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^Lvm1*' "^n<^ t^iat §eneral, excited by so steady a resistv^v^/ ance, ordered Doyley, the captain of his life-guard, 1645. to give them a third charge in front, while he himself attacked them in rear. The regiment was broken. Fairfax, with his own hands, killed an ensign, and, having seized the colours, gave them to a soldier to keep for him. The soldier afterwards boasting that he had won this trophy, was reproved by Doyley, who had seen the action; Let him retain that honour, said Fairfax, / have to-day acquired enough beside."1

Prince Rupert, sensible too late of his error, left the fruitless attack on the enemy's artillery, and joined the king, whose infantry was now totally discomfited. Charles exhorted this body of cavalry not to despair, and cried aloud to them, One charge more, and we recover the day.1 But the disadvantages under which they laboured were too evident; and they could by no means be induced to renew the combat. Charles was obliged to quit the field, and leave the victory to the enemy.5 The slain, on the side of the parliament, exceeded those on the side of the king: They lost a thousand men; he not above eight hundred. But Fairfax made 500 officers prisoners, and 4000 private men; took all the king's artillery and ammunition; and totally dissipated his infantry: So that scarce any victory could be more complete than that which he obtained.

Among the other spoils was seized the king's cabinet, with the copies of his letters to the queen, which the parliament afterwards ordered to be published.1 They chose, no doubt, such of them as they thought would reflect dishonour on him: Yet, upon the whole, the letters are written with delicacy and tenderness, and give an advantageous idea both of the king's genius and morals. A mighty loudness,

< Wliitlocke, p. 145. 'Rush. vol. vii. p. 44.

* Clarendon, vol. iv. p. 65G, 657. Walker, p. J30, 131.
'Clarendon, vol. iv. p. 658.

ness, it is true, and attachment, he expresses to his c H A p. consort, and often professes that he never would em- vj^i^-w brace any measures which she disapproved: But such Ims. declarations of civility and confidence are not always to be taken in a full literal sense. And so legitimate an affection, avowed by the laws of God and man, may, perhaps, be excusable towards a woman of beauty and spirit, even though she was a papist."

The Athenians, having intercepted a letter written by their enemy, Philip of Macedon, to his wife, Olynipia; so far from being moved by a curiosity of prying into the secrets of that relation, immediately sent the letter to the queen unopened. Philip was not their sovereign; nor were they inflamed with that violent animosity against him, which attends all civil commotions.

After the battle, the king retreated with that body of horse which remained entire, first to Hereford, then to Abergavenny; and remained sometime in Wales, from the vain hope of raising a body of infantry in those harassed and exhausted quarters. Fairfax, having first retaken Leicester, which was i7th 'Jane. surrendered upon articles, began to deliberate concerning his future enterprises. A letter was brought him written by Goring to the king, and unfortunately entrusted to a spy of Fairfax's. Goring there informed the king, that in three weeks he hoped to be master of Taunton; after which he would join his majesty with all the forces in the west; and entreated


* Heame has published the following extract from a manuscript work of sir Simon D'Ewes. who was no mean man in the parliamentary party. "On Thursday, the 30th and last day of this "instant June 1625, I went to Whitehall, purposely to see the "queen, which I did fully all the time sbe sat at dinner. I pcr"ceived her to be a most absolute delicate lady., after I had ex"actly survey'd all the features of her face, much enliven'd by her radiant and sparkling black eyes. Besides, her deportment "among her women was so sweet and humble, and her speecli and "looks to her other servants so mild and gracious, as I could not "abstain from divers deep fetched sighs, to consider, that she "wanted the knowledge of the true religion." See preface to the Chronicle of Dunstable, p. 64.

Chap- him, in the mean while, to avoid coming to any general action. This letter, which had it been safely i645. delivered, had probably prevented the battle of Naseby, served now to direct the operations of Fair• fax." After leaving a body of 3000 men to Pointz and Rossiter, with orders to attend the king's motions, he marched immediately to the west, with a view of saving Taunton, and suppressing the only considerable force which now remained to the royalists.

In the beginning of the campaign, Charles, apprehensive of the event, had sent the prince of Wales, then fifteen years of age, to the west, with the title of general, and had given orders, if he were pressed by the enemy, that he should make his escape into a foreign country, and save one part of the royal family from the violence of the parliament. Prince Rupert had thrown himself into Bristol, with an intention of defending that important city. Goring commanded the army before Taunton.

