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divine worship in the congregational church, the lady being a professor of religion. The president was carefully educated in the religious principles which distinguished the first settlers of New England; and in early manhood he became attached to those doctrines in which he was educated.

The personal appearance of General Pierce is elegant and commanding. His height is about five feet ten inches; he is rather slight in figure, and has a very pleasant and impressive address. His eyes are dark, bright, and piercing; his hair dark; his forehead and face fine, open, and frank in their expression.

The votes for president and vice-president having been counted in Congress on the 9th February, and the result declared, a joint committee was appointed to wait upon the president elect and inform him of his election. In his reply to the committee, Mr. Pierce said: "You will please to communicate to the respective houses of Congress my acceptance of the trust confided to me, and at the same time express to them my grateful acknowledgments, and assure them of the deep sense of obligation with which I regard this manifestation on the part of my countrymen. It will be my earnest endeavor to prove that their confidence has not been misplaced."


THE national ceremony of the inauguration of the president of the United States took place, as usual, at the city of Washington, on Friday, March 4, 1853. A large concourse of strangers as well as citizens were in attendance; and it was estimated that the census of Washington city and Georgetown had been increased, within a week of the time, upward of twenty thousand persons. The country adjacent to the capitol poured in, on the morning of the ceremony, from every point of the compass, until at length there must have been, for a time, approximating seventy or eighty thousand persons within the city limits. At an early hour, drums beat, and music resounded in various parts of the city, to arouse and prepare the people for the pageant of the day. The weather was not pleasant; a raw northeasterly wind, wafting a continuous though fastmelting snow, made its effects felt on all exposed to it: still, it was not forbidding enough to prevent any, but invalids, from participating in the scene in the open air.

The military array was on a scale grander than any that had preceded it in Washington. Besides the United States troops and volunteer regiment of the District of Columbia, several military companies were pres

ent from New York, Baltimore, and other places. These, with the other constituent parts of the procession, met on the parade-ground in front of the city-hall, and about noon marched thence to Pennsylvania avenue, to escort FRANKLIN PIERCE, the president elect, from his lodgings, at Willard's hotel, to the capitol.

Arrived at the hotel, the procession was joined by an open barouche, containing President Fillmore and the president elect, and Senators Bright, of Indiana, and Hamlin, of Maine, of the committee of arrangements; the barouche being surrounded by the marshal of the District of Columbia and his aids. First in the procession were the United States artillery and marines, followed by the other military companies; then followed the president's barouche; after which were several fire companies, bands of marine, and democratic associations from various cities. In order to accommodate the people as much as possible, in viewing the ceremony, the large gates of the capitol-yard were closed to carriages. The president's party and the diplomatic corps were admitted by the north-side gate and a covered way to the north door of the capitol. The pedestrian portion of the procession, with the people at large, entered by one of the side gates.

The president, president elect, and committee of arrangements, having arrived in the senate-chamber, after the usual formalities there, they proceeded thence to the platform erected for the occasion, over the steps leading up to the eastern portico. The president elect then stood forward, and, holding up his right hand, took the oath of office, which was administered by the chief-justice of the United States, Roger B. Taney.

President Pierce then delivered his inaugural address, without the use of notes or written paper (in this respect differing from all his predecessors); but with much energy and oratorical action, and with a strong, clear voice, that made itself heard over an area containing about fifteen thousand spectators. The address was commenced at half-past one o'clock, or one hour after the first movement of the procession, and concluded at about two o'clock. It was received with enthusiasm by the immense audience who listened to it.

The artillery announced the conclusion of the address; and the president, escorted by the military and accompanied by Ex-President Fillmore and others, proceeded to the presidential mansion, where the new president received the congratulations of the people as they passed rapidly through the circular room, from the north to the south front of the mansion. Ex-President Fillmore then left the president, and occupied the suite of rooms which had been vacated by Mr. Pierce at Willard's hotel.

The vice-president elect, William R. King, was absent from ill-health, and at the time of the inauguration was sojourning at the island of Cuba, in the West Indies. The oath of office was administered to Mr. King at

Matanzas, by the United States consul, according to a special act of Congress; soon after which, he returned to his residence near Selina, Alabama, where he died.


