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claring that such of the late king's judges as did CHAP.

LXIII. not yield themselves prisoners within fourteen days w a should receive no pardon. Nineteen surrendered 1660.. themselves: Some were taken in their flight: Others escaped beyond sea. · The commons seemed to have been more inclined to lenity than the lords. The upper house, in- . flamed by the ill usage which they had received, were resolved, besides the late king's judges, to ex-. cept every one who had sitten in any high court of justice. Nay, the earl of Bristol moved, that no : pardon might be granted to those who had anywise contributed to the king's death. So wide an ex- . çeption, in which every one who had served the parliament might be comprehended, gave a general alarm ; and men began to apprehend, that this moţion was the effect of some court artifice or intrigue... But the king soon dissipated these fears. · He came to the house of peers; and, in the most earnest terms, passed the act of general indemnity. ; He urged both the necessity of the thing, and the obligation of his former promise: A promise, he said, which he would ever regard as sacred ; since to it he probably owed the satisfaction, which at present he enjoyed, of meeting his people in parliament. This measure of the king's was received with great applause and satisfaction. · AFTER repeated solicitations, the act of indem- . nity passed both houses, and soon received the royal assent. Those who had an immediate hand in the late king's death, were there excepted: Even Cromwel, Ireton, Bradshaw, and others now dead, were attainted, and their estates forfeited. - Vane and Lambert, though none of the regicides, were also excepted. St. John' and seventeen persons more were deprived of all benefit from this act, if they ever accepted any public employment. All who had sitten in any illegal high court of justice were VOL, VII.




CHA P. disabled from bearing offices. These were all the

• severities which followed such furious civil wars 1660. and convulsions. ttlement The next business was the settlement of the king's of the revenue, revenue. In this work, the parliament had regard

to public freedom, as well as to the support of the
crown. The tenures of wards and liveries had long
been regarded as a grievous burthen by the nobility
and gentry: Several attempts had been made during
the reign of James to purchase this prerogative, to-
gether with that of purveyance; and 200,000 pounds
a-year had been offered to that prince in lieu of them:
Wardships and purveyance had been utterly abo-
lished by the republican parliament: And even in
the present parliament, before the king arrived in
England, a bill had been introduced, offering him
a compensation for the emolument of these prero-
gatives. A hundred thousand pounds a year was
the sum agreed to; and half of the excise was set-
tled in perpetuity upon the crown as the fund
whence this revenue should be levied. Though
that impost yielded more profit, the bargain might
be esteemed hard ; and it was chiefly the necessity
of the king's situation which induced him to con-
sent to it. No request of the parliament, during
the present joy, could be refused them.

TONNAGE and poundage and the other half of the excise were granted to the king during life. The parliament even proceeded so far as to vote that the settled revenue of the crown for all charges should be 1,200,000 pounds a-year; a sum greater than any English monarch had ever before enjoyed. But as all the princes of Europe were perpetually augmenting their military force, and consequently their expence, it became requisite that England, from motives both of honour and security, should bear some proportion to them, and adapt its revenue to the new system of politics which prevailed. Ac

cording cording to the chancellor's computation, a charge C H A P. of 800,000 pounds a-year was at present requisite LXII. for the fleet and other articles, which formerly cost 1660. the crown but eighty thousand.

Had the parliament, before restoring the king, insisted on any farther limitations than those which the constitution already imposed; besides the danger of reviving former quarrels among parties; it would seem that their precaution had been entirely superfluous. By reason of its slender and precarious revenue, the crown in effect was still totally dependent. Not a fourth part of this sum, which seemed requisite for public expences, could be levied without consent of parliament; and any concessions, had they been thought necessary, might, even after the restoration, be extorted by the commons from their necessitous prince. This parliament showed no intention of employing at present that engine to any. such purposes; but they seemed still determined not to part with it entirely, or to render the revenues of the crown fixed and independent. Though they voted in general, that 1,200,000 pounds a-year should be settled on the king, they scarcely assigned any funds which could yield two-thirds of that sum. And they left the care of fulfilling their engagements to the future consideration of parliament.

