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194; at Harlem heights, 207; of
White Plains, 200; of Fort Wash-
ington, ib.; of Trenton, 203, 204; of
Princeton, 210; of Ridgefield, 213;
naval, on Lake Champlain, 205; at
Springfield and Somerset, New Jer-
sey, 211; of Brandywine, 217; of
Paoli, of Germantown, at Red Bank,
of Whitemarsh, 219, 220; of Hub-
bardton, 222; of Bennington, 224;
of the Mohawk, ib.; of Fort Schuy-
ler, 174, 225; battle of Stillwater,
ib.; second battle of Stillwater, 227;
battle of Monmouth, 247; of Rhode
Island, 249; of Savannah, 254; of
Port Royal, 268; of Briar Creek,
269; of Stony Point, 274; attack on
Savannah, 277; of Monks' Corner,
289; at Santee River, ib.; siege
and capture of Charleston and Lin-
coln's army, 290; battles of Rocky
Mount and Hanging Rock, 291; of
Sanders' Creek, and death of De
Kalb, 292; of the Wateree, 293; of
Broad River, 295; of Blackstock,
ib.; of Springfield, N. J., 297; of the
Cowpens, 315; of Guilford C. H.,
318; of Hobkirk's Hill, near Cam-
den, 319; of Eutaw Springs, 321;
of Yorktown, 325.
Bernard, Governor, dissolves the Massa-

chusetts Assembly, 75; his removal

by the King petitioned for, ib.; in-
troduces British troops into Boston,
76; refuses to convene the Assem-
bly, 77; demands of the Assembly
funds to pay British troops, 81; his
demand refused, ib.; dissolves the
Assembly, ib.; is created a baronet
by the King, ib.; returns to Eng-
land, and is succeeded by Hutchin-
son, ib.

Board of War instituted, 240; General
Gates placed at the head, ib.; plans
an expedition to Canada, ib.
Boston, freeholders of, pass votes of

thanks to Barré and Conway for
their opposition to the Stamp Act,
61, 62; mob and riots on account of
the Stamp Act, at, 64; people op-
pose the payment of duties, 75;
petition of people of, rejected in
Parliament, 79; the first martyr to
the cause of American liberty, 88;
massacre of citizens by British
troops, ib.; arrest of Capt. Preston,
91; is acquitted, 94; funeral of the
citizens killed, 93; troops removed
from, ib.; arrival of cargoes of tea
at, 103; public meetings and excite-
ment, 104; destruction of tea in the
harbor, 105; port bill, passed, 109,
111; Lord North's remarks on the
people of, 109; port bill, how re-

ceived in the Colonies, 116; troops
introduced into, by Gen. Gage, 119;
port closed, and consequent distress,
ib.; fortifications at the Neck com-
menced by Gen. Gage, 121; block-
ade of, 148; siege of, by Americans,
180; evacuation of, by the British
and Tories, 182; Navy-yard, 652.
Boudinot, Elias, life of, 478.
Boundaries of the United States fixed by
the treaty of 1788, 335.
Braddock, General, arrives from Ire-
land-his authority-his expedition
against the French-his death, 35.
Brandywine, battle of, 217.
Breed's Hill occupied and fortified by
Americans, 159.

British Commissioners (appointed in

1778), arrive in Philadelphia, and
make proposals for peace, which are
rejected by Congress, 243; offer
bribes to members of Congress, pub-
lish addresses to the people, without
effect, and return to England, 244.
British Cabinet, changes in, viz.: Gren-
ville, premier, 52; Rockingham, pre-
mier, 67; Pitt, Earl of Chatham,
forms a cabinet, 72; Duke of Graf-
ton, head of ministry, 79; Lord
North, minister, 94; resigns, 333;
Rockingham, premier, 334; dies, b. ;
Lord Shelburne, premier, ib.
Laws respecting Colonies, 51; Naviga-
tion Act, ib.

Manufactures, Americans resolve not
to import, 66, 74, 78, 79; manufac-

turers and others petition Parlia-
ment in favor of Colonies, 134.
Parliament, denied in America, 74;
proceedings in, against colonies, 79;
refuse to repeal the tea duty, 95;
action of, on Boston tea riot, 108;
debates in, 1776, on employing Ger-
mans, 178; vote large supplies for
the army, and issue letters of
marque, 212; effect of Burgoyne's
surrender on, 230; committee ap-
pointed to inquire into the state of
the nation, ib.; proceedings in, 241;
last speech and death of the Earl of
Chatham, 243; war with France
takes place in consequence of the alli-
ance between France and America,
242; ministers make concessions in
favor of America, ib.; commissioners
sent to America with proposals for
peace, ib.; American independence
advocated by the opposition, ib.;
proceedings in, on reception of
notice of the French treaty with
America, 259; reception of the news
of the disasters in America (1781),
violent debates and censure of min-
ister, 328.