On the 7th of March, President Pierce nominated the following gentlemen to compose his cabinet, and they were forthwith confirmed without opposition by the senate, which was then in session: William L. Marcy, of New York, secretary of state; James Guthrie, of Kentucky, secretary of the treasury; Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, secretary of war; James C. Dobbin, of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Robert M'Clelland, of Michigan, secretary of the interior; James Campbell, of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general; Caleb Cushing, of Massachusetts, attorney-general.

These heads of departments entered on their duties the following day.


Abercrombie, General, appointed Com-]
mander-in-Chief, 40.

Acadia restored to France, 28.
Act of British Parliament, the first, for
taxing the Colonies, proposed in
1764, 53.

Stamp, passed, 58; repealed, 70.
A new one, for taxing the Colonies,
passed (1767), 73.

Establishing a Board of Trade in the
Colonies, passed, ib.
Prohibiting New York Assembly from
passing laws, ib.

Shutting up the port of Boston, 117.
Altering charter of Massachusetts, ib.
Providing for sending criminals to Eng-
land for trial, 112.
Adams, John, declines office under Gov. |
Bernard, 77; defends the cause of
Captain Preston and other soldiers
before the court at Boston, 93; ap-
pointed Minister to Great Britain,
299; Commissioner to negotiate for
peace, 334.

—, (vol. ii.), early life of, and
marriage, 92; chosen representative
to the Legislature of Massachusetts,
92; his plan for the new State Con-
stitution, 93; appointed minister to
Great Britain, 93; elected Vice-
President, 94; President of the
United States, 95; his death, 97;
his administration, 99; the Fifth
Congress held at Philadelphia, 101;
passage of the alien and sedition
laws, 102; protection of American
seamen, 103; claims of the United
States on France, 105; Gen. Hamil-
ton's censure on, 106; law relating
to the Federal judiciary, 107.
-, John Quincy, (vol. ii.), his parent-
age and birth, 256; mission abroad,
259; elected to the Senate, 260;
Secretary of State, 262; President,
264; his career in Congress, 266;
administration of, 267; controversy
with Georgia, 269; proposed Con-

gress of North and South American
States, 273; defeat of the bankrupt
law, 280; appropriation for the nav-
igation of the Ohio, 280; partisan
opposition to the government, 282;
new tariff bill, 284; election of Gen.
Jackson to the Presidency, 285;
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co.
grant, 286; exploring expedition to
the South Seas, 287; appropriation
for light-houses, arsenals, armories,

Samuel, rejects the offers of
Governors Bernard and Hutchinson,
77; demands and obtains from the
Governor the removal of British
troops from Boston, 92.
Administration, British; changes in

(1763), 52; (1765), 67; (1766), 72;
(1768), 79; (1770), 95; (1783), 333,

Administrations from 1789 to 1855, 550

to 554.

Allen, Ethan, plans an expedition

against Ticonderoga, 153; captures
that fortress, Crown Point, and
Skenesborough, 153-4; attempts to
take Montreal, 166; is defeated,
taken prisoner, and sent to England
in irons, ib.

American Union, documentary history

of, 489.

Amherst, General, at Ticonderoga, pur-
sues the French; returns to Crown
Point, 42.

André, Major John (Adjutant-General of

the British army), negotiates with
General Arnold for the surrender of
West Point, 300; his interview with
Arnold, 303; is arrested on his re-
turn to New York, 304; tried and
executed as a spy, 307; his unhappy
fate lamented, 308; notice of his
early life and character, ib.
Armed Neutrality, confederacy so called,
formed, 309; parties to, and contin-
uation of, ib.

