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Bis patriae cecidere manus. Quin protinus omnia
Perlegerent oculis, ni iam praemissus Achates
Adforet atque una Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos,
Deiphobe Glauci, fatur quae talia regi:
Non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit;
Nunc grege de intacto septem mactare iuvencos
Praestiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentis.

in auro: "caelata in auro facta" 1.

640.

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33.] Patriae manus' like "patrius amor 1. 643. Protinus,' successively, G. 4. 1. The choice lies between regard. ing ' omnia' as a dactyl, and compressing it into a spondee by synizesis: a hypermeter, which Macrob. Sat. 5. 14 talks of, is not to be thought of, as in the case of other hypermetric verses in Virg. the following line began with a vowel. See on G. 2.69. The hypothesis of a dactylic ending would not be impossible in itself, but becomes highly improbable in the face of the fact that of all the possible instances in Virg. some, like G. 2. 69., 3. 449, may be regarded as hypermeters; otliers, like the present one and 7. 237, may be resolved by synizesis. Omnia' then will be a disyllable like "taeniis 5. 269. Copyists sought to get rid of the anomaly by substituting 'omne' (actually found in Rom.), omnem,' 'omnes, as in 7. 237 they substituted "precantum," "precantis" for "precantia."

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34.] Terentius Scaurus in his treatise De Orthographia p. 2260 P. contends that Virg. wrote pellegerent,' a form printed by Ritschl in some passages in Plautus on MS. authority. For the rhetorical use of the imperf. for the pluperf. see Madv. § 347 b. obs. 2. The plural is used because Aeneas had several companions with him: comp. vv. 13, 41, 54. Praemissus,' sent on by Aeneas, that the Sibyl might be ready for him on his arrival at the temple. "Praemittit Achaten" 1. 644. Iam' probably with 'adforet' rather than with praemissus.'

35.] "Phoebi Triviaeque sacerdos" 10. 537, of Haemonides. Holdsworth and Spence (Miscellanea Virgiliana, pp. 207 foll.) distinguish between the priestess and the Sibyl, who, they say, being a goddess, required some other person to introduce worshippers to her. But their distinction is not really borne out by Virg., who must have intended the same person in vv. 46 foll. and 77 foll., a patent fact which they are compelled to deny.

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The Sibyl is nowhere called a goddess by Virg., as in v. 258 dea' is Hecate: she is called a priestess v. 321, as they admit. It is true, as they assert, that in Silius Italicus, Book 13, where Scipio goes down into the shades, he deals in the first instance not with the Sibyl, but with the priestess Autonoe: but Silius' Sibyl is not alive, but dead: she is like Homer's Tiresias, who drinks the blood of the victim, and then acquires the power of speech, and tells the visitor what he wishes to know. They object that Deiphobe the daughter of Glaucus was not the Sibyl's name; but there were several Sibyls, and the Cumaean Sibyl in particular had several names (Dict. Myth.. Sibylla'), so that Virg. may have followed some legend unknown to us, or may have thought himself at liberty to invent a name. On the whole subject see Heyne's Excursus. Glaucus, as the commentators remark, is a natural personage to be a Sibyl's father, being himself a prophetic god. [Afforet' Rom.-H. N.]

36.] Regi' of Aeneas, as in v. 55, &c. Some MSS. leave out ‘fatur-regi.'

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37.] Poscunt' is found in Rom., and is the earlier reading of Med. The editors think it intrinsically inferior to poscit:' but there is little difference between making the time call for the thing to be done, and making the thing to be done call for the time. It might even be urged that as 'non' apparently goes not with 'ista' but with hoc,' the latter is here the more natural expression. Poscit' however is more likely to have been altered into 'poscunt' than vice versa, as copyists are apt to alter the number to make the verb agree with the noun immediately preceding. See Wagn. Q. V. 8. Serv. recommends 'poscit.'

38.] Intacto' by the yoke, more fully expressed G. 4. 540 (note) by "intacta cervice." The sacrifice is to Apollo and Diana.

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39.] Praestiterit:' the subj. has the force of the Attic optative with av, courteously avoiding a direct and dogmatic

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Talibus adfata Aenean-nec sacra morantur
Iussa viri-Teucròs vocat alta in templa sacerdos.
Excisum Euboicae latus ingens rupis in antrum,
Quò lati ducunt aditus centum, ostia centum ;
Unde ruunt totidem voces, responsa Sibyllae.
Ventum erat ad limen, cum virgo, Poscere fata
Tempus, ait; deus, ecce, deus! Cui talia fanti
Ante fores subito non vultus, non color unus,
Non comptae mansere comae; set pectus anhelum,
Et rabie fera corda tument; maiorque videri,

assertion. 'Lectas de more bidentis' 4. 57 note. Fragm. Vat. has ex more.'

