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Delegates to the Convention on the Con- | Formation of the Federal Government,
Departments of State, the, 689.
Fortifications of the United States, 618.
Dickinson, John, writes “ Farmers' Let- Fox, Charles James, opposes Boston port
ters," 75 ; draws up instructions to bill, 111; opposes Massachusetts
Pennsylvania delegates, 124.
bill, 112; moves a censure of min-
Dieskau, Baron, his march against Fort isters, 140; censures ministers for
Edward-his death, 37.
the mismanagement of American
Dunmore, Lord, governor of Virginia; affairs and loss of Burgoyne's army,
his conduct excites the people 230; his sarcasms on ministers,
against him, 169; bis affair with 242.
Patrick Heury, ib.; abdicates the France, Silas Deane sent by Congress to,
government, 170; attempts to re. as American agent, 206 ; obtains
gain his power, offers freedom to important aid, ib. ; three commis-
slaves, attacks and destroys Nor- sioners appointed by Congress, ib.;
folk, ib.; sails for the West Indies, treaty of alliance and commerce
and joins the main army, ib.
with, negotiated, 234; aid received
Dwight, Timothy, D. D., of Connecticut, by the United States from, 235;
his early views in favor of indepen- happy effects of the capture of Bur-
dence, 185; his prophetic views of goyne on the French government,
the future progress of America in ib. ; effects of the treaty of alliance
on public opinion in America, 236;
war between France and England,
English Colonies, their independent 242; treaty of alliance with, ratified
character, rivalries between them, by Congress, 244; sends a fleet of
25 ; propositions for their union, twelve sail of the line to America,
their first union against the French, 248; concludes a treaty with Spain,
26 ; difficulties with other settle- 276 ; doubtful effects of the alliance
ments, and with the Indians, 27; with, on American affairs, 283; aids
neglected by the home government,
the American cause with funds and
troops, 296 ; fleet and army of, ar-
Esopus, burnt by the British under Gen. rive in United States, 297.
Franklin, Benj., member of the Albany
Exchange of prisoners, general, in 1780, convention, his plan and its charac-
ter, 34; examination of, before Brit-
Expedition, of the French along the Ohio ish House of Commons, 48; appoint-
and Mississippi, 31; against French ed agent to England by Pennsyl.
settlements in Nova Scotia, under vania, 55; consulted by British
General Braddock against Fort du ministers, 56 ; opposes the stamp
Quesne, 36; against Crown Point act, 56-58; his letter to Charles
and Ticonderoga, 37; against Fort Thomson referred to, 58; invention
Frontenac, its capture by the Eng- of committees of correspondence in
lish, against du Queene, 41; against the colonies attributed to, 58-100;
Quebec, against Ticonderoga, Crown sends to Massachusetts Assembly
Point, and Niagara, 42.
the letters of Hutchinson and Oli.
ver, 101; presents petition of Mag-
Fairfield and Norwalk, burned by Gov. sachusetts Assembly for removal of
Hutchinson and Oliver before the
Fermers' Letters, written by John Dick- Privy Council, 102 ; dismissed from
the office of Colonial Postmaster-
Feder il City, the, 685.
General, ib.; his efforts to influence
Fillmore, Millard (vol. ii.), early career, the people of England in favor of
595 ; elected to Congress, 598; suc- the colonies, 13; procures petitions
ceeded Taylor as President, 603 ; to Parliament from English people
administration of, 605; new postage in favor of Colonies, 134; returns to
law, 609; review of bis services, America, 171; is elected a delegate
to Congress from Pennsylvania, ib.;
Finances, American, unfavorable condi- appointed Postmaster-General, ib.,
tion of, in 1779, 266 ; negotiations appointed one of the committee to
in Europe, ib.; depreciation of Con- confer with Lord Howe, 196; his
tinental money, ib. ; successful oper- conversations with Lord Howe and
ations to raise funds in Europe and sister, 197; appointed commissioner
America, in 1781, 313.
to negotiate a treaty of peace, 334.
Flag, American, adopted, 188.
Fraser, General, defeats the Americans
at Hubbardton, 222; is killed at the toned at Williamsburgh, 327; re-
battle of Stillwater, 227.
turn to France, 469.
French, first settled in Canada, soon after French agent, a mysterious one in Amer.
in Florida, claimed jurisdiction on ica, 1775, 179.
the Ohio and Mississippi, built a Fuller, Mr., opposes ministerial measures
chain of forts from Canada to Flori- respecting the colonies, 110, 113;
da, bribed the Indians, 27; deter- moves for repeal of the tea duty,
mine to extend their American em- ib.; deserts the ministerial side, and
pire, alliance with the Indians, their predicts ruinous results from Lord
active movements in Nova Scotia, North's measures, ib.
