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than stones or lead, but not so lasting: for he wishes in the first place for a book 790 SEPHER, to write his words in. But as if that was not sufficient, or like to be durable enough, he wants farther, an iron or stone style to engrave them on a rock." The reader


also find in Harmer's Obs. v. ii. p. 149, some curious observations upon this obscure passage. I am myself inclined to believe that if lead be intended by the nay, its use might have been for a MALLET to drive the iron chisel, so as to make an inscription upon the rock. The word signifies something heavy. Comp. Exod. xv. 10. In Zech. v. 8, we meet with “ the stone of Ophereth," or of hardness, from the Arabic word aphar, hard, heavy.

In Jerem. vi. 29, we have a reference to the use of lead in refining metals. Before the use of quicksilver was known, lead was used to separate silver from the other substances mixed with it. So we learn from Pliny, N. H. 1. xxxiii. c. 31, “ Escoque (argentum) non potest nisi cum plumbo nigro, aut cum vena plumbi.” Silver cannot be refined or separated, but with lead, or lead ore. And long before him, Theognis (who was born about the middle of the sixth century before Christ, and consequently lived in the time of Cyrus the Great), in his Ivanau, v. 1101, mentions it as then used in the refining of gold.

Εις βασανoν δ' ελθων, παρατριβομενος τε μολιάδω

Χρυσος απεφθος εων, καλος απασιν εση. But coming to the test, or furnace, and ground with lead, and then being refined gold, you will be approved of all.

The severity of God's judgments, and the fiery trial of his servants, Ezekiel (in ch. xxii. 17–22), has set forth at large, with great boldness of imagery and force of expression. “Moreover, the word of Jehovah came to me saying, Son of man, the house of Israel is become unto me as dross, all of them are as copper, and tin, and iron, and lead, in the midst of the furnace they are as the dross of silver. Therefore, thus saith the Lord Jehovah, because ye are all of you become dross, therefore, lo, I will gather you into the midst of Jerusalem, as men gather silver, and copper, and iron, and lead, and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon them, to melt them, so will I gather you in mine anger, and I will blow upon you, and melt you, yea I will collect

you and blow upon you with the fire of my wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof, as silver is melted in the midst of the furnace 7." Malachi, ch. iii. 2, 3, treats the same event under the like images.

Lead is mentioned three times in our translation of the book of Ecclesiasticus, ch. xxii. 14. " What is heavier than lead

?.On the discovery and art of working metals among the ancients, much curious information will be found in Goguet's Origin of Laws, Arts, &c. v. i. p. 140, book ii. ch. iv.

[MOATBAON]; and what is more burthensome than a fool?” Ch. xxxviii. 30,“ The potter fashioneth the clay with his arm, he applieth himself to lead it over;" in the original elç TO OUVTENEREOCLI TO Xgioule, to polish over the vessel. And xlvii. 18, “Thou didst gather gold as tin, and didst multiply silver as lead,” polubov. Which is a reference to i Kings, x. 27, “ He made silver to be in Jerusalem as stones.”


In Numb. xi. 5, translated “ leek.” In 1 Kings, xviii. 5; 2 Kings, xix. 26; Job, xl. 15; Psalm xxxvii. 2; xc. 5; ciii. 15; civ. 14; cxxix. 6; cxlvii. 8; and Isai. xxv. 7; xxxvii. 27; and xl. 6, it is rendered “ grass." In Job, viii. 12, “ herb." In Prov. xxvii. 25, and Isai. xv. 6, “hay.” And in Isaiah, xxxiv. 13, “a court.”

A plant with a bulbous root. It is much of the same nature with the onion. The kind called karrat by the Arabians (the “ allium porrum” of Linnæus), Hasselquist says, must certainly have been one of those desired by the children of Israel; as it has been cultivated and esteemed from the earliest times to the present in Egypt. The inhabitants are very fond of eating it raw, as sauce for their roasted meat; and the poor people eat it raw with their bread, especially for breakfast.

There is reason, however, to doubt whether this plant is intended in Numbers, xi. 5, and so differently rendered every where else. It should rather intend such vegetables as grow promiscuously with grass. Ludolphus supposes that it may mean lettuce and sallads in general 8: and Maillet observes, that the succory and endive are eaten with great relish by the people in Egypt. Some, or all of these, may be meant.

Occ. Gen. xxv. 34; 2 Sam. xvii. 28; xxiii. 11; and Ezek.

iv. 9.

