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taneously 8 Dioscorides speaks of it as a finely smelling perfume; and Euripides mentions its being burnt on the altar of the gods.
STEEL. TV2173 NECHUSHAH.
Wby this should be rendered "steel" instead of copper, in our common version, I know not. It is often put as a metal distinct from iron; and in two other verses in Job [xxviii. 2; xl. 18], as well as in various other places, is rendered “ brass." See Brass, COPPER,
STORK. 777'DN CHASIDAH.
Occ. Levit. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 8; Job, xxxix. 13; Psalm, civi 17; Jer. viii. 7; Zech, v. 9.
A bird similar to the crane in size, has the same formation as to the bill, neck, legs, and body, but is rather more corpulent. The colour of the crane is ash and black; that of the stork is white and brown. The nails of its toes are also very peculiar; not being clawed like those of other birds, but flat like the nails of a man.
It has a very long beak, and long red legs. It feeds upon serpents, frogs, and insects, and on this account might be reckoned by Moses among unclean birds : as it seeks for these in watery places, nature has provided it with long legs; and as it flies away, as well as the crane and heron, to its nest with its plunder, therefore its bill is strong and jagged, the sharp hooks of which enable it to retain its slippery prey.
It has long been remarkable for its love to its parents, whom it never forsakes, but tenderly. feeds and cherishes when they have become old, and unable to provide for themselves. The very learned and judicious Bochart 89 has collected a variety of passages from the ancients, wherein they testify this curious particular, that the stork is eminent for its performance of what St. Paul enjoins 90, children's requiting their parents. Its very name in the Hebrew language, chasida, signifies mercy or piety: and its English name is taken, if not directly, yet secondarily, through the Saxon, from the Greek word storgé, which is often used in our language for natural affection.
“ The Stork's an emblem of true piety;
B8 Athenæus Deip. 1. xvii. Bazil, in Psal. iv. So Pliny, N. H. 1. xii. c. 15, speaking of the trees whence myrrh is produced, says, “ sadant autem sponte prius quam incidantur, stacten dictam, cui nulla præfertur.”
89 Hieroz. I. ij. c. 19, p. 82, V.3.
66 Ciconia etiam grata, peregrina, hospita,
The reader may find a number of testimonies to the same purport in Scheuchzer’s Physica Sacra: to which it may not be amiss to add what follows, from “ the Inspector," No. 171, a periodical paper, ascribed to that eminent naturalist, Sir John Hill. The author, after having remarked the high antiquity and continued tradition of the opinion, that young storks requite their parents by tending and supporting them when grown old, proceeds thus: Among those who have given their relation with out the ornaments or the exaggeration of poetry or fable, 'is Burcherodde, a Dane : his account is the most full and particular of all, and he appears a person of gravity and fidelity. He tells us,
he relates what he has seen. • Storks build (says he) in the prefecture of Eyderstede, in the southern part of Jutland: and men may be taught by looking upon them. They are large birds, like herons, of a white colour, with black wings and red feet, In a retired part of Eyderstede, some leagues from Toningen, towards the German sea, there are clusters of trees. Among these they build ; and if any creature comes near them in the nesting season, which lasts near three months, they go out in a body to attack it. The peasants never hụrt them, and they are in no fear of them.
“The two parents guard and feed each brood, one always remaining on it, while the other goes for food. They keep the young ones much longer in the nest than any other bird, and after they have led them out of it by day, they bring them back at night; preserving it as their natural and proper home.
“W ben they first take out the young, they practise them to fly; and they lead them to the marshes and to the hedge-sides, pointing them out the frogs, and serpents, and lizards, which are their proper food : and they seek out toads, which they never eat 91, and take great pains to make the young distinguish them. In the end of autumn, not being able to bear the winter of Denmark, they gather in a great body about the sea coasts, as we see swallows do, and go off together: the old ones leading the young ones in the centre, and a second body of the old behind. They return in spring, and betake themselves in families to their several nests. The people of Toningen, and the neighbouring coasts gather together to see them come; for they are superstitious, and form certain presages from the manner of their flight.
At this time it is not uncommon to see several of the old birds, which are tired and feeble with the long flight, supported at times on the backs of the young : and the peasants speak of it as a certainty, that many of these are, when they return to their home, laid carefully in the old nests, and cherished by the young ones which they reared with so much care the spring before.
“ If the account this gentleman gives be singular (says Sir 9 This circumstance is countenanced by Linnæus, who, mentioning the food of the stork, expressly says, that though they eat frogs, they avoid toads.
John), it is in no part unnatural. We see innumerable instances of what we call instinct; and who shall-say that this is too great for credit. Who sball lay down the laws to determine where the gifts of a Creator to his creatures shall stop, or how they shall be limited ?"
