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APPENDIX.

§ 1. DEVIATIONS IN BACON'S ESSAYS FROM THE GRAMMATICAL USAGES OF MODERN ENGLISH.

I. Form.

NOUNS, PRONOUNS, and Adjectives.

Use of his in place of s as the sign of the possessive case: 19, 91, 'Edward II...his queen'; 29, 277, 'Pompey his preparation.'

Omission of inflexion in possessive case: 47, 18, ‘for satisfaction sake' (omitted, 14, 11, in business sake,' as in 'conscience sake,' 'goodness sake,' in modern English, because these nouns already end in a sibilant).

Use of his for its: 10, 44; 23, 8; 36, 4; 39, 56; 58, 185-9; cf. also 54, 38, where we should expect her, of 'Virtue.'

Pleonastic adverbial form, 47, 39, at unawares': the possessive inflexion alone would convert the adjective into an adverb: cf. always,

once.

Superlative of polysyllabic word formed by inflexion, 32, 8, honourablest: also 34, 73, unusual form certainest.

VERBS.

Past tense mought for 'might,' 15, 184; 22, 31; 27, 106, 116; 34, 38; 35, 97.

Weak past tense digged, 23, 44.

Confusion of lay and 'lie,' 38, 35, 'will lay buried.'

Present participle for past, beholding for 'beholden,' 10, 1; 54, 37. Weak past participle grinded, 41, 78; hanged, 45, 136.

Past participles in -en, becomen, 29, 155; gotten, 9, 146; 15, 145; 22, 44; 34, 34, 92; holpen, 20, 88; 24, 30; 29, 6.

French form, past participle interessed for 'interested,' 3, 159. Omission of ending -d or -ed from past participial forms: communicate, 13, 42.

confederate, 16, 10; 24, 16.

corroborate, 39, 7. degenerate, 11, 55.

discontent, 15, 165; 36, 8; 48, 36.

elaborate, 20, 39.

exhaust, 8, 38; 58, 189.
suspect, 51, 44.

LATINISMS.

infortunate for 'unfortunate,' 4, 43; 40, 51. vindicative for 'vindictive,' 4, 41.

PREFIXES.

unproper for 'improper,' 27, 187; and infortunate, 4, 43; 40, 51.

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Adjective used as Noun: private, 33, 50.

Adjective ill used attributively: e.g. 12, 25; 45, 6; 49, 1; 55, 15.

ADVERBS.

Adverb used as Adjective: often, 38, 7; very, 13, 66.

never used for 'ever,' 36, 20 (see note); 50, 47; 52, 44; 54, 5. no used for 'not,' 31, 14, 'likely or no.'

ARTICLES.

Insertion of Definite Article: 'the matter,' 1, 45; 58, 12; ‘at the second hand,' 54, 38; 'the politics,' Fame, 22.

Omission: 'Question was asked,' 12, 2; 'to represent to life,'

27, 229.

Insertion of Indefinite Article: 'a weariness,' 2, 34;' in a proportion,' 4, 35; 'a waggishness,' 13, 20; 'in an anger,' Fame, 14.

Omission: 'God never wrought miracle,' 16, 4; 'as if it were matter of grace,' 27, 51; 'it is pity,' 41, 2; 'it was great advantage,' 29, 189; 'at distance,' 45, 151.

CONJUNCTIONS and CONJUNCTIONAL PHRASES.

and='if,' 23, 35; 40, 39.

as 'that,' passim, e.g. 3, 100, 126; 8, 22, 49; 11, 3; 16, 22, 59; 21, 31; 23, 5, 34; 27, 43, 79; 31, 25; 36, 12; 51, 13.

because='in order that,' 8, 15; 25, 12; 34, 16.

for='because,' 46, 126.

for that 'because,' 16, 55; 19, 102; 22, 119; 34, 77; 35, 57.

in regard='because of,' 29, 117; 41, 114.

so='provided that,' 7, 37; 9, 118, 134; 15, 179; 33, 53; 37, 19: 46, 76; 48, 26; 52, 36.

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so as= ='provided that,' 25, 47.

so that = 'provided that,' 1, 57; 18, 6.

that 'so that,' 56, 146 (see note).

that 'if' (or redundant) 36, 51.

that 'when' (or redundant) 15, 49; 19, 95; 27, 66; 40, 14.

that merely connective, 47, 37.

NOUNS.

Noun used as Adjective; Mercury, 3, 151; slope, 46, 119; and instead of Adjective, danger, 47, 7; reason, 8, 7; 11, 14; 14, 39. Virtue not personified, 54, 38.

