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Use of should for 'would,' in reported statement, 27, 7; 53, 36. Use of would for 'should,' 'ought to': 3, 155; 17, 50; 22, 22; 31, 35; 33, 60; 37, 11; 46, 210; 50, 28: and for 'wish to': 22, 36, 127; 26, 15, 28; 32, 35; 43, 21; 47, 3, 32, 40.

Use of beware followed by positive injunction: 24, 34; 57, 23.

VIOLATION OF CONCORD.

Singular verb after more than one subject (in some instances justified because the subjects jointly represent one complex idea): 11, 38 (see note); 15, 163; 25, 47; 27, 6; 29, 138, 226; 37, 48, 50; 38, 3; 42, 17; 46, 161; 56, 34, 58.

Singular verb after that referring to plural antecedent, 29, 317; after which, 53, 29 (perhaps due to attraction).

Plural noun treated as collective and singular, 45, 70, 'a goodly leads.'

Plural verb after singular subject: 33, 62 (perhaps due to attraction); 55, 29 (perhaps due to inversion).

Plural verb after two singular subjects connected by nor, 39, 15.
Singular noun treated as plural, 14, 9, 'there are stirps.'

Inconsistency in number of Pronouns: 15, 57-8; 20, 104-5; 26, 42, 'their wealth'; 29, 219, 'no nation which doth...their mouths'; 29, 228, them referring to 'state'; 33, 69, them referring to 'one'; 58, 154, they referring to 'state'; 34, 93, it and they referring to 'riches'; 41, 110, 'all borrowers...be he'; 51, 13, "in beginners... as he be.'

In 22, 59, he is used to refer to 'one.'

ANACOLUTHON, i.e. the confusion of two constructions.

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22, 115

8, 10, requires 'yet think only of themselves.'
was approached and called.'
'ought to turn.'

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21

99

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28,

29, 125

29, 148

46, 122 53, 45

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'in keeping,' to correspond with 'in making,' or
'may keep' to correspond with 'may breed.'
'For to think...of dominion is absurd: such an
empire may hold &c.'

'ground enough should be left.'
'may be done.'

LOOSE CONSTRUCTIONS.

9, 98, 'bemoaning themselves what a life &c.' for (1) 'bemoaning themselves for the life,' or (2) 'bemoaning the life.'

11, 103, 'whom honour amends' requires (1) 'if honour amends it,' or (2) 'He is a generous spirit whom &c.'

37, 47, 'in such a company as there is heat' for 'in a company where there is heat.'

38, 50, 'whatsoever is agreeable' for 'as to whatsoever is agreeable.'

42, 20, 'the experience of age directeth them,' viz. 'old men,' supplied κατὰ σύνεσιν from age.

45, 21-4: the whole passage is loosely put together: thus, to correspond with its opening lines, too near, too far off, &c. must be replaced by nouns, such as 'too close proximity, 'too great distance' &c. Secondly, 'having the commodity &c.' should be not having the commodity,' to correspond with the various wants' or drawbacks previously enumerated.

46, 145, and some fine banqueting-house' requires the words 'to be built there,' or an equivalent.

ELLIPSIS.

Of Relative pronoun as subject: 3, 71; 4, 12; 6, 38, 40; 13, 29, 54; 26, 41; 31, 15; 32, 41; 42, 54.

Of Relative pronoun as object: 12, 6; 13, 2; 16, 23; 18, 57, 80; 22, 35, 100; 26, 15; 27, 176; 29, 215; 32, 39; 37, 27; 41, 108; 48, 14; 50, 36; 54, 55; 57, 15 (see note).

Of Antecedent he, 9, 25; 28, 35.

Of they, subject of 'are,' 22, 125.

Of preposition of, 2, 20, 'worthy the observing'; 12, 2, 'worthy consideration.'

Of preposition on, 46, 105, 'that side which the garden stands.' 141, 'What is it better?' i.e. In what is it

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Of preposition in, 3, better?'

Of infinitive, 22, 69, 'which they are not accustomed (to do).'

Of by so much, adverbial phrase correlative to 'by how much,' 6, 61; 10, 37; 20, 6; 34, 98.

PLEONASM.

Redundant pronoun as subject:

he, 22, 59, 62; 32, 27; 53, 55.

they, 8, 38; 19, 134; 29, 237; 34, 95; 35, 6; 37, 33.

it, 24, 15; 35, 32; 36, 55.

which, 36, 13.

Redundant pronoun as object :

them, 9, 152; 43, 29 (see note):

it, 22, 90.

Redundant phrase such like (for such =‘so like ') 20, 306; 46, 51, 198; Fame, 51; not an uncommon solecism at the present day.

Redundant conjunction that, 1, 25; 15, 28; 47, 37; also redundant or in substitution for if, 36, 51, and for when, 15, 49; 19, 95; 27, 66; 40, 14.

Redundant negative: 3, 93, 'not discern'; 7, 2, nor for 'and'; 11, 4, neither...nor for either...or'; 38, 6; 39, 6, 13; 41, 127; 53, 43, nor for 'or.'

Redundant to, 24, 40; 31, 17.

