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ern army at Saratoga, ib.; distin-
guished in the southern campaign,
Ladies, American, patriotism of, 86; in
camp at Valley Forge, 239; daugh-
ters of loyalists at the Mischianza,
Of Fairfield, Connecticut, outrages on,
by Governor Tryon, 273; patriot-
ism and exertions of, 296.
La Fayette, Marquis, offers his services
to Congress; is accepted, and ap-
pointed major-general in the Conti-
nental army, 217; meets Washing-
ton in Philadelphia, and becomes a
member of his military family, ib.;
is wounded at the battle of Brandy-
wine, 218; his fidelity to Washing-
ton, 240; commands a detachment
of the army in Pennsylvania, 246;
his skilful manœuvre when attacked,
ib.; leads the advance troops at the
battle of Monmouth, 247; commands
a detachment sent to Rhode Island,
249; challenges Earl Carlisle, one
of the British commissioners, for
insulting language used towards
France, 250; makes a visit to
France, 261; success of his mission,
and return to America, 296; receives
the thanks of Congress, ib.; dis-
patched by Washington to Virginia,
314; his skilful manœuvres against
the British, 322-323.
Laurens, Henry, President of Congress;
publication, in Rivington's Royal
Gazette, of a letter alleged to have
been written by him, but supposed
to have been forged, and intercepted
by the enemy, 285; effects of, on
the public mind, ib.; appointed min-
ister to Holland, and captured by
the British, 309; released on bail,
and afterwards exchanged for Gen.
life of, 476.
Laurens, John, appointed special commis-
sioner to France; obtains financial
aid for the United States, 313; is
killed in an action in South Caro-
Lee, General Charles, military operations
of, at New York, 183; repairs to
South Carolina, and defends Charles-
ton, 184; commands part of the
army at White Plains, 201; ordered
to New Jersey, 202; is surprised
and taken prisoner, ib.; British re-
fuse to exchange him, 216; ex-
changed for Gen. Prescott, and com-
mands a detachment of the army,
246; his conduct at the battle of
Monmouth, 247; quarrels with!
Washington, and addresses him two
offensive letters, ib.; arrested, tried,
and suspended from command, ib.;
leaves the service, and dies at Phila-
Major (afterwards Colonel), cap-
tures fort at Paulus' Hook, 276; ex-
ploit and stratagem with Colonel
Pyle in North Carolina, 318; joins
Gen. Marion, and captures several
Lee, Richard Henry, life of, 479.
Letter of St. Pierre; its tone, 33.
Of Lord Hillsborough to the colonies,
Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer, 74.
Of Hutchinson and Oliver, exposed by
Of instructions to colonial agents in
England, from Congress, 132.
Of Admiral Howe, 192, 193.
Letter of General Putnam to Governor
Tryon relative to a spy taken by
the Americans, 216.
Lexington, battle of, 145; effects of, on
the people of the colonies, 147-149.
Liberty, Sons of, societies so called form- ·
ed in the colonies, 66.
Liberty, sloop, seized at Boston, 75.
Poles erected in the colonies, 96.
“Liberty or Death," patriotic phrase ori-
ginated with Patrick Henry, 152.
Lighthouses, beacons, &c., 668.
Lincoln, General, surprised by Lord
Cornwallis, at Boundbrook, New
Jersey, and retreats, 212; joins
General Gates at Saratoga, 226; is
included in the vote of thanks by
Congress, 232; takes command of
the army at the South, 267; en-
camps on the Savannah river, 268;
strength of his army in April, 1779,
269; marches to attack Savannah,
ib.; apprised of the march of Gen.
Prevost, with the British army; he
moves towards Charleston, attacks
a division at Stony Ferry, and is
repulsed, 270; prepares for defence
of Charleston, 288; refuses to sur-
render to the British fleet and
army, and they open a destructive
fire upon the town, 289; the British
prepare for an assault, and the
American general and army sur-
render prisoners of war, 290; ex-
changed for Gen. Phillips, 309.
