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Conspicere et patria decedens ponere terra.
Ad
quae Priamides: Nihil o tibi amice relictum;
Omnia Deiphobo solvisti et funeris umbris.
Set me fata mea et scelus exitiale Lacaenae
His mersere malis; illa haec monumenta reliquit.
Namque ut supremam falsa inter gaudia noctem

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508.] Patria terra' with 'ponere,' not with decedens,' though the juxtaposition of the words shows what kind of departure is meant and so forestalls such objections as Peerlkamp's, if otherwise well founded, that 'decedere' alone would naturally imply death. Ponere' could not stand for burial by itself, and Gossrau's proposal to take 'patria' with 'decedens,' 'terra' with 'ponere' is not simple enough, and would besides rob the passage of its force, the point being not merely that Aeneas wished to bury Deiphobus, but that he wished to bury him at home.

509-534.] Deiphobus acknowledges Aeneas' care, and goes on to tell how he was attacked while sleeping securely on the night of the sack of Troy, Helen, his wife, having disarmed him and introduced Menelaus and Ulysses into the chamber. He then asks Aeneas of his own adventures.'

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509.] There is great diversity of reading at the beginning of this line. Ad quae is found in fragm. Vat., and probably supported by Rom. adque,' and Med. a m. pr. and Pal. atquae.' The two last and similar varieties seem to have led transcribers to suppose that the real word was 'atque,' often spelt 'adque:' accordingly a later hand in Med. supplies hic,' which several MSS. follow, others reading atque haec.' 'Ad quae haec' is the reading of several copies, and was adopted by Heins, and two or three give ad quem.” Wagn. removes the points, so as to show that 'o' goes with amice. Relictum' left undone, i. q. “nihil reliquisti infectum." Comp. the use of 'relinqui' in such expressions as "relinquitur ut" for "restat ut" (see

510

Forc.). 'Tibi' ="a te." The old editions added est :' but the best MSS. seem to omit it.

510.] Deiphobo' is emphatic. 'In raising the cenotaph you have not gone through a mere empty form, but have propitiated the ghost of the real Deiphobus.' The mangled body may have been buried by those who did not know whose it was: otherwise we might infer that Deiphobus' appearance on the right side of the Styx was owing to Aeneas' pious care. 'Funeris.' seems i. q. "cadaveris," as in 9. 491. The commentators suppose that 'umbris' is used in contradistinction to the actual body, which was not found: but the sense seems to be quite the contrary, as I have just remarked on 'Deiphobo'-the honour has been paid to the very man Deiphobus and his very shade. For the plural see 5. 81, &c. [' Umbras' Rom.-H. N.]

511.] Set may merely imply, as Wagn. thinks, that Deiphobus is passing to the main thing which he has to speak of: but there seems to be a contrast, though not one which can be logically pressed, between Aeneas, who has done all he could for Deiphobus, and destiny and Helen, the authors of the evil. Exitiale' 2. 31. Lacaenae' 2. 601, where it is joined with "Tyndaridis." Helen is called † Aáñaıva Eur. Tro. 861 with a similar feeling of contempt. ['Sed' Rom. and fragm. Vat.-H. N.]

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512.]Mergere' of involving in suffering vv. 429, 615. Illa' Helen, haec' with monumenta,' as‘his malis' shows. He speaks of the mangling he underwent as an enduring memorial of Helen. It is possible that Virg. may have been thinking of Od. 15. 125, which he has already imitated seriously 3. 486, d@póv To Kal ἐγώ, τέκνον φίλε, τοῦτο δίδωμι, Μνῆμα 'Exévns xeipwv. At any rate a sneer is evidently intended by the choice of a word generally connected with honourable associations. [Monimenta' Pal. and Rom.-H.N.]