Bunker Hill, battle of, 161.
Burgoyne, Gen., arrives at Boston with
the British army, 159; supersedes
Gov. Carleton in command of the
forces in Canada, 221; plan of his
operations, ib.; forces under his
command, ib.; list of generals in his
army, 222; gives a war-feast to the
Indians, and issues a proclamation
to the Americans, ib.; captures Ti-
conderoga, ib.; pursues the Ameri-
cans to Fort Edward, 222-3; dithi-
culties encountered in his march,
ib.; sends a detachment to Benning-
ton, which is defeated by the Amer-
icans under General Stark, 224; he
crosses the Hudson river, and en-
camps on the heights of Saratoga,
225; his army is attacked by the
Americans, ib.; distressing situation
of his troops, ib.; after a second
battle he retreats a few miles to
the north, 227; has his retreat to
Fort Edward cut off, and is com-
pelled to surrender, with his army,
to the Americans under Gen. Gates,
228; his letter to Lord George Ger-
maine, ib.; his army retained in
America as prisoners until the close
of the war, 309.
Burke, Edmund, in the Rockingham

cabinet, 67; advocates a repeal of
the Stamp Act, 70; describes the
Chatham cabinet, 72; denounces
the measures of government against
the colonies, 78; moves resolutions
against measures of ministers, 95;
opposes Massachusetts bill, 111;
sustains proposition to repeal the
tea duty, 113; opposes the Canada
bill, 114; offers a plan of concilia-
tion, which is rejected by Parlia-
ment, 143; proposes another plan
of conciliation, 182; his sarcasm on
Lord North, 242.

Burr, Aaron, accompanies Arnold in his
expedition to Canada, 168; bears
the body of Gen. Montgomery from
the field before Quebec, ib.

Camden, S. C., battle near, at Sanders'

Creek, and defeat of General Gates,
292; battle near, at Hobkirk's Hill,

Canada, English propose to wrest it
from the French, 27; expeditions
against it in 1704 and 1707, 28; its
subjugation by the British, 46; liber-
al concessions to the people of, 114;
religious division of the population
(note), ib.; expedition to, 165; an-
other expedition planned, 240; de-
tails of the plan stated, 260; French
aid expected, 261; designs of the

French exposed by Washington, in a
letter to Congress, opposing the en-
terprise, ib.; scheme abandoned by
Congress, ib.

Cape Breton retained by France-its
fortifications, 29; restored to France,
30; surrenders to the English, 40.
Capitol, the, at Washington, 686, 688.
Carleton, Sir Guy, governor of Canada,

165; his operations for defence of
the province, ib.; retreats down the
St. Lawrence to Quebec, 166; nar-
row escape of, from Arnold's troops,
167; receives reinforcements, and
defeats the Americans, 169; is
superseded by Gen. Burgoyne, 221;
succeeds Sir Henry Clinton in com-
mand of the British forces in Amer-
ica, and arrives at New York, 239.
Carr, Dabney, of Virginia, proposes to

appoint committees of correspond-
ence in the colonies, 100.
Census (seventh) of the United States,


Champe, Sergeant, his unsuccessful at
tempt to abduct the traitor Arnold,
Champlain, Lake, operations on, 165,
205; battle on, 206, 207.
Charleston, S. C., summoned to surrender
by General Prescott, 270; British
troops withdraw from the siege, ib. ;
siege and capture of, by Sir Henry
Clinton and Admiral Arbuthnot,
289, 290; British take possession of,

Charlestown (Mass.), burned by the
British, 160.

Chatham, Earl of, William Pitt created,
72; cabinet formed by him, ib.;
proposes an address to the King to
remove the troops from Boston,
138; his remarks on the subject,
ib.; presents a bill for settlement of
the colonial troubles, which is re-
jected, 139; submits his plan to
Franklin, ib.; his remarks on em-
ploying German troops, 212; his
remarks on the defeat of Burgoyne's
expedition, 230; moves for a cessa-
tion of hostilities, ib.; his remarks
on American affairs, 241; his last
speech in the House of Lords (being
against the acknowledgment of
American independence), 243; his
death, ib.

