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ingenious and learned, and more pertinent illustration

and proof.

The Physique Sacrée of ScHEUCHZER, in eight volumes folio, is a magnificent work, with which a noble friend in Paris supplied me.

It has contributed greatly to enrich


articles. With regard to Plants, I have availed myself of the elaborate researches of HILLER in the Hierophyticon, and of Celsius in his Hierobotanicon; carefully consulting, at the same time DIOSCORIDES and the elder PLINY among the ancients, and ALPINUS, RAUWOLF, HASSELQUIST, Shaw, RussEL, FORSKAL, and others, among the moderns 6.

Mr. BRUCE, in his Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, collected specimens of natural history in Egypt, Arabia, Abyssinia, and Nubia. His celebrated work has been read with pleasure and advantage, and some extracts have been made from it. In describing the plants, birds, and beasts which he saw in his travels, he informs us that he "made it a constant rule to give the preference to such of each kind as are mentioned in Scripture, and concerning which doubts have arisen. Many learned men (says he) have employed themselves with success upon these topics, yet much remains still to do; for it has generally happened that those perfectly acquainted with the language in which the Scriptures were written have never travelled, nor seen the animals of Judea, Palestine, or Arabia; and again, such as have travelled in these countries and seen the animals in question, have been either not at all, or but superficially, acquainted with the original languages of Scripture. It has been my earnest desire to employ the advantage I possess in both these requisites to throw as much light as possible upon the doubts that have arisen. I hope I have done this freely,

6 “ The frequent recurrence of metaphorical expressions to natural objects, and particularly to plants and to trees, is so characteristic of the Hebrew poetry that it might be almost called the botanical poetry. In the Sacred Scriptures there are upwards of two hundred and fifty botanical terms; which none use so frequently as the poets.”. MICHAELIS Note upon Lowth's Lect. vi.


fairly, and candidly. « If I have at all succeeded, I have

List The Icthyologiæ Biblica of RUDBECK is a principal authority for the Fishes mentioned in Scripture; SCHEUCHZER for the SERPENTS and INSECTS; and LEMNIUS and BRAUNIUS for the MINERALS and PRECIOUS STONES.

160 Of the continuator of Calmet, particularly the volume which bears the title of “SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATED,"? considerable use has been made; but it will be found that in several places I have differed from that ingenious writ ter, who indulges sometimes in great freedom of remark, and whose criticisms are very frequently merely conjectural. My extracts were made from this work before there was any expectation that it would be reprinted in this country, and therefore I quoted with greater freedom and copied with greater copiousness; but, as it is now in circulation among us, I have cancelled some of my original extracts, lest I should be thought to have made my own work too much a compilation from that. I have endeavoured to substantiate


article which I have introduced by proofs stated with all possible clearness, and illustrate it by criticisms and explanations; yet I lay claim to no praise but that of having brought into a regular form such information as I could collect from the best and most unexceptionable sources ?. In the most unrestrained terms I acknowledge that I have borrowed from all authors of established reputation, with freedom, such materials as I could find, after having deliberately considered and impartially collated their accounts ; that, in appropriating such information as was to be collected from those writers, I have not scrupled to use their own words where they wrote in English, and to translate where in any other language: yet, though I have not been particular in giving credit for every extract, or in always using inverted commas, I have aimed to point out carefully my

authorities under every article. If an aponecessary,

I plead that of LIPSIUS, ad cap. 1. l. 1. 7. “Est benignum, et plenum ingenui pudoris, fateri per quos profiteris." Plin. Nat. Hist. præf.

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monitor polit. « Lapides et ligna ab aliis accipio, ædificii tamen extructio et forma tota nostra est. Architectus,ego sum, sed materiam varie undique conduxi. Nec arenarum sane textus ideo melior, quia ex se fila gignunt, nec noster vilior, quia ex alienis libamus ut apes. eu I have subjoined a list of the principal books which I have consulted, with a reference to the edition which I used; and would still mention that in the notes will be found references to more than twice the number in the following catalogue. In short, I have spáred neither labour nor expense in the collection of materials; and have aimed to make my work a useful and valuable treasure of information, and worthy of the approbation of the public, As it was originally undertaken with a view to general information, and designed in particular for the instruction of the less informed and the young, all technical terms have, as much as possible, been avoided, and short and natural descriptions attempted. I have aimed to make even mere verbal criticism so plain and intelligible as to be within the comprehension of common readers, and though I have been obliged to introduce those words from the original Hebrew on which my