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40-55.] They pass through the temple towards the adytum, when the Sibyl feels the power of the god, and calls on Aeneas to pray fervently, that the doors may open and the response be given.'

40.] Sacra' is a substantive, so that 'iussa sacra' is like "iussos honores" 3. 547, "iussos sapores" G. 4. 62. Morantur' then will mean to delay to execute, or execute slowly, as in Val. F. 7. 60, "Haud ipse morabor Quae petitis," possibly an imitation of Virg.

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41.] Alta in templa: see on v. 9. They had been standing before the gate, and now are summoned within.

42.] A description, as Henry rightly takes it, not of the temple but of the adytum, which, as at Delphi, was a cavern in the rock. Eubojcae rupis,' the rock or hill of Cumae: see on v. 9. Latus rupis excisum in antrum' is a variety, as Heyne observes, for "antrum excisum in latere rupis."

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43.] Aditus' and 'ostía' seem rightly explained by Henry as a sort of Virgilian hendiadys, aditus per centum, lata ostia.' But it is not easy to understand what these entrances were. On the whole the consistency of the description seems to require that we should understand them to be the entrances of the adytum, opening into the temple (comp. 3. 92, where the adytum' is opened similarly at the giving of the response): but a hundred doors communicating from one side of the temple to a cavern beyond form a picture which is not readily grasped. Meanwhile the general tenor of the narrative is well illustrated by a graphic description of a worshipper at Delphi approaching the 'adytum' in the Oxford Arnold Prize Essay' for 1859, by Sir Charles Bowen. I quote it in an

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appendix to this book, as it is too long for a note.

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44.] Ruunt' expresses the general practice: through these doors the responses of the Sibyl are habitually communicated.

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45.] Limen,' sc. 'antri;' whether identical with any of these doors we are not told. The Sibyl goes into the cave (comp. v. 77); Aeneas and the Trojans remain outside. Poscere fata' is explained by what follows, v. 52. sacrifices had been performed, but prayer was still necessary to obtain the response, and this was the time for prayer, the god having already manifested himself. The words seem to mean to ask Apollo for oracles,'' fata' being used as in 1. 382 &c. Comp. G. 3. 456, "meliora deos sedet omina poscens," and possibly A. 3. 456, where however see note. Elsewhere, as in 7. 272 &c, the fates themselves are said poscere." "Tempus poscere" 9. 12. For the construction see on G. 1. 213. 47.] Ante fores' like 'ad limen.' 'Unus' idem,' with which it is not unfrequently joined: see Forc. The sense is not that her countenance and colour keep changing, but that they are different from what they were before. [Voltus' Pal. originally.-H. N.]

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48.] Comptae: Heyne remarks that her hair would be already unbound, as the sacrifice had been made (see on 3. 370), so that Virg. must here mean that the hair stood on end or was tossed about. But we need not press the poet so closely. Unbound or dishevelled hair was usual when a priest or prophet approached the gods: and Virg. has chosen to represent the hair of the Sibyl as becoming disordered at this particular point of the story. [Sed' Rom. and fragm. Vat.— H. N.] 49.] Rabie' with 'tument.' As the

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Nec mortale sonans, adflata est numine quando
Iam propiore dei. Cessas in vota precesque
Tros, ait, Aenea? cessas? neque enim ante dehiscent
Attonitae magna ora domus. Et talia fata
Conticuit. Gelidus Teucris per dura cucurrit
Ossa tremor, funditque preces rex pectore ab imo:

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Videri' might be regarded as a historical infinitive, with Serv. and some of the early editors: but Heyne rightly constructs it with 'maior,' as if it were a translation of μείζων εἰσιδεῖν. Wagn. comp. "niveus videri" Hor. 4. Od. 2. 59, lubricus adspici" Id. 1. Od. 19. 7. Some notion equivalent to facta est' must of course be supplied from the context.

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50.] Sonare' of a person speaking loudly, 12. 529. With the expression generally comp. 1. 328, "haud tibi voltus Mortalis, nec vox hominem sonat." Quando' is causal rather than temporal, so that Heyne's suggestion, adopted by Jahn, to place a period at 'sonans,' and connect adflata est' with what follows, would be no improvement. With the position of quando' comp. 10. 366, "aspera quis natura loci dimittere quando Suasit equos." Serv. explains adflata' "nondum deo plena, sed adflata vicinitate numinis;" but adflare' and 'adflatus' (subst.) are terms regularly used of divine inspiration (see Forc.), like inveîv and its cognates.