In all the temporary supplies which they voted, they discovered the same cautious frugality. To disband the army, so formidable in itself, and so much accustomed to rebellion and changes of government, was necessary for the security both of king and parliament; yet the commons showed great jealousy in granting the sums requisite for that end. An assessment of 70,000 pounds a-month was imposed; but it was at first' voted to continue only three months : And all the other sums, which they levied for that purpose, by a poll-bill and new assessments, were still granted by parcels; as if they A a 2


fixed anchat 1,200,0hey scarcely of that

in thection in i, Butinis

CHA P. were not, as yet, well assured of the fidelity of the. LXIII.

hand to which the money was entrusted. Having 1660. proceeded so far in the settlement of the nation, the Sept. 13. Trial and parliament adjourned itself for some time. execution DURING the recess of parliament, the object, of the regicides.

which chiefly interested the public, was the trial.
and condemnation of the regicides. The general:
indignation, attending the enormous crime of which
these men had been guilty, made their sufferings
the subject of joy to the people: But in the peculiar.
circumstances of that action, in the prejudices of the..
times, as well as in the behaviour of the criminals,
a mind, seasoned with humanity, will find a plenti-
ful source of compassion and indulgence. Can any.
one, without concern for human blindness and iga,
norance, consider the demeanour of general Harri-:
son, who was first brought to his tria!? With great
courage and elevation of sentiment, he told the
court, that the pretended crime, of which he stood.
accused, was not a deed performed in a corner :-
The sound of it had gone forth to most nations ;
and in the singular and marvellous conduct of it
had chiefly appeared the sovereign power of heaven.
That he himself, agitated by doubts, had osten,
with passionate tears, offered up his addresses to
the divine Majesty, and earnestly sought for light
and conviction: He had still received assurance of
a heavenly sanction, and returned from these de-
vout supplications with more serene tranquillity and
satisfaction. That all the nations of the earth were,
in the eyes of their Creator, less than a drop of
water in the bucket; nor were their erroneous judg-
ments aught but darkness, compared with divine
illuminations. That these frequent illapses of the
divine spirit he could not suspect to be interested
illusions; since he was conscious, that for no tem-
poral advantage, would he offer injury to the poorest
inan or woman that trod upon the earth. That all.


the allurements of ambition, all the terrors of im-C HA P. • prisonment, had not been able, during the usurpa

LXIII. tion of Cromwel, to shake his steady resolution, or 1660. bend him to a compliance with that deceitful tyrant. And that when invited by him to sit on the right hand of the throne, when offered riches and splendour and dominion, he had disdainfully rejected all temptations; and neglecting the tears of his friends and family, had still, through every danger, held fast his principles and his integrity.

Scot, who was more a republican than a fanatic, had said in the house of commons, a little before the restoration, that he desired no other epitaph to be inscribed on his tomb-stone than this; Here lies Thomas Scot, who adjudged the king to death. He supported the same spirit upon his trial. ; CAREW, a Millenarian, submitted to his trial, saving to our Lord Jesus Christ his right to the government of these kingdoms. Some scrupled to say, according to form, that they would be tried by God and their country; because God was not visibly present to judge them. Others said that they would be tried by the word of God.

No more than six of the late king's judges, Harrison, Scot, Carew, Clement, Jones, and Scrope, were executed: Scrope alone, of all those who came in upon the king's proclamation. He was a gentleman of good family and of a decent character: But it was proved, that he had a little before, in conversation, expressed himself as if he were nowise convinced of any guilt in condemning the king. Axtel, who had guarded the high court of justice, Hacker, who commanded on the day of the king's execution, Coke, the solicitor for the people of England, and .. Hugh Peters, the fanatical preacher, who inflamed the army and impelled them to regicide: All these were tried, and condemned, and suffered with the king's judges. No saint or confessor ever went to martyrdom with more assured confidence of heaven


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