Army, American, organized by Provin-

cial Congress of Massachusetts, 147;
Continental, organized by Congress,
157; Washington appointed Com-
mander-in-Chief, 158; other generals
appointed, ib.; march from Morris-
town, 214; increased number of,
ib.; in full possession of New Jersey,


Army, British, dispersed to their homes,

38; British troops introduced into
Boston, 76; augmentation of, in
America, 141, 159, 175; German
troops employed, ib.; arrival of at
New York, 192; number and con-
dition of, ib.; land on Long Island,
194; enter city of New York, 198;
pass up the East River, 199; num-
ber and condition of, 200; pursue
the Americans across New Jersey,
201; various operations of, 203, 204,
210-230; number of, embarked at
New York for Philadelphia, 215;
Northern Division of, under General
Burgoyne, account of operations,
221-28; entire surrender and dis-
persion of, 229; division under
Howe at Philadelphia, conduct of,
in that city, 245, 246; Gen. Howe
succeeded in command by Sir Henry
Clinton, 245; evacuate Philadelphia,
246; pursued by Americans, ib.;
number of, in 1778, 246; after battle
of Monmouth, British retreat to
New York, greatly reduced in num-
bers, 248; defence of Rhode Island,
249; conquest of Georgia, 254; sta-
tions of, in 1779, 267; operations at
the South, ib.; brutal conduct of the
soldiers, 271; expedition against
Virginia, ib.; defence of Savannah,
278; operations at the South, 288;
siege and capture of Charleston and
the American army under General
Lincoln, 289, 290; operations of, at
the South, in 1780, 291-295; in
1781, 315-322; surrender of, at
Yorktown, 326; situation of, at the
close of the campaign of 1781, 327;
evacuate the cities held by them in
the United States, 336.
Army, French, arrive in the United

States (at Newport), 297; number
of, ib.; go into winter quarters,
298; join the Americans, ib.; march
for Virginia, 324; action of, at York-
town, 325; canton at Williamsburg,
327; return to France, 469.
Arnold, Benedict, appointed Colonel in

the Provincial Army by Massachu-
setts, 153; proceeds against Ticon-
deroga, ib.; co-operates with Ethan
Allen in the capture of Ticonderoga,
Crown Point, and Skenesborough,

153, 154; captures an English cor-
vette on Lake Champlain, 154;
commands an expedition to Canada,
166; maintains his position near
Quebec, 168; American army evac-
uate Canada, 169; appointed Brig-
adier-General, 205; commands a
squadron on Lake Champlain, ib.;
fights a naval battle on the lake, is
defeated, 205, 206; his gallant ex-
ploits and fight with the English
troops under Tryon, ib.; Congress
presents him with a horse, ib.; takes
command of troops on the Dela-
ware, 214; joins the northern army
under Gen. Gates, 225; takes pos-
session of Philadelphia, 246; Wash-
ington appoints him Military Gover-
nor of Philadelphia, ib.; his mar-
riage and extravagance, ib.; charges
against him laid before Congress,
299; his sentence, reprimand, and
disaffection, ib.; Washington ap-
points him commander at West
Point, 300; forms a plan to betray
his country, by delivering that for-
tress to the British, ib.; opens nego-
tiations with Sir Henry Clinton, ib.;
his interview and conference with
Major André, 303; escapes on hear-
ing of the arrest of André, 307; un-
successful attempt to capture him
at New York, ib.; appointed Brig.-
Gen. in the British Army, 308; his
expedition against Virginia, 313;
failure of attempt to capture him
and his army in Virginia, 314; de-
stroys much property, and returns
to Petersburg, ib.; his forces joined
by those of Cornwallis, 322; is sent
by Sir H. Clinton on an expedition
to Connecticut, burns New London,
captures the forts, and returns to
New York, 325.
Associations formed in the Colonies

against the Stamp Act, 66; against
importing British goods, 66, 74; to
encourage domestic manufactures,
66, 76.

Barré, Col., opposes the Stamp Act, 57;
his portrait, with Conway's, ordered
in Boston, 62; predicts the loss of
the Colonies to Great Britain (in
1769), 81; advocates repeal of tea
duty, 95; opposes bills against Mas-
sachusetts, 111, 112; his censure of
Lord North, 143.

Barton, Col., captures General Prescott,

216; Congress presents him with a
sword, ib.

Battle on the plains of Abraham, 44; of
Lexington, 145; effect of, 147; of
Bunker Hill, 161; of Long Island,

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