London, City of, takes sides with the
colonies, 143; petitions the king in
their favor, ib.; rebuked by the
Long Island, landing of British troops at,
193; battle of, 194; defeat of the
Americans, 195; retreat of the Con-
tinental army, ib.; destruction of
British vessels and stores at Sag
Harbor by Col. Meigs, 214; Major
Tallmadge's expedition against Fort
Loudon, Lord, appointed British com-
mander-in-chief in America, 38; re-
Louisburg, its cost, English expedition
against it, flight of the French from
it, its surrender, 29; English at-
tempt to capture it, 39.
Lovell's expedition to the Penobscot de-
feated by the British under Sir
George Collier, 276.
Loyalists (see Tories).
Madison, James (vol. ii.), his early days,
173; debates on the constitution,
174; his letter to Washington on
the subject, 175; is elected member
of the new Congress, 176; his mar-
riage, 176; his papers on foreign
commerce, 177; is appointed secre-
tary of state, ib.; his retirement
from public life, 178; his death, ib.;
administration of, inaugurated, 179;
the non-intercourse act modified,
ib.; declaration of war 1812, 181;
commercial controversy with Great
Britain, 182; Louisiana admitted
into the Union, 183; Henry Clay
elected speaker of the House of
Representatives, 184; augmentation
of the army, 185; John Henry, the
British spy, 188; his mission to
England, and its failure, 189; im-
portant acts regulating commerce
and internal affairs, 191; declara-
tion of war with England, ib.; re-
election as President, 194; conven-
tion of the Federalists, 195; repeal
of the orders in council, 195; mili-
tary and naval engagements, 198;
direct negotiations for peace, 200;
Gallatin, secretary of treasury,
201; commercial difficulties, 204;
the "Hartford Convention," 207;
meeting of the commissioners at
Ghent, 209; rejection of their pro-
posals, 210; action of Congress re-
specting militia, 211; cost of the
war, 213; miscellaneous acts of Con-
gress, 217; survey of the public
McCrea, Miss, murder of, by Indians, 223.
McKean, Thomas, life of, 478.
Marion, Gen., a partisan leader, wounded
at the siege of Charleston, 294;
performs signal services in the cam-
paigns at the South, ib.; joined by
Lee; they capture Fort Watson,
Fort Motto, and Fort Granby, 319;
Georgetown, 320; exploits and an-
ecdotes of, ib.
Massachusetts, Colonial Assembly of, in-
vite a congress at New York in
1765, 62; take a bold stand against
acts of Parliament respecting taxa-
tion, 74; Assembly dissolved by the
governor, 75; provincial conven-
tion formed, 77; people and legisla
ture declared guilty of treasonable
acts by Parliament, 79; charter
altered by act of Parliament, 111;
action of General Assembly, 117,
118; secret conference of members,
ib.; recommend a general Congress,
ib.; appoint delegates, and are dis-
solved by the governor, ib.; "Sol-
emn League and Covenant" adopted,
ib.; denounced by General Gage,
119; state of public feeling in 1774,
120; people prepare for war, 110;
Provincial Congress formed, 122;
their resolutions, ib.; Assembly re-
solve themselves into a Provincial
Congress, 130; enroll militia as
minute men, 131; resolve to pur-
chase munitions of war, 144; ad-
dress the English people on the
battle of Lexington, 147; organize
an army, ib.; issue paper money,
Mecklenburg, Declaration of Independ
ence at, May, 1775, 149.
Meigs, Colonel, gallant expedition of, to
Long Island, 214; Congress pre-
sents him with a sword, ib.
Mercer, General, killed at the battle of
Middleton, Henry, life of, 475.
Mifflin, Thomas, life of, 479.
Military Divisions, 642.
Military Establishments, 618.
Military Force of the United States, 645.
Ministers of the United States to foreign
countries from 1789 to 1854, 560-
Ministers from France to the United
States, 248, 283.
Ministers to Great Britain and Spain
appointed by Congress, 283; to Hol-
Mint, the, at Philadelphia, 671.
Minute-men enrolled in New England,
Mischianza, entertainment given to Gen.
Howe and Admiral Howe, at Phila-
delphia, on taking leave, description
Monmouth, battle of, 247.