Cherry Valley, attack upon, by Tories
and Indians, 253.
Chronological Table, from 1492 to 1854,

Clergy of New England zealous in the
cause of independence, 129.
Clinton, General, Sir Henry, arrives at

Boston with the army, 159; is at

the battle of Bunker Hill, 161;
arrives off the coast of Carolina,
184; attacks Fort Moultrie, near
Charleston, and is defeated, ib.;
joins Howe at New York, 185; is
left by Howe in defence of New
York, 230; promises to attempt a
junction with Burgoyne, who anx-
iously waits for him, 226; moves
from New York up the Hudson,
ten days before the surrender of
Burgoyne, 230; captures Forts
Montgomery and Clinton, 231; leads
the British grenadiers to the assault,
232; dismantles the forts, and re-
turns to New York, 233; succeeds
General Howe in command of the
British army, 245; fights the Amer-
icans at Monmouth, 247; retreats
to New York, 248; marches for
Rhode Island, 249; returns to New
York, sends a detachment to the
South, 254; captures forts at Ver-
planck's and Stony Point, 272;
concentrates his forces at New
York, 277; leaves General Knyp-
hausen in command at New York,
disasters of the voyage, 288; re-
cruits at Savannah, ib.; besieges
Charleston, ib.; attacks the town
from the ships, 289; issues a pro-
clamation, and re-establishes the
royal government in South Caro-
lina, 291; leaves Cornwallis in com-
mand, and returns to New York,
ib.; defeats the Americans under
Greene, 297; negotiates with Gen.
Arnold for the surrender of West
Point, 300; endeavors to save Major
André after his capture, 307; sends
troops to Virginia, under Generals
Arnold and Phillips, 314; his in-
structions to Lord Cornwallis, 322;
receives reinforcements at New
York, 324; sends Arnold on an ex-
pedition to Connecticut, ib.; sails
for Virginia with large reinforce-
ments for Cornwallis, but is too
late, and returns to New York, ib.;
is succeeded in command by Sir
Guy Carleton, 333.
Cockade, adopted by Americans in com-

pliment to the French, 296.
Coinage of the United States, 679, 684.
Colonial Assemblies declare by resolu-

tion the exclusive right of the peo-
ple to tax themselves, 81; deny the
right of the King to remove offen-
ders to England for trial, ib.; dis-
solved by the Governors, ib.
Colonies, concessions to them, 29; pros-

perity of, 47; public feeling in (1770),
85; sympathy of, with Boston and
Massachusetts, 116, 121; popular

commotions in, 123; public feel-
ing in, after battle of Lexington,


Commissioner sent by Virginia to confer
with the French-delicacy of his
duties, 32.

Committee of Correspondence appointed
in New York (1764), 62.
Committee of Correspondence recom-
mended in Virginia (1773), 100; in-
vention of, claimed by Massachu-
setts, ib.; attributed to Dr. Frank-
lin, ib.; beneficial effects of, 101.
Confederation, articles of, considered by

Congress, 171; adopted, 232; re-
visal of, recommended by Congress,


Congress, Senators and Representatives
in, 511-537; delegates from Terri-
tories to (1847), 537; Senators and
Representatives in, from 1847 to
1855, 538-545; sessions of, 546.
Congress of Commissioners, at Albany,
in 1754, 34, 504; adopt a plan of
general government, rejected by
Great Britain and Colonies, 34.
At New York, in 1765, proposed by
Committee of New York Assembly,
62; invited by circular of Massachu-
setts Assembly, ib. and 504.
Meeting of first Colonial (Oct., 1765),
63; list of delegates, 64; proceed-
ings of, ib.

First Continental, at Philadelphia
(1774), recommended by Virginia,
117; by Massachusetts, 118; dele-
gates appointed, ib.; meeting of
delegates, 125; their character and
proceedings, 125, 128; Pitt's opinion
of, 126; provide for a new Congress,
and adjourn, 129.

Second Continental, meet at Philadel
phia, 1775, 154; their proceedings,
ib.; organize a Continental army,
157; issue paper money, 157-171;
consider a plan for confederation,
171; appoint a committee to pre-
pare Declaration of Independence,
187; same, adopted and signed by
members, 188; appoint a committee
of conference to meet Lord Howe,
196; unsuccessful result, 197; ad-
journ to Baltimore, 202; adjourn
from Philadelphia to Lancaster, 219;
adopt articles of confederation, 234;
ratifies treaty with France, 244;
issue a proclamation respecting the
French treaty, ib.; arrange an ex-
pedition against Canada, 240, 260;
scheme opposed by Washington,
261; conference with Washington
on the subject, and abandonment of
the enterprise, 262; party spirit
and dissensions in, 283, 289; recep

tion of the news of the victory at
Yorktown, 327; members appoint
a day for public thanksgiving
throughout the Union, ib.; ratify
the treaty of peace, 335; impotency
of the confederation, 342; pass res-
olutions recommending a conven-
tion to revise the articles of confed-
eration, ib.