30; claim the valleys of the Ohio
, claim disputed by Gage, General, commands the British
the English, erect forts south of forces in America, 76 ; orders troops
Lake Erie, 31; deserted by their to Boston, ib.; anecdote of, 86;
Indian allies at Fort du Quesne, succeeds Hutchinson as governor
flight down the Ohio, 41; abandon of Massachusetts, 115; dissolves
Ticonderoga, power destroyed west General Assembly, 118; denounces
of Montreal, 42; picket-guard cap- the league of patriots, 119; intro-
tain captured, 44; attempt to re- duces troops into Boston, ib.; forti-
cover Quebec, ships destroyed by fies Boston Neck, 121 ; sends troops
Colville, Montreal the only posses- to seize military stores at Concord,
sion left them in Canada, 46; influ- 144; Provincial Congress of Massa-
ence over the Indians continued, 54; chusetts declare him disqualified to
negotiations and treaty with the act as governor, 148 ; issues a proc-
United States, 235; ship with muni. lamation offering pardon, &c., 159;
tions of war arrives in the United directs operations at battle of
States, ib.; fleet under Count D’Es- Bunker Hill, ib. ; orders the burn-
taing arrives on the coast, 262 ; ing of Charlestown, 160; recalled,
French and American officers dis- and succeeded by Howe, 165.
agree at Rhode Island, 250 ; dissat- Gaspee, British revenue schooner, burned
isfaction of the Americans with their near Providence, R. I., 99.
French allies, ib.; ambassador in Gates, Horatio, appointed brigadier-
England (De Noailles), his ironical general and commander of the
letter to Lord North, 256; fleet and American forces in Canada, 205 ;
army under D'Estaing assist in the
joins General Washington on the
attack on Savannahı, 277; are
Delaware, 206 ; appointed to the
pulsed, and return to France, 278 command of the northern army,
(see D'Estaing); alliance with the 225; is joined by Generals Arnold
United States, doubtful effects of, and Lincoln, 225, 226; his various
283; minister to the United States, operations against Burgoyne, ib. ;
M. Gerard arrives, 248; succeeded receives offer of capitulation from
by M. Luzerne, 283; French fleet Burgoyne, and agrees to accept of
and army in aid of America an- a surrender of his army-his deli-
nounced by La Fayette to be on the cacy and humanity towards the de-
way, 296; fleet with army arrive feated troops, 229; receives the
in United States, 297; army, second thanks of Congress for himself and
division of, destined for America, army, and a gold medal presented
blockaded at Brest by an English to him by their order, 230; his
fleet, and non-arrival of, ib.; Ad. letter to General Vaughan, 233 ;
miral Ternay dies at Newport, ib. ; sends troops to reinforce General
army goes into winter quarters, Putnam, ib.; is concerned in a
298; fleet sail to Virginia, are at- scheme to supersede Washington
tacked by the British admiral, and 240; placed at the head of the
return to Newport, 314; fleet under Board of War, ib.; appointed by
Count de Grasse sail from the West Congress commander of the army at
Indies for the Chesapeake, 324; the South, 292; engages the British
army form a junction on the Hud- army at Sanders' Creek, is defeated
son river, and march to Virginia, ib.; with great slaughter, and retreats
feet under De Grasse arrives in the to Charlotte, and thence to Hills-
Chesapeake, and lands additional boro', N. C., 292, 293; incurs re-
troops, 325; operations of the com- proaches, and a court of inquiry is
bined armies, ib.; surrender of appointed respecting him, 295; is
Yorktown, 326 ; fleet sail for the superseded in command by General
West Indies, and the army is can- Greene, ib.
Georgia falls into the hands of the Brit- poses the measures against the col-
onies in 1769, 80; opposes Lord
German troops employed by England, North's proposal to retain the duties
175; debates in Parliament thereon, on tea, 94.
178; emigrants in America, ib. Grey, General, detached by Sir Henry
Germantown, Battle of, 219.
Clinton on a predatory expedition in
Gibbon (historian), member of the IIouse New England, 219 ; his exploits on
of Commons, 141; his remarks on several of these expeditions, 250.
American affairs, ib.
Griffin, Cyrus, life of, 481.
Gorham, Nathaniel, life of, 480.
Governors, the royal colonial; their tyr- Hale, Nathan, his enterprise, capture,
annies, 29; their troubles with the and death, 198.
people, and final expulsion or ab. Hancock, John, declines a British com-
mission, 77; liis sloop Liberty seized,
Grafton, Duke of, head of the ministry, 75; appointed President of Con.