Monroe, James (vol. ii.), his birth and
parentage, 223; his early military
services, 224; is member of legisla-
tive councils of Virginia, ib.; changes
in articles of confederacy, 225;
elected governor of Virginia, 227;
measures for restoring public credit,
229; survey of canals and roads,
229; elected President, ib.; re-
elected President, 230; his death,
ib.; administration of, Jackson's
letter to, 235; repeal of domestic
duties, 237; internal improvements,
238; treaty with Sweden, 239;
Alabama formed into a State, 240;
convention with Great Britain, 240;
commercial treaty with France, 248.
Montcalm, commander of the French
force in Canada-crosses Lake Erie
with 5,000 men-captures Fort On-
tario at Oswego-returns to Canada
-collects his force at Ticonderoga
-captures Fort William Henry, 39;
defends Ticonderoga-siege raised,
41; prepares to attack the British,
44; his death at Quebec, 45.
Montgomery, General, commands expe-
dition to Canada, 165; captures
Fort Chambly, 166; St. John's, ib.;
Montreal, ib.; joins Arnold, and at-
tacks Quebec, 168; is killed, and
his army defeated, ib.
Montreal, defended by De Callières, 28;
surrendered to the English, 46;
taken by the Americans under
Morgan, General, defeats the British at
the Cowpens, 315; receives a medal
from Congress, 316.
Morris, Robert, Treasurer of the United
States his important financial op-
erations and patriotic services, 313.
Morristown, N. J., Continental troops en-
camp at, 211, 282.
Mutiny of the Pennsylvania and New
Jersey troops, in 1781, quelled by
Washington and Wayne, 312, 313.
National Armories, 641.
National Observatory, the, 694.
Naval Academy at Annapolis, 657.
Naval Asylum, Philadelphia, 655.
Naval battle on Lake Champlain, 205.
Naval Establishment, 645
Naval Hospitals, 656.
Navy, American, commencement of, 181;
condition and operations of, 254,
255; action between the American
ship Randolph and British ship Yar-
mouth, and destruction of the former,
255; operations of Paul Jones, ib.;
notice of various operations, 329.
Navy, British, strength of, in 1778, 254.
Navy Department, the, 691.
Navy-yards of the United States, 651.
New Haven, Conn., entered by the British
under Tryon, 273; after various out-
rages, the enemy retire, without
burning the town, ib.
New Jersey, patriotic proceedings of the
people, 149; overrun by British
troops, 200; by the American army,
211; evacuated by the British, 215.
New London, Conn., attack of, intended
by Sir Henry Clinton, prevented by
a storm, 263; again threatened by
Governor Tryon, but saved by his
recall, 273; burned by Arnold, 324.
Newport, RI, siege of, by the Ameri-
cans, 249; abandonment of the siege,
and retreat of Gen. Sullivan, ib.
York, committee of the Assembly
of, propose a Colonial Congress in
1765, 62; violent opposition to the
Stamp Act by the people-mobs
and riots, 65; Assembly refuse to
enforce Mutiny Act, 72; prohibited
by act of Parliament from passing
laws, until obedient to the Mutiny
Act, 78; people of, send remon-
strance to Parliament against taxa-
tion, 80; violate non-importation
agreements, 95; tea not permitted
to be landed, 105; Assembly refuse
to appoint delegates to the Congress
of 1774, 124; delegates appointed
by town meetings, ib.; refuses to
adopt the resolution of Congress
respecting commerce, 129; makes
common cause with the colonies
after the battle of Lexington, 148;
many of the people royalists, 170;
Tryon, royal governor, ib.; Riving-
ton's (tory) press destroyed, 171;
Continental army under Washing-
ton arrive at, 183; statue of George
III. destroyed, 188; evacuated by
the American army, 198; British
army takes possession, ib.; great
fire destroys about one-third of the
New York Navy-yard, 653.
New York Custom-house, 667.
