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Delegates to the Convention on the Con- Formation of the Federal Government,

stitution, 503.

Departments of State, the, 689.
Dickinson, John, writes "Farmers' Let-
ters," 75; draws up instructions to
Pennsylvania delegates, 124.
Dieskau, Baron, his march against Fort
Edward-his death, 37.
Dunmore, Lord, governor of Virginia;
his conduct excites the people
against him, 169; his affair with
Patrick Heury, ib.; abdicates the
government, 170; attempts to re-
gain his power, offers freedom to
slaves, attacks and destroys Nor-
folk, ib.; sails for the West Indies,
and joins the main army, ib.
Dwight, Timothy, D. D., of Connecticut,
his early views in favor of indepen-
dence, 185; his prophetic views of
the future progress of America in
1775, 186.

English Colonies, their independent

character, rivalries between them,
25; propositions for their union,
their first union against the French,
26; difficulties with other settle-
ments, and with the Indians, 27;
neglected by the home government,

Esopus, burnt by the British under Gen.
Vaughan, 233.

Exchange of prisoners, general, in 1780,


Expedition, of the French along the Ohio

and Mississippi, 31; against French
settlements in Nova Scotia, under
General Braddock against Fort du
Quesne, 36; against Crown Point
and Ticonderoga, 37; against Fort
Frontenac, its capture by the Eng-
lish, against du Queene, 41; against
Quebec, against Ticonderoga, Crown
Point, and Niagara, 42.

Fairfield and Norwalk, burned by Gov.
Tryon, 273.

Farmers' Letters, written by John Dick-
inson, 75.

Federal City, the, 685.

Fillmore, Millard (vol. ii.), early career,

595; elected to Congress, 598; suc-
ceeded Taylor as President, 603;
administration of, 605; new postage
law, 609; review of his services,
Finances, American, unfavorable condi-

tion of, in 1779, 266; negotiations

in Europe, ib.; depreciation of Con-
tinental money, ib.; successful oper-
ations to raise funds in Europe and
America, in 1781, 313.
Flag, American, adopted, 188.


Fortifications of the United States, 618.
Fox, Charles James, opposes Boston port

bill, 111; opposes Massachusetts
bill, 112; moves a censure of min-
isters, 140; censures ministers for
the mismanagement of American
affairs and loss of Burgoyne's army,
230; his sarcasms on ministers,

France, Silas Deane sent by Congress to,
as American agent, 206; obtains
important aid, ib.; three commis-
sioners appointed by Congress, ib.;
treaty of alliance and commerce
with, negotiated, 234; aid received
by the United States from, 285;
happy effects of the capture of Bur-
goyne on the French government,
ib.; effects of the treaty of alliance
on public opinion in America, 236;
war between France and England,
242; treaty of alliance with, ratified
by Congress, 244; sends a fleet of
twelve sail of the line to America,
248; concludes a treaty with Spain,
276; doubtful effects of the alliance
with, on American affairs, 283; aids
the American cause with funds and
troops, 296; fleet and army of, ar-
rive in United States, 297.
Franklin, Benj., member of the Albany

convention, his plan and its charac-
ter, 34; examination of, before Brit-
ish House of Commons, 48; appoint-
ed agent to England by Pennsyl
vania, 55; consulted by British
ministers. 56; opposes the stamp
act, 56-58; his letter to Charles
Thomson referred to, 58; invention
of committees of correspondence in
the colonies attributed to, 58-100;
sends to Massachusetts Assembly
the letters of Hutchinson and Oli-
ver, 101; presents petition of Mas-
sachusetts Assembly for removal of
Hutchinson and Oliver before the
Privy Council, 102; dismissed from
the office of Colonial Postmaster-
General, ib.; his efforts to influence
the people of England in favor of
the colonies. 132; procures petitions
to Parliament from English people
in favor of Colonies, 134; returns to
America, 171; is elected a delegate
to Congress from Pennsylvania, ib.;
appointed Postmaster-General, ib.;
appointed one of the committee to
confer with Lord Howe, 196; his
conversations with Lord Howe and
sister, 197; appointed commissioner
to negotiate a treaty of peace, 334.
Fraser, General, defeats the Americans

