: “in the midst of the court. Aulai is the archaic form of the genitive singular. See note on media, I, 505. libabant pocula :

they poured out cups of wine in libations.' Cf. I, 736. So remarkable a meeting required special honors to the gods.

355. Impositis auro dapibus : 'having placed the feasts (or sacrifices for the gods) on golden chargers'; as at a Roman lectisternium. pateras tenebant: they held the goblets while making libations. These religious ceremonies open the banquet given to the guests.

359. interpres divum: the knowledge of future

events was derived either from direct inspiration or Fig. 28. — Sacrificial

from signs. Helenus had both gifts. He receives the Scene, showing Use of the Patera (1.355)

direct influence of Apollo, like the Pythia on the tri

"** pod at Delphi, or like the priests in the oracular grotto of Claros, in Ionia; he also understands the warnings of the stars, and the notes and the flight of birds.

362, 363. prospera : grammatically with religio, but logically with cursum. numine: ‘by revelation’; by divine tokens. The clause is explanatory of the foregoing.

364. repostas: for repositas ; remote.' Cf. VI, 59. 365. dictu nefas: H. 635, 1, 2;

mm LM. 1007; A. 303; B. 340, 2; G. 436; (H. 547, 1 and 2).

367. Obscenam famem: «revolting hunger.' vito: cf. II, 322.

368. Quid sequens: • (by) pursuing what course.'

369. de more: cf. I, 3i8.

370. vittas resolvit: the fillets must be removed from his head when about to be inspired, that the god might work freely in him. See VI, 77 sqq.

Fig. 29. — Cortina and Tripod (1. 360) 371. limina: Virgil understands that Apollo has a temple in the new Pergama of Helenus, as in .the old Pergama.

372. multo: ‘powerful.' suspensum : “awed.'

374, 375. nam : introduces the ground on which Helenus reveals the will of the gods to Aeneas; namely, the fact just mentioned by Aeneas in


11. 362–364. maioribus Auspiciis : 'under higher auspices '; i.e. under those of the greater gods. Jupiter himself directs Aeneas. manifesta fides (est) : “there is clear proof.' Ire is the subject of est.

376. Sortitur : determines. volvit vices : disposes events. See note on volvere, I, 9 and 22. is vertitur ordo: 'this is the fixed order of events that revolves'; i.e. upon the wheel of destiny.

377. quo: followed by the subjunctive. 'H. 568, 7; LM. 908; A. 317, 6; B. 282, 1, a; G. 545, 2; (H. 497, II, 2). hospita: “foreign.

380. fari, etc. : *Juno (i.e. the fear of Juno) forbids him to utter.'

381. Italiam: not the whole of Italy, but that part which is destined for the Trojans. “A pathless (invia) path and long separates (that destined) Italy afar by continuous lands (longis terris).'

383. terris : an ablative of means, to be joined with dividit. It refers to the southern part of the peninsula, and also to Sicily, which they must pass round before they can reach their new country.

384. lentandus: must be bent'; must be dipped.

385. salis Ausonii: 'of the Ausonian sea'; that part of the sea which lies between Etruria and Sicily.

386. Infernique lacus: Lake Avernus. Lustrare here is used in the sense both of 'traverse' and of survey H. 751, 2, N.; A. p. 430, zeugma; B. 374, 2, a; G. 690; (H. 636, II, I). Aeaeae: from Aea, a city of Colchis. insula: refers to the promontory of Circeium, having the sea on one side and the Pontine marshes on the other, and probably once an island.

387. possis: the subjunctive after antequam. See note on 1. 257.

389. Cum, etc.: the sow and her progeny of thirty young, found near the Tiber (as described in VII, 82), will indicate the place where Aeneas shall build the new city. tibi: dative of the agent; to be joined with inventa. secreti: "solitary.' Cf. VIII, 44 sqq.

392. nati: sc. iacebunt.

396. Has, hanc: "these coasts,” “this part (of the Italian shore),' near us, on the Adriatic and the gulf of Tarentum.

399. Narycii Locri: a colony of Locrians from Naryx, or Narycium, opposite Euboea, said to be the followers of the Oileian Ajax, settled on the coast of Bruttium.

400. Sallentinos: the Sallentine fields, between the Tarentine Gulf and the Adriatic. milite: 'soldiery'; collective, as in II, 495.

401. Idomeneus: was driven from Crete, 11. 121, 122. ducis Meliboei : Philoctetes, being driven out of his native town, Meliboea in Thessaly, settled in Petelia, on the east coast of Bruttium.

402. Philoctetae: limits muro. subnixa: ‘resting on. Cf. I, 506. 404. litore: the shore where the first landing shall be made in Italy. 405. velare comas: imperative passive, with the force of the middle; be

veiled '; 'cover thy head.' Cf. II, 707. This was the custom of the Romans, not of the Greeks, when sacrificing.

406. inter sanctos ignes : 'amidst the holy fires '; i.e. during the holy sacrifices.'

407. Hostilis facies: “adverse appearance '; the sight of any inauspicious object, which would vitiate the omens (turbet omina) ascertained by inspecting the victim, rendering them either unavailing or evil. Some understand this to mean the face of an enemy.'

409. religione: 'religious custom.'