513.] With the fact comp. 2. 248, and

Egerimus, nosti; et nimium meminisse necesse est.
Cum fatalis equus saltu super ardua venit
Pergama et armatum peditem gravis attulit alvo,
Illa, chorum simulans, euantis orgia circum
Ducebat Phrygias; flammam media ipsa tenebat
Ingentem, et summa Danaos ex arce vocabat.
Tum me, confectum curis somnoque gravatum,
Infelix habuit thalamus, pressitque iacentem
Dulcis et alta quies placidaeque simillima morti.
Egregia interea coniunx arma omnia tectis
Emovet, et fidum capiti subduxerat ensem;
Intra tecta vocat Menelaum, et limina pandit,

the celebrated chorus in Eur. Hec. 905 foll. [Suppremam' fragm. Vat.-H. N.] 514.] ‘You must needs remember it only too well.'

515, 516.] See on 2. 237, 283. ['Equs' Rom.-H. N.]

517.] So Amata pretends to lead an orgie, 7. 385 foll., "simulato numine Bacchi." Orgia' with 'euantis,' a Greek construction, evaÇovσas тà úpyia, orgia' being virtually a cogn. acc., equivalent to the cryeuoe.' The word 'euantis' occurs Catull. 64. 391. Circum' round the city. [Alveo' Med. and Rom.-H. N.]

518.] The torch is a characteristic of Bacchus, Eur. Bacch. 145, Soph. O. T. 313.

519.] We may reconcile this story with the narrative in 2. 254 foll. by supposing that Helen gave a signal for the fleet to start, and that Agamemnon when well on his way gave a second signal to Sinon, who then opened the horse: but it is simpler to suppose that the present account is an independent one, Virg. having forgotten that he had already given another, as we must certainly presume that when he wrote the lines about Helen introducing Menelaus, lower down, he did not remember the account of Helen hiding from Greeks and Trojans alike, 2. 567 foll., if the latter is genuine.

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520.] [Tune' Pal.-H. N.] 'Confectum curis' has been questioned, Ribbeck reading choreis' from Schrader's conj.: but though the night had been passed in revelry, Deiphobus might well be spent with the labours of the siege. See on 2. 268. 'Confectum curis somnoque gravatum' seems to be a translation of 11. 10. 98, Kaμáτw adŋkótes idè kal úπvy, or Od. β. 2, ὕπνῳ καὶ καμάτῳ ἀρημένος.

515

520

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525

521.]Habuit' as in vv. 362, 670.

522.] Καὶ τῷ νήδυμος ὕπνος ἐπὶ βλεφzροισιν ἔπιπτεν, Νήγρετος, ἥδιστος, θανάτῳ ἄγχιστα ἐοικώς Od. 13. 79. foll.

523.] For the ironical use of egregius' Germ. comp. 4. 93. He also refers to Od. 16. 281 foll., where Ulysses speaks of removing all the weapons from the hall to the upper chamber, that the suitors may be unprotected. ["Tum vero illa egregia et praeclara mater palam exultare laetitia." Cic. Cluent. 5. 'Coniux' Med. and Rom.-H. N.]

524.] Emovet fragm. Vat. a m. p., Rom., Gud., amovet' fragm. Vat. a m. 8., Med. I have preferred the former, as the rarer word, and so more likely to have been altered. Pal. has 'et movet,' ['ecmovet'] corrected into amovet.' It matters little whether we explain the change from 'emovet' to 'subduxerat' by saying that it is at the same time regarded from two different points of view, or by making the removal of the sword, as the first weapon Deiphobus would look for, prior to that of the other arms. Heyne prefers the former view, Forb. the latter. Capiti' is probably to be taken strictly, not as Burm. thinks, of the pillow or place where the head was to lie, though ad caput' is undoubtedly so used in Suet. Dom. 17, to which he refers. The removal went on while Deiphobus was asleep, Helen not having retired to rest with him, but being apparently engaged in her orgie. So when Judith kills Holofernes (Judith 13. 6) "she came to the pillar of the bed, which was at Holofernes' head, and took down his falchion from thence." Med. had capitis' originally. Fidus' of a sword 7. 640. 525.]