. . . On Fairfax's approach, the siege of Taunton was

20thJuly. . . . . rr,. . , °T raised; and the royalists retired to Lamport, an open town in the county of Somerset. Fairfax attacked them in that post, beat them from it, killed about 300 men, and took 1400 prisoners." After this advantage, he sat down before Bridgewater, a town esteemed strong and of great consequence in that country. When he had entered the outer town by storm, Windham the governor, who had retired into the inner, immediately capitulated, and delivered up the place to Fairfax. The garrison, to the number of 2600 men, were made prisoners of war. «3djniy. Fa I Rf Ax, having next taken Bath and Sherborne, resolved to lay siege to Bristol, and made great preparations for an enterprise, which from the strength of the garrison, and the reputation of prince Rupert the governor, was deemed of the last importance.


* Rush. vol. vii. p. 49. * Ibid. vol. vii. p. 55.

But, so precarious in most men is this quality of c Hap. military courage! a poorer defence was not made by any town during the whole war: And the general 1645. expectations were here extremely disappointed. No sooner had the parliamentary forces entered the lines by storm, than the prince capitulated, and surren-nth Sept.dered the city to Fairfax.7 A few days before, he ^SStof had written a letter to the king, in which he undertook to defend the place for four months, if no mutiny obliged him to surrender it. Charles, who was forming schemes, and collecting forces, for the, relief of Bristol, was astonished at so unexpected an event, which was little less fatal to his cause than the defeat at Naseby.1 Full of indignation, he instantly recalled all prince Rupert's commissions, and sent him a pass to go beyond sea.*

The king's affairs now went fast to ruin in all quarters. The Scots, having made themselves masters of Garlisle,b after an obstinate siege, marched southwards, and laid siege to Hereford; but were obliged to raise it on the king's approach: And this was the last glimpse of success which attended his arms. Having marched to the relief of Chester, which was anew besieged by the parliamentary forces under Colonel Jones; Pointz attacked his rear, and forced him to give battle. While the «4th Sept fight was continued with great obstinacy, and victory seemed to incline to the royalists; Jones fell upon them from the other side, and put them to rout with the loss of 600 slain, and 1000 prisoners.c The king, with the remains of his broken army, fled to Newark, and thence escaped to Oxford, where he shut himself up during the winter season.


1 Rush. vol. vii. p. 83. * Clarendon, vol. iv. p. 690.

Walker, p. 137. 'Clarendon, vol. iv. p. 695. ?28* of
June. c Rush vol. vii. p. 117.


Chap. The news which he received from every quatxj^^j tefi", were rio less fatal than those events which 1645. passed where he himself was present. Fairfax and Cromwel, after the surrender of Bristol, having divided their forces, the former marched westwards, in order to complete the conquest of Devonshire and Cornwal; the latter attacked the king's garrisons which lay to the east of Bristol. The Devizes were surrendered to Cromwel; Berkeley castle was taken by storm; Winchester capitulated; Basing-house was entered sword in hand: And all these middle counties of England were, in a little time, reduced to obedience under the parliament.

164G. The same rapid and uninterrupted success attendMMomd.ed Fairfax- The parliamentary forces, elated by by fair- past victofies, governed by the most rigid disci' JX' pline, met with no equal opposition from troops, dismayed by repeated defeats, and corrupted by licentious manners. After beating up the quarters' i8th Jan. of the royalists at Bovey-Tracey, Fairfax sat down before Dartmouth, and in a few days entered it by storm. Foudram-castle being taken by him, and Exeter blockaded on all sides; Hopton, a man of merit, who now commanded the royalists, having advanced to the relief of that town with an army of 8000 men, met with'the parliamentary Ism feb. army at Torrington; where he was defeated, all his foot dispersed, and he himself, with his horse, obliged to retire into Cornwal. Fairfax followed him, and vigorously pursued the victory. Having inclosed the royalists at Truro, he forced the whole' afmy, consisting of 5000 men, chiefly cavalry, to surrender upon terms. The soldiers, delivering up their horses and arms, were allowed to disband, and received twenty shillings a-piece, to carry them to their respective abodes. Such of the officers an desired it, had passes to retire beyond sea; The


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