at Hubbardton, 222; is killed at the
battle of Stillwater, 227.
French, first settled in Canada, soon after
in Florida, claimed jurisdiction on
the Ohio and Mississippi, built a
chain of forts from Canada to Flori-
da, bribed the Indians, 27; deter-
mine to extend their American em-
pire, alliance with the Indians, their
active movements in Nova Scotia,
30; claim the valleys of the Ohio
and Mississippi, claim disputed by
the English, erect forts south of
Lake Erie, 31; deserted by their
Indian allies at Fort du Quesne,
flight down the Ohio, 41; abandon
Ticonderoga, power destroyed west
of Montreal, 42; picket-guard cap-
tain captured, 44; attempt to re-
cover Quebec, ships destroyed by
Colville, Montreal the only posses-
sion left them in Canada, 46; influ-
ence over the Indians continued, 54;
negotiations and treaty with the
United States, 235; ship with muni-
tions of war arrives in the United
States, ib.; fleet under Count D'Es-
taing arrives on the coast, 262;
French and American officers dis-
agree at Rhode Island, 250; dissat-
isfaction of the Americans with their
French allies, ib.; ambassador in
England (De Noailles), his ironical
letter to Lord North, 256; fleet and
army under D'Estaing assist in the
attack on Savannah, 277; are re-
pulsed, and return to France, 278
(see D'Estaing); alliance with the
United States, doubtful effects of,
283; minister to the United States,
M. Gerard arrives, 248; succeeded
by M. Luzerne, 283; French fleet
and army in aid of America an-
nounced by La Fayette to be on the
way, 296; fleet with army arrive
in United States, 297; army, second
division of, destined for America,
blockaded at Brest by an English
fleet, and non-arrival of, ib.; Ad-
miral Ternay dies at Newport, ib. ;
army goes into winter quarters,
298; fleet sail to Virginia, are at-
tacked by the British admiral, and
return to Newport, 314; fleet under
Count de Grasse sail from the West
Indies for the Chesapeake, 324;
army form a junction on the Hud-
son river, and march to Virginia, ib.;
fleet under De Grasse arrives in the
Chesapeake, and lands additional
troops, 325; operations of the com-
bined armies, ib.; surrender of
Yorktown, 326; fleet sail for the
West Indies, and the army is can-

toned at Williamsburgh, 327; re-
turn to France, 469.

French agent, a mysterious one in Amer-
ica, 1775, 179.

Fuller, Mr., opposes ministerial measures


respecting the colonies, 110, 113;
moves for repeal of the tea duty,
ib.; deserts the ministerial side, and
predicts ruinous results from Lord
North's measures, ib.

General, commands the British
forces in America, 76; orders troops
to Boston, ib.; anecdote of, 86;
succeeds Hutchinson as governor
of Massachusetts, 115; dissolves
General Assembly, 118; denounces
the league of patriots, 119; intro-
duces troops into Boston, ib.; forti-
fies Boston Neck, 121; sends troops
to seize military stores at Concord,
144; Provincial Congress of Massa-
chusetts declare him disqualified to
act as governor, 148; issues a proc-
lamation offering pardon, &c., 159;
directs operations at battle of
Bunker Hill, ib.; orders the burn-
ing of Charlestown, 160; recalled,
and succeeded by Howe, 165.
Gaspee, British revenue schooner, burned
near Providence, R. I., 99.
Gates, Horatio, appointed brigadier-

general and commander of the
American forces in Canada, 205;
joins General Washington on the
Delaware, 206; appointed to the
command of the northern army,
225; is joined by Generals Arnold
and Lincoln, 225, 226; his various
operations against Burgoyne, ib.;
receives offer of capitulation from
Burgoyne, and agrees to accept of
a surrender of his army-his deli-
cacy and humanity towards the de-
feated troops, 229; receives the
thanks of Congress for himself and
army, and a gold medal presented
to him by their order, 230; his
letter to General Vaughan, 233;
sends troops to reinforce General
Putnam, ib.; is concerned in a
scheme to supersede Washington,
240; placed at the head of the
Board of War, ib.; appointed by
Congress commander of the army at
the South, 292; engages the British
army at Sanders' Creek, is defeated
with great slaughter, and retreats
to Charlotte, and thence to Hills-
boro', N. C., 292, 293; incurs re-
proaches, and a court of inquiry is
appointed respecting him, 295; is
superseded in command by General
Greene, ib.

Georgia falls into the hands of the Brit-

ish, 254.