Non-Importation Agreement, adopted,
66, 74, 78; effects of, in England,
North Carolina, early movements in,
against British authority, 97; or-
ganization of the Regulators, ib.;
action of the Regulators with Brit-
ish troops in 1771, 98; movements
of the people in 1775, 149; Provin-
cial Congress convened, ib.; Com-
mittees of Safety appointed, ib.;
independence declared at Mecklen-
burg, ib.; military operations in,
183; campaign in 1780, 77, 315-
North, Lord, proposes to reject the New
York remonstrance, 80; moves in
Parliament for repeal of duties in
part, retaining the tax on tea, 94;
proposes to make governors and
judges of the colonies independent
of the people, 100; offers a resolu-
tion in Parliament permitting the
export of tea to America free of
export duty, 102; other measures
proposed by him, 109, 111, 112;
proposes further coercive measures,
140, 141, 174; introduces a concilia-
tory plan, 142; makes concessions
in favor of America, 242; moves an
address to the King on the treaty
between France and America, 259;
resigns after the battle of York-Peekskill, capture of military stores at,
town, and other disasters in Ameri-
Peace, of 1697, between England and
France, 28; of Utrecht, and its
terms, thirty years between Eng-
land and France, 29; treaty of Aix-
la-Chapelle, 30; treaty of Paris, 46;
people of England anxious for, in
1782, 333; preliminary negotiations
for a general peace in Europe and
America, 334; treaty of, signed and
Penitentiary and Hospital for Insane,
Norwalk (Conn.), burned by Governor Penn, William, heirs of, protest against
Ohio Company, its character-grant from
the crown-French jealousy of it-
appeal to Virginia for protection,
31; send around men to erect a
fort-secure aid from Virginia and
Carolina-their fort destroyed, 33.
Oliver, Andrew, stamp-master at Boston,
attacked by a mob, and burned in
effigy, 64; resigns his office, 65;
his letters exposed by Dr. Franklin,
101; Assembly of Massachusetts pe-
tition for his removal as lieutenant-
Oliver, Peter, chief-justice of Massachu-
setts (brother of Andrew), replies to
the queries of the Assembly, who
demand his removal from office,
115; the governor refuses to re-
move him, and the Assembly re-
solve to impeach the chief-justice,
Otis, James, member of the Congress of
1765, 64; one of a committee to
wait on Governor Bernard, 76.
Paine, Thomas, secretary of Congress
for foreign affairs, 284; makes
charges against Silas Deane, ib.;
cited to appear at the bar of Con-
gress, ib.; resigns his office, ib.
Paoli, battle of, 219.
Paper money issued by Massachusetts
Provincial Congress, 147; by Conti-
nental Congress, 157, 266; depreci-
ation of, 266.
Parker, Admiral, arrives off the coast of
Carolina, 183; his unsuccessful at-
tack on the fort near Charleston,
184; takes Rhode Island, 204.
Party names applied in the colonies,
130; spirit in the Continental Con-
Pay, &c., of army officers, 644.
of the navy, 659.
Paulus' Hook, fort at, captured by
Americans under Major Lee of
the Canada Boundary bill, 115.
Pennsylvania Convention appoints dele-
gates to Congress with instructions
Penobscot, failure of Gen. Lovell's expe-
dition to, 276.
Pensacola Navy-yard, 654.
Philadelphia, citizens of, oppose Stamp
Act, 67, 68; tea not permitted to
be landed, 105; British army under
Gen. Howe take possession of, 219;
conduct of British troops at, 245,
246; departure of Gen. Howe, and
fête given him by his officers, 245;
Sir Henry Clinton takes command,
ib.; British army evacuate the city,
246; American army, under Gen.
Arnold, take possession, ib.
Philadelphia Navy-yard, 653.
Phillips, General, taken prisoner at the
surrender of Burgoyne-exchanged
for Gen. Lincoln, 309; sent by Clin-
ton to join Arnold in Virginia, 314;
their joint operations, ib.; his death
at Petersburg, 322.
Pierce, Franklin (vol. ii.), biographical
sketch of, 627; member of Congress,
635; military services in Mexico,
645-648; election to the Presidency,
651; inauguration, 652.
Pitt, William, made prime minister,
40; contemplates the conquest of
Canada-assigns an active part to
Wolfe, 41; his course on the Stamp
Act, 56; takes the part of the
Americans, 68; replies to Grenville,
69; proposes a repeal of the Stamp
Act, ib.; created Earl of Chatham,
72; curious cabinet formed by him,
ib. (See Chatham.)