79; urges conciliation with the col-
onies, 173; resigns his seat in the Hancock, John, life of, 475.
cabinet, and acts with the opposi- Hanson, John, life of, 478.
tion, ib.; motion for conciliating the Harrison, William Henry (vol. ii.), his
early life, 417; military engage-
Greene, Nathaniel, appointed brigadier- ments with Indians, 419; with Te-
general by Congress, 159; at first cumseh, 422-430; his visit to Bo.
commands at Long Island, but fall- gota, 434; elected President, 436;
ing sick, is there succeeded by Sul- the inauguration and adress, 437;
livan, 194; commands a division of his last words, 410; review of his
the army at the battle of Trenton, character and services, 412.
203 ; his gallantry at the battle of Hayne, Colonel, taken prisoner by the
Brandywine, 218; at the battle of British, tried, and executed at Char-
Monmouth, 247; commands part of leston, S. C., 321.
the expedition to Rhode Island, 249; Henry, Patrick, opposes the Stamp Act,
Washington appoints him to super. 58; resolutions and speech of, 58-
sede General Gates in the command 61; his predictions respecting the
of the southern army, 295; attacked contest with Great Britain and in-
by Knyphausen, and defeated, in dependence of the colonies, 127;
New Jersey, 297; presides at the vigorous measures proposed by, 151;
court-martial in the case of Major speech in Provincial Congress, ib.;
André, 307; detaches General Mor- proscribed by the British govern-
gan to check the British, 315; joins ment, ib.; originates the phrase
Morgan, and retreats before Corn- "Liberty or death," ib.; his affair
wallis, 316; is reinforced at Guil- with Lord Dunmore, 170.
ford Court-Ilouse, and continues bis Herkimer, G neral, his defeat and death,
retreat into Virginia, 317; receives 224.
reinforcements, and returns into Hessian troops employed by England,
North Carolina, 318; engages the 175; capture of, at Trenton, 204;
British under Cornwallis at Guil. cruelty and outrages of, 211; re-
ford Court-House, ib.; pursues Corn- pulsed at Red Bank, 219.
wallis towards Wilmington, ib. ; is Holland takes sides with the Americans
attacked by Lord Rawdon at Hob- against Great Britain, in 1780, 309;
kirk's Hill, near Camden, 319; cap- Henry Laurens appointed minister
ture of several British forts, ib. ; to, ib.; Great Britain declares war
besieges Fort Ninety-Six, but is against, 310.
compelled to raise the siege, and Home Department, the, 693.
retreats across the Saluda river, Howe, General Robert, commands a body
ib.; attacks the British at Eutaw of American troops in an expedition
Springs, and defeats them, 321 ; against Florida, 233; sickness of his
close of the campaign in South Car- troops, and their retreat, 254; de-
olina, 322; reinforced by a detach- feated at Savannah (after a despe-
ment under General St. Clair, 327; rate contest) by the British, under
sends Wayne with a part of the Campbell and Baird, ib.; commands
army into Georgia, 332.
the post at West Point, 300.
Grenville, George, premier, 52 ; proposes Howe, General Sir William, arrives at
to tax the colonies, 53; introduces Boston with an army, 159; com-
the Stamp Act, 56 ; his views on mands British troops at battle of
taxation of the colonies, 68; op. Bunker Hill, 160; succeeds General
Gage in command, 165; proposes Hutchinson, lieutenant-governor of Massa-
to evacuate Boston, 181; evacuates chusetts, succeeds Bernard as gover-
Boston, and sails with the troops nor, 81; at first refuses, but after-
for Halifax, 182 ; arrives off Sandy wards consents to the removal of
Hook with an army, 191; takes British troops from Boston, 92 ; his
possession of Staten Island, ib.; letters to the British government
lands on Long Island, 193; defeats sent by Dr. Franklin to Massachu-
the Americans, 195 ; is knighted by setts Assembly, 101 ; acknowledges
the King, ib.; prepares to drive the letters to be genuine, but confi-
the American army from the city dential, ib.; Assembly petitions for
of New York, 197; takes possession his removal, 102 ; refuses to remove
of the city, 198; organizes a tem-
Chief Justice Oliver, 115 ; retires,
porary government, and marches in and is succeeded by Gen. Gage, ib.
pursuit of the Americans, 199 ; his
indecision as to the course to adopt, Imports and Exports of the United
201; yields to the counsel of Lord States, 558.