German troops employed by England,

175; debates in Parliament thereon,
178; emigrants in America, ib.
Germantown, Battle of, 219.
Gibbon (historian), member of the House
of Commons, 141; his remarks on
American affairs, ib.
Gorham, Nathaniel, life of, 480.
Governors, the royal colonial; their tyr-
annies, 29; their troubles with the
people, and final expulsion or ab-
duction, 170.
Grafton, Duke of, head of the ministry,
79; urges conciliation with the col-
onies, 173; resigns his seat in the
cabinet, and acts with the opposi- |
tion, ib.; motion for conciliating the
colonies, 179.
Greene, Nathaniel, appointed brigadier-

general by Congress, 159; at first
commands at Long Island, but fall-
ing sick, is there succeeded by Sul-
livan, 194; commands a division of
the army at the battle of Trenton,
203; his gallantry at the battle of
Brandywine, 218; at the battle of
Monmouth, 247; commands part of
the expedition to Rhode Island, 249;
Washington appoints him to super-
sede General Gates in the command
of the southern army, 295; attacked
by Knyphausen, and defeated, in
New Jersey, 297; presides at the
court-martial in the case of Major
André, 307; detaches General Mor-
gan to check the British, 315; joins
Morgan, and retreats before Corn-
wallis, 316; is reinforced at Guil-
ford Court-House, and continues his
retreat into Virginia, 317; receives
reinforcements, and returns into
North Carolina, 318; engages the
British under Cornwallis at Guil-
ford Court-House, ib.; pursues Corn-
wallis towards Wilmington, ib.; is
attacked by Lord Rawdon at Hob-
kirk's Hill, near Camden, 319; cap-
ture of several British forts, ib.;
besieges Fort Ninety-Six, but is
compelled to raise the siege, and
retreats across the Saluda river,
ib.; attacks the British at Eutaw
Springs, and defeats them, 321;
close of the campaign in South Car-
olina, 322; reinforced by a detach-
ment under General St. Clair, 327;
sends Wayne with a part of the
army into Georgia, 332.
Grenville, George, premier, 52; proposes

to tax the colonies, 53; introduces
the Stamp Act, 56; his views on
taxation of the colonies, 68; op-

poses the measures against the col-
onies in 1769, 80; opposes Lord
North's proposal to retain the duties

on tea, 94.

Grey, General, detached by Sir Henry
Clinton on a predatory expedition in
New England, 249; his exploits on
several of these expeditions, 250.
Griffin, Cyrus, life of, 481.

Hale, Nathan, his enterprise, capture,
and death, 198.

Hancock, John, declines a British com-
mission, 77; his sloop Liberty seized,
75; appointed President of Con-
gress, 161.

Hancock, John, life of, 475.
Hanson, John, life of, 478.
Harrison, William Henry (vol. ii.), his

early life, 417; military engage-
ments with Indians, 419; with Te-
cumseh, 422-430; his visit to Bo-
gota, 434; elected President, 436;
the inauguration and address, 437;
his last words, 440; review of his
character and services, 442.
Hayne, Colonel, taken prisoner by the

British, tried, and executed at Char-
leston, S. C., 321.

Henry, Patrick, opposes the Stamp Act,

58; resolutions and speech of, 58-
61; his predictions respecting the
contest with Great Britain and in-
dependence of the colonies, 127;
vigorous measures proposed by, 151;
speech in Provincial Congress, ib.;
proscribed by the British govern-
ment, ib.; originates the phrase
Liberty or death," ib.; his affair
with Lord Dunmore, 170.
Herkimer, G neral, his defeat and death,

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Hessian troops employed by England,

175; capture of, at Trenton, 204;
cruelty and outrages of, 211; re-
pulsed at Red Bank, 219.
Holland takes sides with the Americans
against Great Britain, in 1780, 309;
Henry Laurens appointed minister
to, ib.; Great Britain declares war
against, 310.