A sort of pulse; in the Septuagint Danos, and Vulgate lens. The lentils of Egypt were very much esteemed among the ancients. St. Austin says “they grow abundantly in Egypt; are much used as a food there; and those of Alexandria are considered particularly valuable.” [In Psalm xlvi.] Dr. Shaw, Trav. p. 140, 4to. ed. says, “ Beans, lentils, kidney beans, and garvancos are the chiefest of their pulse kind. Beans, when boiled and stewed with oil and garlic, are the principal food of persons of all distinctions. Lentils are dressed in the same manner as beans, dissolving easily into a mass, and making a pottage of a chocolate colour. This we find was the red pottage, which Esau, from thence called Edom, exchanged for his birthright.”

Occ. Cantic. iv. 8; Isai. xi. 6; Jer. 5, 6; xii. 23; Hosea,

8 In Append. ji. ad. Hist. Æthiop. p. 27.

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xiii. 7; Hab. i. 8; and Dan. vii. 6. IIAPAANIE, Rev. xiii. 2, and Ecclesiasticus, xxviii. 23.

There can be no doubt that the pard or leopard is the ani. mal mentioned. Bochart shows that the name is similar in the Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic. The LXX uniformly render it by tapdalis; and Jerome, “ pardus.”

The leopard is a beast of prey; usually in height and magnitude, equal to a large butcher's dog. Its shape is like a cat's, and its skin is beautifully spotted. Fierce, savage, and incapable of being tamed, he attacks all sorts of animals, nor is man himself exempted from his fury. In this circumstance, he differs from the lion and the tiger, unless they are provoked by hunger, or by assault. His eyes are lively and continually in motion; his aspect is cruel, and expressive of nothing but mischief. His ears are round, short, and always strait. His neck is thick. His feet are large; the fore ones have five toes, the hind but four; and both are armed with strong and pointed claws: he closes them like the fingers of the hand, and with them he tears his prey as well as with the teeth. Though he is exceedingly carnivorous, and devours great quantities of food, he is nevertheless gaunt. He is very prolific; but having for his enemy the panther and the tiger, who are more strong and alert than himself, great numbers of his species are destroyed by them.

Probably these animals were numerous in Palestine; as we find places with a name intimating their having been the haunts of Leopards. Nimrah, Numb. xxxii. 3; Beth-Nimrah, v. 36; and Josh. xiii. 27; and “waters of Nimrah," Isai. xv. 6; and Jerem. xlviii. 34, and “mountains of leopards,” Cantic. iv. 8. Nimrod might have his name from this animal. mighty hunter before the Lord; wherefore it is said, even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord;" Gen. x. 9. It is supposed, however, that his predations were not confined to the brute creation. Dr. Geddes remarks, that the word “hunter” expresses too little. He was a freebooter in the worst sense of the word; a lawless despot.

“ Proud Nimrod first the bloody chase began,

A mighty hunter--and his prey was man.” Isaiah, describing the happy state of the reign of Messiah, ch. xi. 6, says, “ the leopard shall lie down with the kid.” animals shall loose their fierceness and cruelty, and become gentle and tame.

Jeremiah, v. 6, mentions the artful ambuscades of this animal; and in ch. xiii. 23, alludes to his spots : "Can a Cushite change his skin, or a leopard his spots ? Then may ye prevail with them to do good who are habituated to do evil;" and Habakkuk, i. 8, refers to its alertness.

Voyages de Desmarchais, tom. i. p. 202.

« He was a



Occ. Job, iii. 8; xli. 1; Psal. Ixxiv. 14; civ. 26; Isai. xxvii. 1.

The old commentators concurred in regarding the whale as the animal here intended 10. Beza and Diodati were among the first to interpret it the crocodile; and Bochart has since supported this last rendering with a train of argument which has nearly overwhelmed all opposition, and brought almost every commentator over to his opinion 11. It is very certain that it could not be the whale, which does not inhabit the Mediterranean, much less the rivers that empty themselves into it; nor will the characteristics at all apply to the whale. “The crocodile, on the contrary, is a natural inhabitant of the Nile, and other Asiatic and African rivers; of enormous voracity and strength as well as fleetness in swimming; attacks mankind and the largest animals with most daring impetuosity; when taken by means of a powerful net, will often overturn the boats that surround it; has, proportionally, the largest mouth of all monsters whatever; moves both its jaws equally, the upper of which has not less than forty, and the lower than thirty-eight sharp, but strong and massy

and is furnished with a coat of mail, so scaly and callous as to resist the force of a musket ball in every part, except under the belly. Indeed, to this animal the general character of the leviathan seems so well to apply that it is unnecessary to seek farther 12"