Polk, James K. (vol. ii.), early life of, 501;
representative to Congress, 503; re-
elected member of Congress, 505;
chosen Speaker of House of Repre-
sentatives, 505; governor of Ten-
nessee, 507; elected President, 508
administration of, 511; inaugura
ceremonies, 511; annexation of
Texas, 513; difficulties between the
United States and Mexico, 514;
declaration of war with Mexico, 517;
settlement of the Northwestern
Boundary question, 518; review of
his administration, 528.
Population of the United States for fifty
Portsmouth Navy-yard, 652.
Post Office, the, 614.
Post-Office Department at Washington,
Predatory expeditions of the British,
232, 233, 249, 271, 272.
Prescott, Col., commands Americans at
Bunker Hill, 159.
Prescott, Major-General, of the British
army, captured at Rhode Island by
Colonel Barton, 216; exchanged for
General Lee, 246.
President's House, the, 688.
Presidents of the Continental Congress,
Presidents and Vice-Presidents, votes for,
from 1789 to 1849, 547.
Presidents of the Senate, 556.
Prevost, General, commands the British
army at the South 268; his various
operations, 268, 269; re-organizes
the government of Georgia, ib.; at-
tacks and defeats General Moultrie,
ib.; plans an attack upon Charles-
ton, 270; summons the town to sur-
render, ib.; withdraws his troops,
and moves towards Savannah, ib;
successfully defends the city of Sa-
vannah against an attack by the
Americans and French, 277.
Princeton, battle of, 210.
Privateers, American, enterprise and
numbers of, 172; successful exploits
of, 172, 255.
Privateers, British, authorized against
Americans by "Letters of Marque,"
issued by act of Parliament, 212.
Proceedings of commissioners at Annapo-
Providence, R. I., people of, destroy the
British revenue schooner Gaspee, 99.
Provincial Convention formed in Massa-
Congress formed in same colony, 122.
Congresses and assemblies of the colo-
nies approve of the proceedings of
Congress of 1774, 129.
Congress of Massachusetts enroll mili-
tia, 131; invite other colonies to
join them, ib.
Congresses and assemblies formed
throughout the colonies, 131.
Public property of the United States,
Public lands, the, 609.
Pulaski, Count, distinguished in the
battle of Brandywine, and made a
brigadier-general, 218; acts with
General Moultrie at the South, 269,
270; killed while charging a British
force at the attack on Savannah,
278; Congress erect a monument to
his memory at Savannah, ib.
Putnam, Israel, commands a corps of
Connecticut troops, 147; appointed
major-general in the Continental
army, 158; one of the commanders
at Bunker Hill, 160; at the battle
of Long Island, 193; at the retreat
from New York, 198; takes com-
mand at Philadelphia, 202; stationed
on the highlands of the Hudson river,
216; a spy (Lieut. Palmer, of the
British army) taken in his camp,
and executed by his order, ib.; his
letter to Gov. Tryon on the subject,
ib.; commands troops at Danbury,
Conn., 275; his daring feat at West
Quebec, expedition against, 1629—cap-
tured-its restoration to France-
second English expedition against it,
27; defended by Frontenac-third
English expedition against it-its
failure, 28; strongly fortified, 42;
surrendered to the English, 45;
change in laws for the government
of, 114; attacked by Montgomery
and Arnold, 167; successfully de-
fended by the garrison, 168.
Quincy, Josiah, his remarks at the Bos-
ton town meeting, 1773, 104.
Randolph, American frigate (Captain
Biddle), engages the British ship
Yarmouth, and is destroyed, 255.
Randolph, Peyton, life of, 475.
Rawdon, Lord, commands a division of
the British army at the South, 292;
is joined by Cornwallis, and they
defeat General Gates at Sanders'
Creek, ib.; engages General Greene
near Camden, 319; burns Camden,
and retreats to the South, ib.; raises
the siege of Ninety-Six, 320; retires
to Eutaw Springs, resigns his com-
mand to Col. Stewart, and returns
to England, 321.
Recruiting stations, 643.
Red Bank Fort (on the Delaware), at-
tacked by the Hessians, who are re-
pulsed by the Americans, 219; Lord
Cornwallis marches against it, and
the Americans retreat, ib.
Refugees (see Tories).
Regulators, origin and organization of,
in North Carolina, 97; action with
Tryon's troops, 1771, 98.
Reidesel, Baroness, her account of the
surrender of Gen. Burgoyne, 229.