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Limina,' not the house but the

Scilicet id magnum sperans fore munus amanti,
Et famam extingui veterum sic posse malorum.
Quid moror? inrumpunt thalamo; comes additur una
Hortator scelerum Aeolides. Di, talia Grais
Instaurate, pio si poenas ore reposco.
Set te qui vivum casus, age, fare vicissim,
Attulerint. Pelagine venis erroribus actus,
An monitu divum? an quae te Fortuna fatigat,

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528.] Deiphobus hurries over the circumstances of his butchery, which Virg. doubtless felt had been sufficiently described by its effects. Rom. and some others give thalamos,' which Heyne prefers but the dat., besides being better supported, is the rarer construction. It is not found elsewhere in Virg., but it occurs repeatedly in Virg.'s imitator, Silius: see Forc. Inrumpunt,' Menelaus and his companions. Additur' is recalled by Wagn. from Med., fragm. Vat., and others, comes additur' being equivalent to "addit se comitem." Additus' is the other reading, found in Pal., Rom., &c. Retaining it, we might possibly correct it with inrumpunt,' as if Virg. had said " inrumpunt thalamo et Menelaus et Aeolides." For the presence of Ulysses see above on v. 494.

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529.] Hortator scelerum' of Ulysses, "scelerum inventor" 2. 164 note. "Cum eius studii tibi et hortator et magister esset domi," Cic. De Orat. 1. 55, cited by Forc. Aeolides,' referring to the post-Homeric slander which made Ulysses really the son of Sisyphus, who was son of Aeolus. [Servius, as his text is emended by Masvic, says "alii Oeliden legunt, de quo nusquam legimus."

530

-H. N.] See Soph. Aj. 190, Phil. 417 &c. 'Di, talia Grais' &c., comp. Soph. Phil. 315, ois 'OxμTOL BEOL DOTEV NOT' αὐτοῖς ἀντίποιν ̓ ἐμοῦ παθεῖν.

530.] Instaurate' i. q. "rependite," a sense easily deduced from that of renewing. Pio ore:' if the prayer is one which it is right to make. So Hyllus in Soph. Trach. 809, ei éμis d'éπεúxoμal, és d' K.T.A., where however the doubt is more natural, as it is a son invoking vengeance on a mother. Perhaps then Virg. means Deiphobus to ask the gods for vengeance, if he has been their true worshipper, like Chryses II. 1. 39 foll. Rom. reads 'pios,' which might be explained as in 2. 536, 4. 382, but is far more likely to have been corrupted from the initial letter of the following word.

531.] Imitated from Od. 11. 155 foll., where Ulysses is similarly questioned by his mother. [Sed' Rom. fragm. Vat. -H. N.]

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532.] few MSS. give attulerunt," which might be worth considering. See E. 4. 61. Virg. however has blended the direct and indirect question, taking the mood from the latter, the order from the former. Pelagine venis erroribus actus' is a question more suited to Anticleia (Od. 11, 1. c.) than to Deiphobus, as the Homeric Hades was beyond the Ocean river, and approached by ship. The question however is evidently intended to mean, 'Have you come to Cumae by stress of weather, or on a special errand?' Deiphobus, we may remember, would be ignorant that Aeneas had any object in coming to Italy. Pelagi erroribus' expresses generally what is put more distinctly in 7. 199, "Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti, Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto."

533.] Quae Fortuna' is rightly explained by Wagn as "quae alia fortuna." Forb. comp Aesch. Prom. 198, Tóvwv uw bewphs, † tí oǹ Oéxwy; So Milton, Comus, "By falsehood, or discourtesy, or

Ut tristis sine sole domos, loca turbida, adires?
Hac vice sermonum roseis Aurora quadrigis
Iam medium aetherio cursu traiecerat axem ;
Et fors omne datum traherent per talia tempus;

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why?" For quae' after an' comp. Ter. Adelph. 3. 4, 22, “an quid est etiam amplius?' Plaut. Asin. 3. 3. 127, "an quid olim hominist Salute melius? instances which seem to show that it is indefinite here (comp. " num quae" &c.), not, as Wagn. thinks, pleonastically interrogative. One or two MSS. have aut (comp. 3. 311, 338), which is sometimes confused with 'an.' Burm. and Heyne had made quae' the relative, supplying fortuna (abl.) venis' from fortuna,' which would be intolerably harsh. The question is like 3. 609, "quae deinde agitet fortuna, fateri."