51.] With 'propiore' comp. the use of 'praesens,' 'adesse,' of divine favour, and the cognate propitius.' [Propriore' Pal.-H. N.]. Cessas in vota' is a variety for the more ordinary use of 'cessare' with the abl., as in Cic. Sen. 5, "neque unquam in suo studio atque opere cessavit." Forb. comp. "audere

VOL. II.

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in proelia" 2. 347. We should expect the construction in' with acc. after a verb signifying tendency to promote an object rather than the reverse: but the explanation doubtless is that the absence of such a tendency is considered to affect the object in question no less than its presence. The phrase is imitated by Sen. Medea 406, "Nunquam meus cessabit in poenas furor." "Vota precesque "

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11. 158.

55

should pray fervently, and ante' refers 52.] Enim' gives the reason why he to fervent prayer as implied in its opposite 'cessas.' 'Dehiscent' is used of the flying open of the doors, in accommodation to ora.'

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53.] The earlier commentators, following Serv., were satisfied with making attonitae' "facientis attonitos." Later editors, who see that both on poetical and grammatical grounds it is to be understood strictly, the house being conceived of and endowed with human feelings, are still divided as to the force which should be given to it, Heyne and Wagn. referring it to the effect of the sudden opening of the doors, Henry to the spell-bouud silence which prevents the opening. On the whole Henry's interpretation seems to give the most consistent and poetical picture. He compares a similar application of the word in can 2. 21, Sic funere primo Attonitae tacuere domus, cum corpora nondum Conclamata iace it." The Sibyl, in describing the feelings of the 'domus,' is in effect describing her own. The effect of the inspiration is to bewilder and confound her, so that she cannot at first master herself sufficiently to speak; and so now after a hurried injunction to Aencas she relapses into her stormy silence.

54.] Dura:' iron as was the nature of the Trojan warriors, they trembled in every limb. "Gelidusque per ima cucurrit Ossa tremor" 2. 120.

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55.] Heins. restored fundit' for fudit,' the old reading, found in none of Ribbeck's MSS.

2 F

Phoebe, gravis Troiae semper miserate labores,
Dardana qui Paridis derexti tela manusque
Corpus in Aeacidae, magnás obeuntia terrás
Tot maria intrávi duce té penitusque repostás
Massylum gentés praetentaque Syrtibus arva,
Iam tandem Italiae fugientis prendimus oras;
Hac Troiana tenus fuerit Fortuna secuta.
Vos quoque Pergameae iam fas est parcere genti,
Dique deaeque omnes, quibus obstitit Ilium et ingens

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57.] Dardana' in prose would be constructed with Paridis' rather than with tela: but it is in any case emphatic, as its position shows. Achilles, the greatest enemy of Troy, had been destroyed by Apollo, and not only this, but destroyed through the instrumentality of a Trojan. The joint agency of Apoloand Paris in the death of Achilles was part of the Homeric tradition, Il. 22. 359, other stories making Paris the sole agent (D.ct. M. Achilles'). In Ov. M. 12. 580 foll. Apollo, at the instance of Neptune, appears to Paris, encourages him to shoot at Achilles rather than at meaner foes, and guides his aim. 'Derexti:' see on 5. 786. With tela manusque,' which may be called a species of hendiadys, the notion being a single one, the hand fixing the arrow or the arrow fixed by the hand, comp. Aesch. Ag. 111, uv dopì кal Xeρi πрáктоpt. [Directi' Rom. for 'derexti.'-H. N.]

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61.] On a comparison of 3. 496., 5. 629, it may be doubted whether fugientis' is gen. sing., or, as Wagn. suggests, acc. pl. Perhaps it is more like Virg. to separate the noun from its epithet. Fugientes' is said to be the reading of eight MSS. examined by Burm. Prendimus' may be either present or perf., but the former seems rhetorically preferable. The word is meant to be graphic, expressing a physical grasp of a thing which had nearly slipped away. Comp. 12. 775, "teloque sequi, quem prendere cursu Non poterat." Wagn. (ed. mi.) seems right in exchanging the period usually placed after oras' for a semicolon, so as to make v. 62 a kind of apodosis. See on v. 59.

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62.1 Hac' separated from 'tenus,' as in 5. 603. Troiana fortuna' is said bitterly, Troy's usual fortune.' Gossrau comp. Hor. 3. Od. 3. 61, "Troiae renascens alite lugubri Fortuna tristi clade iterabitur." Fuerit,' the perf. subj. used as a past opt. or imperative. 'Let ill-fortune have followed us up to this point, but let her do so no longer.' The use is not quite the same as that of 'fuit' 2. 325, as here the force of the past is partially given by hactenus.'