Congress, Provincial, formed in Massa-
chusetts, 122; measures adopted
by, ib.; formed in other colonies,
131, 149.
Connecticut, people of, oppose Stamp

Act, 71; sustains Massachusetts with
an army, 147; British expedition to,
under Tryon, 212; Danbury burnt,
213; Tryon's second expedition,
268; Fairfield and Norwalk burnt,
and property at New Haven de-
stroyed, 267.

Conspiracy, to supersede Washington,
239; of General Arnold, with Sir

Henry Clinton, to surrender forts at
West Point, 298.
Constitution, formation and adoption of,
343; organization of the govern-
ment, 344.

Constitutions of the several United
States, 570-595; comparative view
of, 595.
Continental Army, proposed by John

Adams, organized by Congress, 157;
Washington appointed Commander-
in-Chief, 158; other generals ap-
pointed, ib.; deplorable condition
of, 172; reinforced and organized,
ib.; enter Boston, 182; march to
New York, 183; number of at New
York, 192; exploits of, at Trenton,
204; at Princeton, 210; destitute
condition of, 211; encamp at Mor-
ristown, ib.; small-pox breaks out
among the troops, 212; inoculation
checks its progress, ib.; march from
Morristown to Middlebrook, N. J.,
214; increased number of, ib.; in
full possession of New Jersey, 215;
march to Germantown, Penn., and
thence to Brandywine, Del., where
an action with the British takes
place, 217; number of, engaged at
Brandywine, 218; retreat to Phila-
delphia, ib.; abandon Philadelphia,
and take post at Pottsgrove, 219;
attack the British at Germantown,
ib.; go into winter quarters at
Valley Forge, 220; their extreme
hardships and suffering, 220, 238;
operations of the northern division,
239; successful termination of the
campaign by the capture of Bur-
goyne and his army, 228; number
of troops at Valley Forge, and in]

the field, 237, 246; march to New
Jersey in pursuit of the British
army, 246; attack that army under
Generals Clinton and Cornwallis, at
Monmouth Court-House, 247; severe
contest and retreat of the British
army to New York, ib.; Americans
cross the Hudson and encamp at
White Plains, 248; go into winter
quarters at Middlebrook, N. J., ib.;
a detachment of, besiege the town
of Newport, R. I., 249; various en-
campments of in winter quarters,
253; recruiting service and boun-
ties, 267; opening of campaign of
1779 at the South, ib.; operations
and movements of General Lincoln,
268, 270, 277, 279; storming of
Stony Point by Wayne, 274; Sulli-
van's expedition against the Indians,
278; termination of the campaign
of 1779, 282; main division of the
army go into winter quarters at
Morristown, ib.; other stations, ib.;
reinforcements sent to General Lin-
coln's army at the South, ib.; scar-
city of provisions in the main army,
ib.; supplies demanded and obtain-
ed from New Jersey, 283; operations
at the South, 289-295; surrender of
General Lincoln's army, at Charles-
ton, 290; defeat of General Gates
in Carolina, 292; General Gates
superseded in command by General
Greene, 295; distress of, at the
North, under Washington, ib.; affair
at Springfield, N. J., 297; number
of, in the campaign of 1780, ib.;
revolt of Pennsylvania and New
Jersey lines quesled, 312–313; mu-
tineers reject the offers of Sir Henry
Clinton, 312; operations at the
South, 315-322; junction of the
army at the North with the French
army, 323; march of the combined
armies to Virginia, 324; reinforce-
ment sent to General Greene, and
the main body of the American
army returns to New Jersey, 327;
disbanded on the conclusion of
peace, 335; discontent of the sol-
diers, 336; Newburgh address to,
337; prudence and influence of
Washington, 338.

Continental Congress, sessions of, 506;
members of, 507.
Continental Money, first issue of 157;

repeated issues of, 266; specimen
of bills, 175; great depreciation of
in value, 266; efforts of Congress to
sustain the credit of, ib.
Convention, held at Albany; adopt a

plan of government, its plan reject-
ed by the colonies and the crown,

34; to form a constitution, 342;|
proceedings of, 343, 489.
Council of Governor of Province at Al-
bany, 38.