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534.] Adires' follows 'fatigat,' as if it had been fatigavit.' See Madv. § 382, obs. 3. [In Catullus 102. 1 "advenio ...ut adloquerer," the past tense seems to express the past intention which was the cause of the present arrival. Perhaps here 'ut adires' might be paraphrased that you thought of approaching,' or wished to approach.'-H. N.] Or we may say that Deiphobus regards the stress of fortune first as a continuing agency, afterwards as having had a past effect in making Aeneas undertake the journey to the shades. 'Sine sole: Eur. has avnλíovs dóμous of the shades Alc. 852, avnλíwv uvxwv Here. F. 607. See also on v. 462 above. 'Turbida' gives the notion of obscurity, and perhaps also that of formless confusion. "A land of the shadow of death, without any order," Job 10. 22. Perhaps Virg. meant to translate Od. 11. 91, ὄφρα ἴδῃ νέκυας καὶ ἀτερπέα χώρον.

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535-547.] 'The Sibyl interrupts them, reminding Aeneas that he has the rest of the lower world to see. Deiphobus retires.'

535.] From this and the following lines we may infer that Aeneas answers Deiphobus' question, and that the conversation proceeds. The lines are imitated, though with additional elaboration, from Od. 11. 81, 465 foll.: Virg. also thought of Apoll. R. 2. 448 foll. Vice sermonum' translates éréeσow àμeißoμévw. "Vice sermonis" occurs Ov. 4 Trist. 4. 79,"vicibus loquendi " Id. 2 Ex Pont. 10. 35, cited by Forc. The abl. here is one of circumstance. 'Roseis Aurora quadrigis:' comp. 7. 26, where the Dawn

535

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goddess appears "in roscis bigis," a number agreeing with the Homeric account Od. 23. 246. It matters little whether we suppose the car or the horses to be designated by the epithet rosy,' nor yet whether the abl. be taken as instrumental with traiecerat' or as descriptive with Aurora.' Considerable difficulty has been made about the time intended by the poet: but Wagn. rightly follows Cerda, who supposes that Aeneas spends a night, a day, and perhaps a second night in or about the infernal regions, the first night being devoted to the preliminary sacrifices, the whole of the succeeding time to the journey through the shades. They started at daybreak, vv. 255 foll. they have been exploring till past noon, and now the Sibyl warns Aeneas, in language sufficiently natural, that night is hastening on, nox ruit.' The amplification is perhaps a little unseasonable, as we scarcely need to be reminded pointedly of what is going on in the upper world, though of course all notation of time must be made by a reference to daylight.

536.]Axis' of the heaven G. 2. 271. Medium axem' like" medium sol igneus orbem Hauserat" G. 4. 426. Cursu' instrumental, if quadrigis' be descriptive; otherwise we must take it in' or during her course,' as in v. 338 above. [Cursus' Rom.-H. N.]

537.] Perhaps from Od. 16. 220 (repeated 21. 226), каí vý к' оduрouévoto ir ἔδυ φάος ἠελίοιο. This mode of saying that something would have happened if it had not been prevented by something else, is common in Hom. to a degree which would appear grotesque in a less simple writer. Datum,' by the gods or by the Sibyl: see on v. 477. What the time assigned was we can only infer: but we may reasonably suppose that a visit to the shades would have its limits. 'Per talia Virg. has chosen to say they would have drawn out their time through such conversation as this' instead of they would have drawn out such conversation as this through their time.' So "nos lendo ducimus horas" v. 539. For traherent' see on 1. 748. Here and in v. 539 the notion

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Sed comes admonuit breviterque adfata Sibylla est:
Nox ruit, Aenea; nos flendo ducimus horas.
Hic locus est, partis ubi se via findit in ambas :
Dextera quae Ditis magni sub moenia tendit,
Hac iter Elysium nobis ; at laeva malorum
Exercet poenas, et ad impia Tartara mittit.
Deiphobus contra: Ne saevi, magna sacerdos;
Discedam, explebo numerum, reddarque tenebris.

seems to be that they were spending a long time in talking or weeping; though from another point of view it might have been said that they were making the time go fast. Comp. 5. 766, Complexi inter se noctemque diemque morantur."