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63.] Wagner would write 'Pergamiae: ' see on 3. 133. A few MSS. have 'parcite,' which Wakef. adopts.

64.]" Dique deacque omnes" G. 1. 21. 'Obstare' is here used of that which creates dislike, without any reference to active opposition. So Sil. 17. 541 (quoted by Forb.), "tantumne obstat mea gloria

Gloria Dardaniae. Tuque, o sanctissima vates,
Praescia venturi, da, non indebita posco
Regna meis fatis, Latio considere Teucros
Errantisque deos agitataque numina Troiae.
Tum Phoebo et Triviae solido de marmore templum
Instituam, festosque dies de nomine Phoebi.
Te quoque magna manent regnis penetralia nostris.

<«livis?" an obvious imitation of Virg., Pers. 5. 163, "an siccis dedecus obstem •Cognatis?" "Ilium et ingens Gloria Teucrorum" 2. 325.

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66.] Praescius' with gen. is found also in Val. Flaccus and Tac. (see Forc.), on the analogy of conscius,' inscius,' nescius,' &c. Da:' for the sense see 3. 85 (note), for the construction 5. 689. Some editions make the parenthesis to end with posco,' which Heyne rightly rejects.

67.] It is extremely difficult to say whether 'fatis' is the dat., as Burm. thinks, or the abl., as Peerlkamp and Forb. contend. Either expression would be Virgilian (comp. 7. 120, "fatis mihi debita tellus," with 11. 759 "fatis debitus Arruns"), and either would yield an appropriate sense, as the fates may be represented either as satisfying the requirements of others, or as having their own requirements satisfied (comp. the passages where the fates are said 'poscere,' 4. 614 c.). Where the fates are identified with an individual, as here by the possessive pronoun meis,' they assume as it were a subordinate position (comp. 7. 293, "fatis contraria nostris Fata Phrygum"), and so may be regarded not as causing events, but as demanding their fulfilment from some other power. The question then is whether the Sibyl is here regarded as the person through whom a demand is made on destiny, or on whom the destinies of private persons make their demand. On the whole I think it must be left open, as there seems nothing in the context, in the nature of the case, or in parallel passages to incline the scale either way, though Val. F. 5. 508 (quoted by Forb.), Non aliena peto terrisve indebita nostris," looks as if that author understood fatis' as dative. 'Considere' 4. 349, where as here the names of Italy and the Trojans are contrasted by way of emphasis. Rom. has "consistere.'

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68.] ‘Agitata' as in 12. 803, "terris

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agitare vel undis Troianos potuisti.” With the general sense Forb. compares Ilioneus' language 7. 229.

69.] "Ut solet, miscet historiam. Nam hoc templum in Palatio ab Augusto factum est: sed quia Augustus cohaeret Iulio, qui ab Aenea ducebat originem, vult ergo Augustum parentum vota solvisse." Serv. The temple was built in honour of Apollo (Suet. Aug. 29), but it appears from the description in Prop. 3. 23. 15 that the statue of the god stood between statues of Latona and Diana. Templum' was restored by Heins, from Med. and Rom. for templa' (Pal., Gud. &c.). Henry prefers the latter, but in the parallel instances he quotes the plural is put for the sing. for the metre, which could not be pleaded here: and the change seems due to some copyist who supposed two temples to be intended. Templum de marmore' 4. 457, G. 3. 13.

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70.] Instituam' is connected with 'templum' and 'dies' by a kind of zeugma, not unlike "moresque viris et moenia ponet" 1. 264. 'Instituere aras' occurs Val. F. 3. 426. Rom. has 'constituam,' which would suit templum,' but not 'dies.' The 'festi dies' are the ludi Apollinares instituted B.C. 212 (Liv. 25. 12).

71.] It might appear at first sight as if Aeneas were promising the Sibyl a temple: but the reference is doubtless to the honours paid by the Romans to the Sibylline books, which were first placed in the Capitol, and afterwards deposited by Augustus under the base of the statue of his Palatine Apollo. The latter is of course especially alluded to. In Ov. M. 14. 128, to which Heyne refers, Aeneas promises the Sibyl a temple in so many words; but she expressly declines the offer, as not being a goddess. 'Penetralia' may possibly point to the secrecy of the place where the books were laid up: but it is often used rather vaguely, and in Sil. 13. 62 it seems to stand for

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