Conway, General, opposes the Stamp

Act, 61; his portrait ordered for
Faneuil Hall, 62; member of the
Rockingham Cabinet, 67; advocates
repeal of tea duties, 95; moves for
an address to the king in favor of
peace, 333.
Conway, General (Brigadier in the Con-
tinental Army), his conspiracy with
Gates and Mifflin against Washing-
ton, 239; Inspector-General of the
army, 240; writes to Washington,
and expresses regret for his conduct,
ib.; resigns his commission, and re-
turns to Europe, ib.

Cornwallis, Lord, arrives on the coast of

North Carolina with a squadron
and troops, 183; commands part of
the army at battle of Long Island,
194; lends a British army, and
crosses the Hudson river, 200; at-
tacks and carries Fort Lee, ib.; pur-
sues the American army across New
Jersey to Trenton, 201; out-gener-
alled by Washington, falls back
upon New Brunswick, 210-211;
surprises General Lincoln at Bound-
brook, N. J., 212; defeats Lord Stir-
ling, 215; defeats Gen. Sullivan at
Brandywine, 218; takes the Ameri-
can fort at Red Bank, on the Dela-
ware, 219; at the battle of Mon-
mouth, 247; commands part of the
army of the South, and takes George-
town, South Carolina, 291; Clinton
returns to New York, and leaves
Cornwallis to succeed him in com-
mand at the South, ib.; joins Lord
Rawdon, on the approach of the
American army under Gen. Gates,
and they engage the latter at San-
ders' Creek, 292; orders a charge
with fixed bayonets, and defeats the
Americans, with great slaughter,
ib.; sends Colonel Ferguson with a
body of loyalists to sweep the coun-
try to Virginia, 293; the British
troops under Rawdon retire to Cam-
den, takes the field in person, and
marches in pursuit of Morgan, 316;
follows the American army, com-
manded by Greene, and engages
him at Guilford Court-House, 318;
operations in Virginia, 322; en-
camps at and fortifies Yorktown,
ib.; force in Virginia under his
command, ib.; is besieged at York
town by the combined American
and French armies, 325; attempts
to retreat a storm prevents-

he surrenders to the allied armies,

Customs, Commissioners of, created by
act of Parliament, 73; arrival of, in
the colonies, 75; their proceedings
in Boston, ib.; opposed by the peo-
ple, and flee, 76.

Customs, the, 661; collection of the, 665;
custom-houses, New York, Philadel
phia, &c., 667.

Danbury, Conn., burnt by British troops
under Gov. Tryon, 213.

D'Anville, Duke, sent to America with
a fleet-his fleet dispersed-return
to France, 30.

Deane, Silas, American agent in France,

206; his success there, ib.; is ap-
pointed commissioner with Franklin
and Arthur Lee, ib.; recalled in
consequence of charges against him,
284; returns, and publishes a de-
fence of his conduct, ib.

Declaration of Independence, mentioned
by Patrick Henry in 1773, 127; for-
mally adopted at Mecklenburg, N.
Carolina, in May, 1775, 149; com-
mittee of Congress appointed to pre-
pare one, 187; adopted and signed
by Congress, 188; received by the
people with enthusiasm, ib.; read
to the Continental Army, 191.
D'Estaing, Count, arrives with a French



fleet on the American coast, 248;
proceeds from the Chesapeake to
Sandy Hook, and thence to Rhode
Island, 249-250; sails to attack the
British fleet under Lord Howe, but
a storm prevents an engagement,
249; refuses to co-operate with the
American army in the siege of New-
port, R. I., and sails to Boston to re-
pair, ib.; is censured by the Ameri-
cans, 250; defeats the English ad-
miral Byron in the West Indies, and
arrives on the coast of Georgia, 277;
captures a squadron of four British
ships, ib.; lands his forces, and as-
sists General Lincoln and the Ameri-
cans in storming Savannah, ib.; they
are repulsed, and the French retire
on board of the fleet, 278; encoun-
ters severe storms, and returns to
France, ib.; his death, ib.
Grasse, Count, commands the French
fleet in America, 324; informs
Washington of his movements, ib.;
enters the Chesapeake, 325; assists
at the siege of Yorktown, 326; sails
for the West Indies, 327.

Kalb, Baron, commands a body of
the American troops, and is killed
at the battle of Sanders' Creek,

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