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538.] "Comes admoneat " v. 292 above. For Sibylla' after 'comes' see on 3. 162. Perhaps however it is better to say here that comes' qualifies admonuit' on the principle illustrated on E. 8. 1, 18, admonished him as a companion,' so that it really "comitem admonuit.' Virg. is fond of adverting to the brevity of the Sibyl's speeches: see vv. 321, 398. 539.] Nox ruit:' see on v. 535. Ducimus:' see on v. 537.

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540.] Hitherto they had passed along a single road, the district being inhabited by those who were neither in happiness nor in pain; now the ways diverge to Elysium or to Tartarus. Plato, Gorgias, p. 524 A, makes the judgment take place ἐν τῇ τριόδῳ, ἐξ ἧς φέρετον τὼ ὁδώ, ἡ μὲν εἰς μακάρων νήσους, ἡ δ ̓ εἰς Τάρταρον. ‘Ambas’ for "duas," a use noted by Serv. and Ti. Donatus, and also by Forc., but not illustrated by other instances. We might say where the way divides into its two parts;' but we should still not give the force of the word, as 'both' not merely supposes the parts as already known, but expressly negatives the notion, which here no one would dream of entertaining, that one part only is in question.

541.] It is slightly neater to remove the comma usually put after 'dextera' with Jahn, as we must otherwise suppose an anacoluthon. Ditis magni sub moenia:' see vv. 630 foll. We may comp. the lines on the Pythagorean Y, Pers. 3. 56, "et tibi quae Samios diduxit littera ramos Surgentem dextro monstravit limite callem."

542.] Rom has. hic iter.' 'Iter Elysium' like "iter Italiam " 3. 507. 'Nobis'

540

545

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implies what appears further from v. 563, that they were not to visit Tartarus. [Ad' Med. Pal. Rom. fragm. Vat. originally.-H. N.]

543.] The road is said to punish the bad and send them to Tartarus, a kind of hendiadys, expressing what would be expressed in less artificial language by saying that it conducts them to Tartarus where they are punished. We have already had an instance of Virg.'s variety in the use of 'exercere' on G. 3. 152; here and in v. 739 there is a somewhat analogous variety, exercet poenas and 'exercentur poenis.' Tac. A. 1. 44, comp. by Forb., has "iudicium et poenas de singulis exercuit." The way is said 'mittere,' as elsewhere "ducere" "ferre." Impia Tartara,' the epithet properly belonging to the occupants of the place transferred to the place itself, not unlike "lugentes campi" v. 441. [Henry takes impia' as = 'merciless,' which is simpler, but hardly probable.-Η. Ν.]

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544] 'Ne saevi,' a poetical intensification for "ne irascere."

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666

545.] [Nonius p. 298 explains 'explebo' as = "minuam," a notion which Servius mentions with approval, quoting in support of it a line of Ennius, "navibus explebant sese, terrasque replebant." No doubt 'explere' sometimes empty:" Donatus on Ter. Hec. 5. 1. 28 says explere' pro exinanire' Terentianum est," and Ov. has it in this sense 5 Trist. 3. 28 "expletur lacrimis egeriturque dolor." But here such an explanation obviously wrong, and that of Ti. Donatus (mentioned also by Serv.) probably right, "recedam expleturus numerum (quem abeundo minuerat").H. N] Macrob. Som. Scip. 1. 13 has a mystical explanation of the words from Plotinus' doctrine of numbers, which the curious in such things may consult. Forb. comp. Sen. Hipp. 1153, "Constat inferno

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