Mr. Vansittart observes, that “the main proof that the leviathan is the crocodile of the Nile, arises chiefly from some particular circumstances and contingencies attending the crocodiles of Egypt, and of no other country: and if these circumstances are such, that we can suppose the Hebrew writer drew his ideas from them in his description of Leviathan, they will afford an almost certainty that leviathan represents the crocodile of the Nile.”. He then proceeds by quoting a passage from Herodotus, where the historian describes that animal, and relates the peculiarities attendant upon him in parts of Egypt; remarking,

10 Theod. Hasseus, in a very ingenious work, “ Disquisitio de Leviathane Jobi et Cæto Jonæ,” Brem. 1723, attempts to prove that the Leviathan is the Orcus of Pliny, the Physeter macrocophalus, or Delphinus rostro sursum repando, of Linnæus. The learned Schultens, in his Commentary upon this chapter of Job, contends that the animal is the dragon or serpent, of a monstrous size, &c. Wesley on Job, quotes Cartwright as affirming, “ Antiquorum plerique tum per Behemoth, tum per Leviathan Diabolum intelligunt." Mercer says, " Nostri collegerunt hanc descriptionem Leviathanis ad Satanam pertinere.”. And, “ Multa in Leviathanis descriptione nulli alii quam Diabolo, aut saltein non adeo proprie congruunt.”

11 Bochart, Hieroz. tom. iii. p. 737—774. ed Rozenmuller. See also Sceuchzer, Phys. Sacr. Chapellow, Heath, Scott, and Good, and more particularly, “Remarks, Critical and Philological, on Leviathan, described in the 41st chapter of Job,” by Rev. W. Vansittart, Oxf. 1810.

12 “ The Book of Job literally translated,” &c. by J. M. Good, 8vo. Lond. 1812, p. 479.


that “ some of the Egyptians hold the crocodile sacred, particularly the inhabitants of Thebes, and others bordering upon the lake Moeris, who breed up a single crocodile, adorn him with rings and bracelets, feed him with the sacred food appointed for him, and treat him with the most honourable distinction.” With much ingenuity, he proceeds to illustrate this description in the book of Job, and to consider it as strongly indicating the peculiarities of the Thebaid crocodile. It would occupy too much room to detail his remarks: some of them will be inserted in the course of the following comment; but he states this as the result of the whole. “The chapter introduces two speakers in the shape of dialogue, one of whom questions the other in regard to such and such circumstances relating to leviathan; and this continues till the twelfth verse; at which the description of leviathan com

The dialogue is professed to be between the Almighty Jehovah and his servant Job. But whether it is Jehovah himself, or some one representing him, is not to be inquired in this place. As it is, the person appears extremely well acquainted with the crocodile, as he does also with the other animals de. scribed in the 39th and 40th chapters. The other person of the dialogue appears to be one well knowing the worship paid to the crocodile: and the eleven first verses are an exposure of the folly of making an animal of a savage nature, and one whose head could be pierced with fishhooks, a God. Of these eleven verses, the six first appear to relate to the mode of treatment received by the crocodile in the places where he was worshiped; the remaining five to his treatment at Tentyra, and wherever he was considered as a destructive animal. At the twelfth verse the description of leviathan commences, and is divided into three parts, and classed under the different heads of (1.) y his parts; (2.) 717122 727 great might; (3.) 1379.17 his well-armed make. Of these the first and the third describe him as truly as a naturalist would do. The second or middle part magnifies him as a god. If then, this second part be in honour of the crocodile as god, then the person speaking it must be either an inhabitant of Egypt, a worshipper of that animal, or one well acquainted at least with his worship:” or, perhaps, the whole chapter may be altogether an argument, founded on the idolatrous homage paid to this creature.

I cannot say that I am convinced by the reasonings and inferences of Mr. Vansittart, though I consider them as entitled to much consideration. Under the article “ DRAGON," I have adduced authorities to show that the yn rhan is the Crocodile ; if 80, 95 LEVI, must mean some characteristic.

In the article just referred to, it is suggested that it may mean “jointed,' or lengthened out:" Parkhurst says, “coupled;" it may also

tied,and “ associated.In this latter sense it may


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