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CHA P. than was expressed by those criminals, even when LXIII.
the terrors of immediate death, joined to many indignities, were set before them. The rest of the king's judges, by an unexampled lenity, were reprieved; and they were dispersed into several pri
sons. Sept. 13. This punishment of declared enemies interrupted
not the rejoicings of the court: But the death of the
king. . Nov. 6.
After a recess of near two months, the parliament met, and proceeded in the great work of the national settlement. They established the postoffice, wine licenses, and some articles of the revenue. They granted more assessments, and some arrears, for paying and disbanding the army. Busi
ness being carried on with great unanimity, was Pissolu- soon dispatched: And after they had sitten two tion of the conven
de months, the king, in a speech full of the most gratiou par cious expressions, thought proper to dissolve them. liament. Dec. 29. This house of commons had been chosen during
the reign of the old parliamentary party; and though many royalists had crept in amongst them, yet
did it chiefly consist of presbyterians, who had not c H A P. yet entirely laid aside their old jealousies and prin- x ciples. Lenthal, a member, having said, that those 1660. who first took arms against the king, were as guilty as those who afterwards brought him to the scaffold, was severely reprimanded by order of the house; and the most violent efforts of the long parliament, to secure the constitution, and bring delinquents to justice, were in effect vindicated and applauded. The claim of the two houses to the militia, the first ground of the quarrel, however exorbitant an usurpation, was never expressly resigned by this parliament. They made all grants of money with a very sparing hand. Great arrears being due by the protector, to the fleet, the army, the navy-office, and every branch of service; this whole debt they threw upon the crown, without establishing funds sufficient for its payment. Yet notwithstanding this jealous care, expressed by the parliament, there prevails a story, that Popham, having sounded the disposition of the members, undertook to the earl of Southampton to procure, during the king's life, a grant of two millions a-year, land-tax; a sum which, added . to the customs and excise, would for ever have rendered this prince independent of his people. Southampton, it is said, merely from his affection to the king, had unwarily embraced the offer; and it was not till he communicated the matter to the chancellor, that he was made sensible of its pernicious tendency. It is not improbable, that such an offer might have been made, and been hearkened to ;- but it is nowise probable that all the interest of the court would ever, with this house of commons, have been able to make it effectual. Claren, don showed his prudence, no less than his integrity, in entirely rejecting it,
.CHAP. The chancellor, from the same principles of LXIII.
conduct, hastened to disband the army. When 1660, the king reviewed these veteran troops, he was
struck with their beauty, order, discipline, and martial appearance ; and being sensible, that regular forces are most necessary implements of royalty, he expressed a desire of finding expedients still to retain them. But his wise minister set before him the dangerous spirit by which these troops were actuated, their enthusiastic genius, their habits of rebellion and mutiny; and he convinced the king, that, till they were disbanded, he never could esteem himself securely established on his throne. No more troops were retained than a few guards and garrisons, about 1000 horse, and 4000 foot. This was the first appearance, under the monarchy, of a regular standing army in this island. Lord Mordaunt said, that the king, being possessed of that force, might now look upon himself as the most considerable gentleman in England. The fortifications of Glocester, Taunton, and other towns, which had made resistance to the king during the civil wars, were demolished.
CLARENDON not only behaved with wisdom and justice in the office of chancellor: All the counsels, which he gave the king, tended equally to promote the interest of prince and people. Charles, accuse tomed in his exile to pay entire deference to the judgment of this faithful servant, continued still to submit to his direction; and for some time no minister was ever possessed of more absolute authority. He moderated the forward zeal of the roy. alists, and tempered their appetite for revenge. With the opposite party, he endeavoured to preserve inviolate all the king's engagements: He kept an exact
ai si register King James's Memoirs. This prince says, that Venner's insurrection furnished a reason or pretence for keeping up the guards, which were intended at first to have been disbanded with the rest of the army.
register of the promises which had been made for C H A P.
LXIII. any service, and he employed all his industry to fulfil them. This good minister was now nearly 1660. allied to the royal family. His daughter, Ann Hyde, a woman of spirit and fine accomplishments, had hearkened, while abroad, to the addresses of the duke of York, and, under promise of marriage, had secretly admitted him to her bed. Her pregnancy appeared soon after the restoration; and though many endeavoured to dissuade the king from consenting to so unequal an alliance, Charles, in pity to his friend and minister, who had been ignorant of these engagements, permitted his brother to marry her." Clarendon expressed great uneasiness at the honour which he had obtained; and said, that, by being elevated so much above his rank, he thence dreaded a more sudden downfal.." . Most circumstances of Clarendon's administra- p.
| Prelacy. tion have met with applause: His maxims alone in restored. the conduct of ecclesiastical politics have by many been deemed the effect of prejudices narrow and bigoted. Had the jealousy of royal power prevailed so far with the convention parliament, as to make them restore the king with strict limitations, there is no question but the establishment of presbyterian discipline had been one of the conditions most rigidly insisted on. Not only that form of ecclesiastical government is more favourable to liberty than to royal power: It was likewise, on its own account, agreeable to the majority of the house of commons, and suited their religious principles. But as the impatience of the people, the danger of delay, the general disgust towards faction, and the authority of Monk, had prevailed over that jealous, project of limitations, the full settlement of the hierarchy, together with the monarchy, was a necessary and infallible consequence. All the royalists
were ,King James's Memoirs.
CHAP. were zealous for that mode of religion ; the merits LXIII.
of the episcopal clergy towards the king, as well as 1660. their sufferings on that account, had been great ;
the laws which established bishops and the liturgy were as yet unrepealed by legal authority; and any attempt of the parliament, by new acts, to give the superiority to presbyterianism, had been sufficient to involve the nation again in blood and confusion. Moved by these views, the commons had wisely postponed the examination of all religious controversy, and had left the settlement of the church to the king and to the ancient laws.
The king, at first, used great moderation in the execution of the laws. Nine bishops still remained alive; and these were immediately restored to their sees: All the ejected clergy recovered their livings: The liturgy, a form of worship, decent, and not without beauty, was again admitted into the church: But, at the same time, a declaration was issued, in order to give contentment to the presbyterians, and preserve an air of moderation and neutrality. In this declaration, the king promised that he would provide suffragan bishops for the larger diocèses ; that the prelates should, all of them, be regular and constant preachers; that they should not confer ordination, or exercise any jurisdiction, without the advice and assistance of presbyters, chosen by the diocese; that such alterations should be made in the liturgy as would render it totally unexceptionable; that, in the mean time, the use of that mode of worship should not be imposed on such as were unwilling to receive it; and that the surplice, the cross in baptism, and bowing at the name of Jesus, should not be rigidly insisted on. This declaration was issued by the king as head of the church; and he plainly assumed, in many parts: of it, a legislative authority in ecclesiastical matters.
Parl. Hist. vol. xxiii. p. 173,