Cornwallis, ib.; issues a joint pro- Independence, first dawning of, in Amer-
clamation with his brother, Lord ica, 52; ideas of, in the colonies,
Howe, offering pardon to Ameri- suggested by measures of the British
cans, 202 ; his plans for the cam- government, 82; gradual approaches
paign of 1777, 212; various opera- to, 124; first idea of, uncertain as to
tions of, ib.; moves from New York time, ib.; declaration of, mentioned
to New Brunswick, 214; mancu- by Patrick Henry, in 1773, 127;
vres and stratagem of, 215; retires declaration of, at Mecklenburg, N.
to Staten Island, and evacuates New C, in May, 1775, 149; ideas of,
Jersey, ib. ; embarks his troops for among the people of America, 185;
Philadelphia, via the Chesapeake, Dr. Dwight's early views in favor
ib.; leaves his troops at Elk river, of, ib.; action by the Continental
marches, and defeats the Americans Congress in favor of, 187; committee
on the Brandywine, 217; enters appointed to prepare Declaration,
Philadelphia, 219; pushes forward ib.; adoption and signing of the
to Germantown, where he is attack- Declaration, 186; acknowledgment
ed by Washington, and defeats him, of, advocated in the British Parlia-
219; after another action at White. ment (in 1778), 242.
marsh, unimportant in its result, he Indians, the war of the Five Nations
goes into winter quarters at Phila- against the French aided by the
delphia, 220; recalled by his own English, 27; their outrages on the
request, 214; fête given him by his frontiers, their butcheries at Fort
officers at Philadelphia on taking Wm. Henry, 39 ; hostilities with the
leave, called the Mischianza, 245; British Colonies, 54; under French
departs for England, and is succeed- influence, ib.; Six Nations of, join
ed by Sir H. Clinton, ib.
the British, ib.; southern, instigated
Hore, Admiral Lord, arrives at Staten against Americans by British agents,
Island, in the capacity of British 206; various tribes of, join General
commissioner, 192; his amiable Burgoyne's army, 221; murder of
character, 191 ; his circular letters ! Miss McCrea, 223 ; allies of General
to Americans, 192; letters to Gen. Burgoyne desert the service, 226;
Washington, 193; bis second at- barbarities of, on western frontiers,
tempt at pacification, 196; meets 230; massacre of the people of
committee of Congress, ib.; result Wyoming, 26, 252; their settle-
of the conference, 197; his conver- ments laid waste by the Americans,
sation with Dr. Franklin, ib. ; sails 252; attack and massacre of Cherry
from the Delaware to Sandy Hook, Valley, 253; depredations on the
and transports Sir II. Clinton's troops southern frontier, ib.; on the Sus-
to New York, 248 ; sails to Newport, quehanna, chastised by General Sul-
R. I., where he meets the French livan, and their villages destroyed,
feet under Count D'Estaing, 249 ; 278-279.
both fleets put to sea, but a storm
prevents an engagement, ib.; is Jackson, Andreu (vol. ii.), early life of,
joined by Admiral Byrou's fleet, 291; military career, 292; mar-
250; Admiral Gambier takes the riage, 294; Tennessee becomes a
command, and Lord Ilowe returns State, 294; he is elected governor
to England, ib.
of Tennessee, 296 ; bis challenge of
Huntington, Samuel, life of, 477.
Dickinson, 297; arrest of Aaron
Burr, 297; his engagement with garding the militia, 132 ; difficulties
the Creek Indians, 298; his career with Spain about Louisiana, 132;
during the war of 1812, 300; at Monroe's mission to France, 134;
New Orleans, 317; is appointed termination of the treaty, 138; fur-
commander-in-chief for the South, ther troubles, 138; treaty ratified
310; Florida war, 311; visit of La- by the Senate, 140 ; naturalization
fayette, 313; elected President, and of aliens, 141; bankrupt law re-
his inaugural address, 315; his usur- pealed, 142; exploring expedition
pations, 317; the Twenty-first Con- to the Pacific, 142; close of the war
gress convened, 321; unexampled with Tripoli, 143; second Presiden-
prosperity of the country, 321; prin- tial term of, 144; interruptions to
cipal acts passed, 322; sales of the American comineree by Great Bri-
public lands, 323; the nullification tain, 147; purchase of Florida at
question, 324; United States bank Paris, 148; expedition of Cul Burr
and the tariff, 327; violations of the in the West, 149; treaty with
constitution, 329; claims of the Great Britain, 151; Napoleon's
United States France, 332; Berlin decree, 155; restrictive mea-
treaty with Brazil, 335 ; renomina- sures of the federalists, 156; the
tion to Presidency, 339; the census embargo law, 158; fortifications at
of 1830, 344; United States bank New York, 161; the non-intercourse
veto, 347; internal improvements law, 163; review of the administra-
bill, 340; reduction of duties, 350 ; tion of 166; the uon-intercourse
French treaty, 356; treaty with