ARCHAISM.

'you were better,' 26, 46; 'a man were better,' 27, 164; 49, 56; 'men were better,' 51, 11; originally an impersonal construction, 'It were (ie. would be) better for you,' 'for a man,' 'for men.'

GRAECISM.

'The politics,' i.e. 'political treatises,' Tà ToλITIKά, Fame, 22.

'of all others the greatest,' 3, 19; this should be either (1) 'the greatest of all,' or 'greater than all others': similarly, of all other affections it is the most importune,' 9, 163; 'it is of all others the best remedy against ambitious great ones,' 36, 38. Compare Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, v. i. 252, 'This is the greatest error of all the rest,' and Milton, Paradise Lost, IV. 323,

'Adam the goodliest man of men since born
His sons, the fairest of her daughters Eve.'

This confused construction of comparative and superlative, though a recognised Greek idiom, was developed independently in English.

LATINISM.

9, 66, 'incurreth into.'

11, 76, 'integrity used' = 'the use of integrity.'

11, 77, 'integrity professed''the profession of integrity.'
25, 1, 'affected dispatch''the desire of dispatch.'
29, 246, 'invasion offered''the offer of invasion.'
Comparative form used where no comparison is involved:
44, 13, 'more deceivable'='somewhat deceptive.'
47, 14, 'men of a plainer sort'=' rather plain men.'

3. Order.

Inversion of Noun and Adjective:

line royal, 14, 6; consistories ecclesiastic, 18, 21; garlands personal, 29, 310; gains certain, 34, 84; laws penal, 56, 43, but penal laws in lines 47, 48.

On the other hand Bacon writes politic body in 12, 27, and 15, 91; modern idiom prefers body politic.

Neither wrongly placed, 1, 15.

4. Meaning of words.

Latin influence has affected the meaning of the following words: abstract, withdrawn,' 34, 25.

absurd, 6, 71; 26, 47; 47, 23.

affect, aim at,' 1, 4; 9, 48; 13, 1; 22, 80; 26, 36; 55, 3.
apt, fit,' 29, 47.

argument, 'subject,' 29, 30; 50, 29; 'proposition,' 32, 2.
censure, judgment, 29, 3.
collect, infer,' 35, 94.

comfort, strengthen,' 39, 54.

commiserable, deserving compassion,' 33, 108.

commodities, 'advantages,' 41, 19.

compound, 'settle,' 49, 22; 55, 38; 58, 102.

contain, 'restrain,' 29, 195; 57, 47. converse, 'be engaged in,' 38, 48. curiously, 'carefully,' 50, 25. destitute, 'abandon,' 33, 106.

discern, 'distinguish,' 36, 72; Fame, 26. dissolve, 'annul,' 3, 112.

expended, 'doled out,' 33, 44.

glorious, ostentatious,' 34, 109; 48, 12; 54, 6, 29, 58.

induce, 'bring upon,' 44, 15.

industriously, 'purposely' (de industria) 6, 39;

obnoxious to, under the influence of,' 'submissive to,' 20, 111; 44, 31; 'liable to,' 36, 47.

occasion, 'opportunity,' 32, 9.

officious, 'ready to serve,' 44, 31; 48, 21, 40.

perfection, 'completion,' 25, 53; practice,' 'accomplishment,' 45, 43. person, 'part,' or 'character' which a man sustains in life, 20, 103;

27, 255.

piety, natural affection,' 17, 12. principial, 'initial,' 35, 53.

reason, 'relation' (ratio) 44, 35; 'principle,' 56, 139.

reduce, 'carry back,' 11, 54.
ruin, 'a falling thing,' 57, 14.
saltness, 'wit' (sales) 32, 25.
secure, 'careless,' 15, 103.
security, 'freedom from care,' 5, 9.
sentence, 'opinion,' 58, 3.

tract (of years), 'space,' 42, 65.

vouch, 'call as evidence' (vocare) 3, 38.

USE OF SYNONYMS.

Bacon not unfrequently couples synonymous words. Instances of this tautology are given below:

astonishment or admiration, 53, 7.
wonder and admiration, 30, 28.
discourse and speech of conversation, 32, 11.

talk and discourse, 50, 21.
discerned and distinguished, 3, 69.
limited and confined, 57, 4.
mates and masters, 2, 21.
donatives and largesses, 29, 312.
prest and ready, 29, 242.
precincts and purprise, 56, 96.
victual or esculent things, 33, 30.
exchanges, burses, 18, 28.

§ 2. CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE AND PRINCIPAL WORKS OF FRANCIS BACON.

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1589. M.P. for Liverpool.

1593.

M.P. for Middlesex.

1594.

1595.

1597.

Gesta Grayorum, a Device, performed at Gray's Inn.
Presented by Essex with an estate.

A Device written for Essex.

M.P. for Southampton.

Essays, 1st edition, Colours of Good and Evil, Meditationes
Sacrae.

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1618.

Created Baron Verulam.

1620. Created Viscount St Alban.

Novum Organum published.

1621. Charged with bribery, imprisoned in the Tower, and re

leased.

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