PREPOSITIONS and PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.

for='as regards,' passim, e.g. 3, 18; 6, 41, 64, 78; 8, 31; 11, 71, 74, 87; 14, 6.

from='away from,' 45, 101.

in='into,' 1, II.

in regard of='because of,' 27, 45; 41, 114.

in respect of 'in comparison with,' 29, 300; 40, 58.

of used appositionally, 15, 68; 22, 10; 29, 329.

of 'about,' 16, 64, 'scandal of priests.'

of 'among,' 14, 48.

of='by,' 54, 1.

of='for,' 6, 26, 'a name of certainty'; 15, 54; 16, 68; 17, 35, reverence of'; 56, 49, ‘of long.'

of='from,' 2, 24; 27, 27; 33, 37; 36, 33; 53, 28; and= 'resulting from,' 19, 96; 54, 16.

of='on,' 19, 124, 'dependence of'; 26, 36, ‘of the negative side'; 46, 99, of either side'; 44, 5, 'revenge of nature.'

of='with regard to,' 58, 99, 'do the like of superlative holiness.' The use of the preposition of after the following verbs is at variance with modern idiom:

consider of, 44, 12; 58, 25.
defineth of, 56, 14.
devoured of, 35, 76.
discern of, 36, 67.
esteemeth of, 10, 42.
mean of, 54, 43.

mixed of, 27, 214.

proceed of, 25, 41; 51, 41; 53, 19; 54, 45;

56, 70.
produced of, 54, 24.
rising of, 6, 82.

to='for,' 33, 47, 'employed to a common stock.'

upon='at,' 54, 29, 'upon charge and adventure.'

upon='at the expense of,' 15, 144, 'upon the foreigner.'

upon='by reason of,' 2, 34, 'upon a weariness'; 36, 18, 71; 4, 8; 52, 37; 54, 4.

upon='with,' 34, 41, 'upon speed.'

upon redundant, 38, 49, 'commandeth upon himself.'

with 'to,' 13, 42, 'benefits to be communicate with all'; 31, 31. without 'outside,' 40, 35; 50, 18.

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PRONOUNS.

either for 'each,' 30, 57; 42, 40; 45, 57; 46, 99, 122; 54, 19. every as noun, 15, 57, 'every of them.'

it for 'that,' 11, 96; used indeterminately, 26, 23; 51, 38.

other used as pronoun or adverb, 4, 18.

The supposed distinction between which and that as coordinating and restrictive relatives is not observed: 5, 2-3; 15, 38-9; 28, 39 -40.

The restrictive that occurs after a proper noun, 3, 128, 'Agamemnon

that.'

which for 'who,' 3, 89; 7, 10; 8, 5; 9, 109; 15, 38; 29, 23, 25; 48, 3, 8, 17; 53, 47.

that for 'such,' 27, 63; 29, 230.

that...as for 'such...that,' 6, 13; 14, 22; 33, 71; 46, 230; Fame, 30.

VERBS.

Intransitive verb used transitively, 13, 40, shine; 27, 115, perish. Transitive verb used intransitively, 19, 146, nourish; 34, 41,

enrich.

Wrong sequence, 29, 226, 'hath growen' for 'had grown'; 49, 57, 'to have lost' for 'to lose.'

Use of infinitive without to: 9, 41, 'think themselves go back.'
Use of to and infinitive in place of preposition and gerund:

2, 34, to do='of doing.'

26, 36, to be='in being.'

27, 202, to think himself='thinking himself,' explaining ‘imagina

tions.'

41, 84, to seek = 'for seeking,' i.e. 'must seek.'

41, 94, to take='from taking.'

42, 30, to innovate = 'about innovating.'

53, 44, to praise = 'as for praising' (see note). 56, 36, to make = 'in making,'

and in place of verbal noun,

3, 117, to propagate= 'the propagation of.'

Use of be for 'are': 1, 2; 3, 82, 102, 113; 6, 33; 9, 1, 108; 13, 54; 15, 146; 20, 70, 92, 144; 22, 4, 21; 25, 52; 29, 285, 302; 39, 36; 40, 10, 31, 55; 42, 54; 45, 46; 46, 105, 135, 175; 52, 23; 53, 17; 56, 23, 25; 57, 48; 58, 80, 94, 147; Fame, 50.

Use of shall for 'will,' expressing definite futurity: 2, 8; 3. 87; 7, 8, 21; 8, 30; 9, 97; 12, 30; 14, 49; 16, 31, 33; 22, 124; 31, 32; 32, 28, 30, 39; 38, 31; 40, 20; 41, 110; 43, 28; 45, 9, 104; 52, 14, 16, 30, 32:

and with the stronger sense of 'must,' 'destined to': 13, 69; 24, 13; 29, 107, 188; 34, 65; 43, 29; 45, 12; 46, 5.

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