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410. digressum : after you shall have left that first landing place in Italy. orae: for the case, see note on I, 377.

411. angusti: logically would: agree with claustra. rarescent: shall begin to open to the view).'

412. Laeva: turn to the south, and follow the shore on your left, instead of turning to the right and going through the straits to the north.

414. Haec loca: the places on the right. The tradition seems to have been that the rent between Italy and Sicily was first produced by some volcanic convulsion, and that it was perpetuated and increased by the rush of the sea through the channel thus formed.

415. Tantum valet mutare: "can effect such changes.' 416. protinus : join with Una.

417. medio: ablative of place; “in the midst,' between.'

419. Litore diductas : 'separated in respect of their shores.' angusto aestu : ablative of manner with interluit; with a narrow tide.'

420. Scylla : on the Italian side of the strait, is a lofty rock, surrounded by smaller rocks. A roaring of the waves is produced, which is described in the fable as the barking of dogs. Charybdis: a whirlpool which is most noticeable when southerly winds force a great mass of waters into the strait, and against the Sicilian shore.

421. ter : ‘thrice (daily).'
422. in abruptum : down to the bottom.'

sub auras: 1. 576.

426. Prima hominis facies, etc. : 'the upper part of the form (is that) of a human being.'

427. Pube tenus : 'as far as the groin.' postrema: sc. facies.

428. Delphinum — luporum : “having the tails of dolphins joined to the belly of wolves.' Caudas, accusative with the passive participle, commissa, in imitation of the Greek. Cf. I, 320. Lupi is substituted here for canes. See 1. 432. Cf. Milton, in his description of sin (Par. Lost, 2, 650 sqq.) :

see note on

· Woman to the waist and fair,
But ended foul in many a scaly fold
Voluminous and vast, a serpent armed
With mortal sting : about her middle round
A cry of hell-hounds never ceasing barked
With wide Cerberean mouths full loud, and rung
A hideous peal.'

429. metas: properly the goal, or turning point, in the race course; here, the promontory,' around which they are to sail.

435. pro omnibus : instead of (i.e. worth) all other things'; one thing to be observed, even if all others are neglected.

437. primum: 'first of all’; before all other deities; join with numen.

Cf. V, 540.

438. cane vota : vows are expressed in the rhythmical form, or chant, common to all religious formulas. Cf. II, 176.

439. victor: because he will have overcome all difficulties. 440. fines : for ad fines. mittere : “thou wilt be conveyed.'

442. Divinos lacus : see note on l. 386. silvis : ablative of means or instrument. The lake was only about a mile and a half in circumference, and, at that time, hemmed in with woods. See VI, 238, and Fig. 51.

446. Digerit in numerum : ‘places in order. She arranges the leaves so that the words on them form sentences in verse,

448. eadem : sc. folia ; object of prendere.

449. ianua, etc.: 'the door disturbs them' by admitting the wind. 450. deinde: 'thenceforth’; answering to the foregoing cum.

452. Inconsulti: ‘uninstructed '; without any responses, since, when they enter, the leaves are so disturbed as to be unintelligible.

453. Hic — tanti: ‘here let no expenditure of delay be of so much (value) in your eyes (tibi). tanti: H. 458, 1; LM. 578; A. 252, a; B. 203, 3; G. 380, 1; (H. 404, N. I).

454, 455. et vi cursus, etc.: "and though your voyage urgently invite your sails to the sea.' The more natural expression would be, ventus vela vocet.

456. Quin : ‘so that not '; connects the dependent clause with ne fuerint tanti, which are equivalent to an expression of hindering. H. 591, 1; LM. 913; A. 319, d; B. 284, 3; G. 555; (H. 504).

457. Ipsa canat: that she may not in the case of Aeneas commit her prophecies to the uncertain leaves. Aeneas follows this injunction in VI, 74. The subjunctive depends on poscas. volens : kindly'; i.e. sua sponte.

459. quo modo: interrogative, ‘how'; the question depends on expediet. 460. dabit: as in l. 85. 461. liceat: H. 591; LM. 838; A. 320; B. 283; G. 631, 2; (H. 503, I). 462. ingentem: an instance of prolepsis. 463, 464. postquam — dehinc : like cum

tum ; after thereupon.' auro gravia, etc. : 'heavy with gold and carven ivory'; i.e. massive vessels of gold and carved ivory. The final vowel of gravia is long here under the ictus; or it may possibly be a retention of the original length of the vowel.

465. stipat carinis : 6stows away in the ships.' The expression is equivalent to stipat carinas argento.

See note on I, 195. 466. Dodonaeos lebetas: "vessels of Dodona,' so called because they resembled the bronze vessels of Dodona that rang loudly at the slightest

touch. Dodona was in the dominions of Helenus.

467. Loricam — trilicem: a coat, or hauberk, of chain mail, in which the hooks, or rings, fastened into each other (consertam hamis), were of gold, and in three layers; i.e. it was of three

See Fig. 31. — Chain Mail (l. 467)

ply golden chain work.

Fig. 31. 468. conum galeae : is equivalent to galeam. 469. Arma Neoptolemi: see l. 333, and II, 470.


see note on sua, I, 461.

470. duces : 'pilots,' guides.'


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