Home Department, the, 693.
Howe, General Robert, commands a body

of American troops in an expedition
against Florida, 253; sickness of his
troops, and their retreat, 254; de-
feated at Savannah (after a despe-
rate contest) by the British, under
Campbell and Baird, ib.; commands
the post at West Point, 300.
Howe, General Sir William, arrives at

Boston with an army, 159; com-
mands British troops at battle of
Bunker Hill, 160; succeeds General

Gage in command, 165; proposes
to evacuate Boston, 181; evacuates
Boston, and sails with the troops
for Halifax, 182; arrives off Sandy
Hook with an army, 191; takes
possession of Staten Island, ib.;
lands on Long Island, 193; defeats
the Americans, 195; is knighted by
the King, ib.; prepares to drive
the American army from the city
of New York, 197; takes possession
of the city, 198; organizes a tem-
porary government, and marches in
pursuit of the Americans, 199; his
indecision as to the course to adopt,
201; yields to the counsel of Lord
Cornwallis, ib.; issues a joint pro-
clamation with his brother, Lord
Howe, offering pardon to Ameri-
cans, 202; his plans for the cam-
paign of 1777, 212; various opera-
tions of, ib.; moves from New York
to New Brunswick, 214; mancu-
vres and stratagem of, 215; retires
to Staten Island, and evacuates New
Jersey, ib.; embarks his troops for
Philadelphia, via the Chesapeake,
ib.; leaves his troops at Elk river,
marches, and defeats the Americans
on the Brandywine, 217; enters
Philadelphia, 219; pushes forward
to Germantown, where he is attack-
ed by Washington, and defeats him,
219; after another action at White-
marsh, unimportant in its result, he
goes into winter quarters at Phila-
delphia, 220; recalled by his own
request, 244; fête given him by his
officers at Philadelphia on taking
leave, called the Mischianza, 245;
departs for England, and is succeed-
ed by Sir H. Clinton, ib.
Howe, Admiral Lord, arrives at Staten!

Island, in the capacity of British
commissioner, 192; his amiable
character, 191; his circular letters
to Americans, 192; letters to Gen.
Washington, 193; his second at-
tempt at pacification, 196; meets
committee of Congress, ib.; result
of the conference, 197; his conver-
sation with Dr. Franklin, ib.; sails
from the Delaware to Sandy Hook,
and transports Sir H. Clinton's troops
to New York, 248; sails to Newport,
R. I., where he meets the French
fleet under Count D'Estaing, 249;
both fleets put to sea, but a storm
prevents an engagement, ib.; is
joined by Admiral Byron's fleet,
250; Admiral Gambier takes the
command, and Lord Howe returns
to England, ib.
Huntington, Samuel, life of, 477.

Hutchinson, lieutenant-governor of Massa-
chusetts, succeeds Bernard as gover-
nor, 81; at first refuses, but after-
wards consents to the removal of
British troops from Boston, 92; his
letters to the British government
sent by Dr. Franklin to Massachu-
setts Assembly, 101; acknowledges
the letters to be genuine, but confi-
dential, ib.; Assembly petitions for
his removal, 102; refuses to remove
Chief Justice Oliver, 115; retires,
and is succeeded by Gen. Gage, ib.

Imports and Exports of the United
States, 558.

Independence, first dawning of, in Amer-
ica, 52; ideas of, in the colonies,
suggested by measures of the British
government, 82; gradual approaches
to, 124; first idea of, uncertain as to
time, ib.; declaration of, mentioned
by Patrick Henry, in 1773, 127;
declaration of, at Mecklenburg, N.
C., in May, 1775, 149; ideas of,
among the people of America, 185;
Dr. Dwight's early views in favor
of, ib.; action by the Continental
Congress in favor of, 187; committee
appointed to prepare Declaration,
ib.; adoption and signing of the
Declaration, 186; acknowledgment
of, advocated in the British Parlia-
ment (in 1778), 242.

Indians, the war of the Five Nations

against the French aided by the
English, 27; their outrages on the
frontiers, their butcheries at Fort
Wm. Henry, 39; hostilities with the
British Colonies, 54; under French
influence, ib.; Six Nations of, join
the British, ib.; southern, instigated
against Americans by British agents,
206; various tribes of, join General
Burgoyne's army, 221; murder of
Miss McCrea, 223; allies of General
Burgoyne desert the service, 226;
barbarities of, on western frontiers,
250; massacre of the people of
Wyoming, 26, 252; their settle-
ments laid waste by the Americans,
252; attack and massacre of Cherry
Valley, 253; depredations on the
southern frontier, ib.; on the Sus-
quehanna, chastised by General Sul-
livan, and their villages destroyed,