criticisms were founded, I have taken care to give the reading in European letters, and very seldom have introduced any thing from the Greek or Latin without a translation, or so blending it in the text as to render a literal version unnecessary; and I have studied to make this least entertaining part of my work in some degree interesting even to those who have been little accustomed to such kind of disquisitions. To some of the general illustrations are added such historical facts, reflections, or reasonings as appeared calculated to render the subject more instructive and useful; and I have occasionally enlivened the dulness of mere discussion by the introduction of poetical versions or quotations; with the design of obtaining, as far as was in my power, the double object of writing a union of entertainment with utility.113

In the course of the work a new translation has been given of a great many separate passages, and some whole chapters of scripture, with remarks and illustrations correcting the errors which were the consequence of their

being misunderstood, and pointing out the precision and force, the emphasis and beauty which they derive from an accurate knowledge of the object in natural history to which they originally referred.

After all, I am aware that some articles may be found defective, and leave the inquisitive reader uninformed or unconvinced. Such defect was unavoidable, when, after the utmost research, no satisfactory information could be procured. All that I can add is, that I have availed myself of every advantage within my reach to render the whole as complete and satisfactory as possible, and now commit the work to the public, with a hope that it may be found a useful and prove an acceptable addition to those writings in which the Sacred Scriptures have been most successfully explained.

DORCHESTER, November, 1820.

* The alphabetic arrangement consists only of those names which are found in our translation of the Bible. Next is the Hebrew word; and the passages referred to are those in which the Hebrew word is found in the original. In several instances our translators have given the same English to different words in the original ; this I have noted, and made references to them at the end of the articles.





ALPINUS (Prosp.) De Plantis Ægypti. 4to. 2 tom. Lug. 1735.

ALTMAN (Geo.) De Gallicinio à Petro in Ædibus Pontificis audito. [Extat in Bibliotheca Bremensis. Cl. v. Fascic. iii. p. 451.]

ALTMAN (Geo.) Ad Locum Act. xiv. 14. de Lydiæ Thyatyrensi Observationes. Bibl. Brem. Cl. v. Fasc. iv. p. 670.]

BIEL (J. C.) De Purpura Lydiæ. [Bib. Brem. Cl. iii. Fasc. iii. p. 409.]

BIEL (J. C.) De Lignis ex Libano ad Salomonis Templum ædificandum. [Symbol. Hagano Liber. Cl. iv. par. 1.]

BOCHART (Sam.) Hierozoicon; sive de Animalibus S. Scripturæ. Recensuit suis Notis adjectis. C. F. C. ROSENMULLER. Lips. 1793. 4to. 3 tom.

BRAUNIUS (J.) Vestitus Sacerdotum Hebræorum. 4to. Amst. 1680.

BRUCE (James) Select Specimens of Natural History, collected in Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, in Egypt, Arabia, Abyssinia, and Nubia. (This is numbered as the Sixth Volume of his Travels.) 8vo. Dublin, 1790.

BRYANT (Jacob) Observations on the Plagues inflicted on the Egyptians; in which is shown the Peculiarity of those Judgments, and their Correspondence with the Rites and Idolatry of that People. 8vo. London, 1794.

CALMET (Aug.) Great Dictionary of the Bible, with Continuation, and Scripture Illustrated by means of Natural Science, in Botany, Natural History, &c.” by C. TAYLOR. 4to. 4 vols. London, 1797 -1803.

Celsius (Ol.) Hierobotanicon; sive de Plantis Sacræ Scripturæ. 8vo. 2 vols. Amst. 1748.

CocquiUS (Adr.) Phytologia Sacra; seu Historia ac Contemplatio sacra Plantarum, Arborum, et Herbarum, quarum sit Mentio in Sacra Scriptura. 4to. Ulissing. 1664.

DRUSIUS (J.) De Mandragora Tractatus. 4to.

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