The word 177'on chasida, says Mr. Merrick, in his Commentary on Psalm civ. 17, is variously rendered by the ancient interpreters: but Bochart observes, that the bird called by this name appears from Scripture to be a bird of passage ; a circumstance which belongs to none of the birds which the ancient versions suppose to be thus named, except the kite 92 and the stork. Professor Michaelis 93
says, that the word is generally translated the stork; but adds, that this translation is founded on the authority of the Jews of the tenth century, and on that of the illustrious author of the Hierozoicon: but these writers themselves, says he, have been led by an arbitrary etymology to this interpretation, which is not, perhaps, to be met with in any of the ancient versions. To which we may answer, that this interpretation is certainly of earlier date than the tenth century; since Olympiodorus, in his commentary on Job (a work old enough to be mentioned by Anastasius Sinaita, who lived about the year 68094), mentions, though with disapprobation, some interpreters who affirmed the chasida to be the stork 95. M. Michaelis thinks that this text of the Psalms, as for the stork the fir-trees are her house, makes against the stork; as though it be true that this bird sometimes builds on trees, yet it generally chooses to build on the tops of houses. Yet the same learned gentleman very judiciously proposes, that it be inquired whether, as in the eastern countries, the roofs of houses are fat and inhabited, this very circumstance may not oblige them to build elsewhere. The following passage from Dr. Shaw's Travels 96 may, at first, seem to determine the question. “ The storks breed plentifully in Barbary every summer. They make their nests with dry twigs of trees, which they place upon the highest parts of old ruins or houses, in the canals of ancient aquæducts, and frequently (so familiar are they by being never molested) upon the very tops of their
mosques and dwelling-houses. The fir and other trees, when these are wanting, are a dwelling for the stork.” Here we see the storks building their nests upon the tops of the eastern houses : but, as Dr. Shaw has just before informed us, that the Mahometans account it profane to kill, or even hurt or molest them (to which we may add, from Hasselquist97, that those persons among the Turks who own a house where storks have bested, are supposed to receive great blessings from heaven and to be free from all misfortunes), their access to the roofs is free 92 The exlivos.
93 Recueil des Quest. p. 411. 94 See Fabricius Biblioth. Gr. 95 Bochart, Hieroz. p. ii. I. 2, c. 28, sec. 3. 96 Travels, p. 411, ed. 4to.
97 Travels into the East, p. 32.
and undisturbed; which might not be the case in Judea, where no such supposition appears to have prevailed. That they sometimes build on trees is allowed by M, Michaelis himself, and confirmed by J.H. Michaelis in his cominentary on the Psalms 98. It may be still more to our purpose to observe, that Olympiodorus (who cannot well be supposed to have borrowed the idea from this psalm, as he does not allow the chasida to be the stork) affirms, in the place above referred to, that the stork lays its eggs, not on the ground, but on high trees. Bochart quotes also an Arabic writer, who says of this bird, it builds its nest in some very lofty place, either on the top of a tower or tree 99. A passage which he quotes from Varro, as it distinguishes the stork's manner of building from that of the swallow, seems greatly to favour our interpretation. Aldrovandus affirms of the black stork, that they are wont to make their nest on trees, particularly on fir-trees?. And Strahlenberg speaks of storks 3 that frequent great forests. The word agyst, continues Mr. Merrick, which he mentions as the Russian name of one kind of stork; does not seem so remote from the Hebrew name, but that it might possibly be derived from it, and may, on inquiry, lead to the discovery of some other name of that bird in languages akin to the Russian, which approach still nearer to it.
Besides, the Psalmist does not say that the CHASIDAH makes its nest on the fir-trees, but that the fir-trees are its house; which may mean no more (to borrow the expression of Mr. Harmer, Obs. V. iv. p. 175) than that “there they rest, there they sleep, after the wanderings of the day are over.” And Doubdan, as çited by the same author, positively affirms, that the prodigiously numerous storks which he saw between Cana and Nazareth, in Palestine, did “in the evening rest on trees,” that is, they roosted there. Jackson, in his Account of Morocco, p. 64, says, “they are considered as sacred birds, and it is sacrilegious to kill one; for, besides being of the greatest utility in destroying serpents and other noxious reptiles, they are also emblematical of faith and conjugal affection, and on that account held in the highest estimation. They build their nests, which are curious, on the top of some old tower or castle, or on the terraces of uninhabited houses, where they constantly watch their young, exposed to the scorching rays of the sun. They will not suffer any one to approach their nests.' I have already remarked that it is a bird of passage.
98 “ Sic ipsemet in Germania non uno loco nidulantes ciconias in altis et sæpius aridis quercubus vidi.”
99 “Neque nidum sumit nisi in loco celso, puta in pharo, aut in arbore.”
* Advenæ volucres pullos facient, in agro ciconiæ, in tacto birundines.” Varro, de re rustica, 1. iii. c. 5.
"in arboribus nidulari, presertim in abietibus.” Descrip. of the N. and E. parts of Europe and Asia, p. 447.
spoken of as such in Scripture. Jer, viii. 7,“ the stork'knoweth her appointed time,” &c.
“ Who bid the stork, Columbus like, explore
Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way?" Pore. Bochart has collected testimonies of the migration of storks. Ælian, I. iii. c. 13, says, that in summer time they remain stationary, but at the close of autumn they repair to Egypt, Libya, and Ethiopia. “For about the space of a fortnight before they pass from one country to another (says Dr. Shaw), they constantly resort together, from all the adjacent parts, in a certain plain; and there forming themselves, once every day, into a douwanne, or council (according to the phrase of these eastern nations), are said to determine the exact time of their departure, and the place of their future abodes."
These particulars are thus recited by " the Poet of the Seasons :
“ The stork-assembly meets ; for many a day
The aerial billows, mixes with the clouds." THOMSON.
“ Part loosely wing the region, part, more wise,
Easing their flight.”
Our translators of the bible have given this name to two different Hebrew words. The first, 1977 DEROR, in Psalm lxxxiv. 3, and Prov. xxvi. 2, is probably the bird which Forskal mentions among the migratory birds of Alexandria, by the name of DURURi; and the second, 791 ogur, Isai. xxxviii. 14, and Jer. viii. 7, is the crane: but the word DID sis, in the two last places rendered in our version, “ crane,” is really the Swallow. So the Septuagint, Vulgate, and two ancient manuscripts, Theodotion and Jerom render it; and Bochart and Lowth follow them. Bochart assigns the note of this bird, for the reason of its name, and ingeniously remarks, that the Italians about Venice, call a swallow," zizalla," and its twittering, “ zizillare.”
“Regulus, atque merops, et rubro pectore Progne,