Jackson, Andrew (vol. ii.), early life of,

291; military career, 292; mar-
riage, 294; Tennessee becomes a
State, 294; he is elected governor
of Tennessee, 296; his challenge of
Dickinson, 297; arrest of Aaron


garding the militia, 132; difficulties
with Spain about Louisiana, 132;
Monroe's mission to France, 134;
termination of the treaty, 188; fur-
ther troubles, 138; treaty ratified
by the Senate, 140; naturalization
of aliens, 141; bankrupt law re-
pealed, 142; exploring expedition
to the Pacific, 142; close of the war
with Tripoli, 143; second Presiden-
tial term of, 144; interruptions to
American commerce by Great Bri-
tain, 147; purchase of Florida at
Paris, 148; expedition of Col Burr
in the West, 149; treaty with
Great Britain, 151; Napoleon's
Berlin decree, 155; restrictive mea-
sures of the federalists, 156; the
embargo law, 158; fortifications at
New York, 161; the non-intercourse
law, 163; review of the administra-
tion of 166; the non-intercourse
Johnson, Sir John, with a large body of
law, 167.
Indians, defeats General Herkimer,

Burr, 297; his engagement with
the Creek Indians, 298; his career
during the war of 1812, 300; at
New Orleans, 317; is appointed
commander-in-chief for the South,
310; Florida war, 311; visit of La-
fayette, 313; elected President, and
his inaugural address, 315; his usur-
pations, 317; the Twenty-first Con-
gress convened, 821; unexampled
prosperity of the country, 321; prin-
cipal acts passed, 322; sales of the
public lands, 323; the nullification
question, 324; United States bank
and the tariff, 327; violations of the
constitution, 329; claims of the
United States on France, 332;
treaty with Brazil, 335; renomina-
tion to Presidency, 339; the census
of 1830, 344; United States bank
veto, 347; internal improvements
bill, 340; reduction of duties, 350;
French treaty, 356; treaty with
Austria, 357; election to the Presi-
dency, 361; action of the States on
the nullification measure, 364; trans-
fer of public funds from United
States bank, 366; its commercial
effects, 370; new coinage act, 372;
internal improvements, 372; distri-Jones,
bution of public moneys, 374; the
specie circular, 379; review of his
administration, 381.

Jay, John, draws up letter of instructions
to the colonial agents in England,
132; appointed minister to Spain,
283; commissioner to negotiate for
peace, 334.

life of, 477.
Jefferson, Thomas, a member of the Vir-
ginia Legislature, and a leader of
the patriots, 96; member of Conti-
nental Congress, and one of a com-
mittee to draft a Declaration of
Independence, 187; same drawn by
him adopted, 188; his


escape from capture by the British,
while governor of Virginia, 313;
appointed commissioner to Europe
to negotiate for peace, 334.

--, (vol. ii.), his early life,
110; and mental development, 112;
his notes on Virginia, 113; minister
to France, 113; his election as Presi-
dent, and re-election, 115; his found-
ing the University of Virginia, 116;
sale of his library, 116; his death,
116; his theological opinions, 119;
his inauguration, 120; his political
creed, 121; the federal party, 123;
Rhode Island, 127; Seventh Con-
gress at Washington, 129; revision
of the judiciary, 130; apportionment
of representation, &c., 130; act re-

Johnson, Sir Wm., leads an expedition
against Crown Point and Ticondero-
Paul, exploits of, 255; commands
ga, 37; erects Fort Wm. Henry, 38.
a squadron fitted out by the Ameri-
can commissioners in France, 279;
attacks a British convoy, 280; cap-
tures two British ships after a des-
perate battle, 281-282; receives
the thanks of Congress and a gold
medal, also the order of merit from
the French king, 282.
Judiciary, the, 613.

King George III., his character and his

counsellors, 39; recommends taxa-
tion of the colonies, 56; his speech
on American affairs (1766), 68; his
message on Boston tea-riot, 107;
his speech declaring the colonies in
a state of rebellion, 133; effect of
the speech in the colonies, 144; his
statue destroyed in New York, 188;
his speech on the alliance between
Knyphausen, General, left by Sir Henry
France and America, 259.
Clinton in command of the British
forces at New York, 278; detaches
a large body of troops under Gen.
Mathews, on an incursion into New
Jersey, 297; joins Mathews with
Sir Henry Clinton and additional
troops, ib.; attacks and defeats
General Greene, burns Springfield,
Kosciusko (Polish General), appointed
and returns to New York, ib.
chief-engineer of the Continental
army, 223; accompanies the north-

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