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divine worship in the congregational church, the lady being a professor of religion. The president was carefully educated in the religious principles which distinguished the first settlers of New England; and in early manhood he became attached to those doctrines in which he was educated.

The personal appearance of General Pierce is elegant and commanding. His height is about five feet ten inches; he is rather slight in figure, and has a very pleasant and impressive address. His eyes are dark, bright, and piercing; his hair dark; his forehead and face fine, open, and frank in their expression.

The votes for president and vice-president having been counted in Congress on the 9th February, and the result declared, a joint committee was appointed to wait upon the president elect and inform him of his election. In his reply to the committee, Mr. Pierce said: “You will please to communicate to the respective houses of Congress my acceptance of the trust confided to me, and at the same time express to them my grateful acknowledgments, and assure them of the deep sense of obligation with which I regard this manifestation on the part of my countrymen. It will be my earnest endeavor to prove that their confidence has not been misplaced.”


The national ceremony of the inauguration of the president of the United States took place, as usual, at the city of Washington, on Friday, March 4, 1853. A large concourse of strangers as well as citizens were in attendance ; and it was estimated that the census of Washington city and Georgetown had been increased, within a week of the time, upward of twenty thousand persons. The country adjacent to the capitol poured in, on the morning of the ceremony, from every point of the compass, until at length there must have been, for a time, approximating seventy or eighty thousand persons within the city limits. At an early hour, drums beat, and music resounded in various parts of the city, to arouse and prepare the people for the pageant of the day. The weather was not pleasant; a raw northeasterly wind, wasting a continuous though fastmelting snow, made its effects felt on all exposed to it: still, it was not forbidding enough to prevent any, but invalids, from participating in the scenc

ne in the open air. The military array was on a scale grander than any that had preceded it in Washington. Besides the United States troops and volunteer regiment of the District of Columbia, several military companies were present from New York, Baltimore, and other places. These, with the other constituent parts of the procession, met on the parade-ground in front of the city-hall, and about noon marched thence to Pennsylvania avenue, to escort Franklin Pierce, the president elect, from his lodgings, at Willard's hotel, to the capitol.

Arrived at the hotel, the procession was joined by an open barouche, containing President Fillmore and the president elect, and Senators Bright, of Indiana, and Hamlin, of Maine, of the committee of arrangements; the barouche being surrounded by the marshal of the District of Columbia and his aids. First in the procession were the United States artillery and marines, followed by the other military companies ; then followed the president's barouche; after which were several fire companies, bands of marine, and democratic associations from various cities. In order to accommodate the people as much as possible, in viewing the ceremony, the large gates of the capitol-yard were closed to carriages. The president's party and the diplomatic corps were admitted by the north-side gate and a covered way to the north door of the capitol. The pedestrian portion of the procession, with the people at large, entered by one of the side gates.

The president, president elect, and committee of arrangements, having arrived in the senate-chamber, after the usual formalities there, they proceeded thence to the platform erected for the occasion, over the steps leading up to the eastern portico. The president elect then stood forward, and, holding up his right hand, took the oath of office, which was administered by the chief-justice of the United States, Roger B. Taney.

President Pierce then delivered his inaugural address, without the use of notes or written paper (in this respect differing from all his predecessors); but with much energy and oratorical action, and with a strong, clear voice, that made itself heard over an area containing about fifteen thousand spectators. The address was commenced at half-past one o'clock, or one hour after the first movement of the procession, and concluded at about two o'clock. It was received with enthusiasm by the immense audience who listened to it.

The artillery announced the conclusion of the address; and the president, escorted by the military and accompanied by Ex-President Fillmore and others, proceeded to the presidential mansion, where the new president received the congratulations of the people as they passed rapidly through the circular room, from the north to the south front of the mansion. Ex-President Fillmore then left the president, and occupied the suite of rooms which had been vacated by Mr. Pierce at Willard's hotel.

The vice-president elect, William R. King, was absent from ill-health, and at the time of the inauguration was sojourning at the island of Cuba, in the West Indies. The oath of office was administered to Mr. King at Matanzas, by the United States consul, according to a special act of Congress; soon after which, he returned to his residence near Selina, Alabama, where he died.


On the 7th of March, President Pierce nominated the following gentlemen to compose his cabinet, and they were forthwith confirmed without opposition by the senate, which was then in session : William L. Marcy, of New York, secretary of state ; James Guthrie, of Kentucky, secretary of the treasury; Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, secretary of war; James C. Dobbin, of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Robert M'Clelland, of Michigan, secretary of the interior ; James Campbell, of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general; Caleb Cushing, of Massachusetts, attorney-general.

These heads of departments entered on their duties the following day.


Abercrombie, General, appointed Com- gress of North and South American
mander-in-Chief, 40.

States, 273; defeat of the bankrupt
Acadia restored to France, 28.

law, 280; appropriation for the nav-
Act of British Parliament, the first, for igation of the Ohio, 280; partisan

taxing the Colonies, proposed in opposition to the government, 282;
1764, 53.

new tariff bill, 284; election of Gen.
Stamp, passed, 58; repealed, 70.

Jackson to the Presidency, 285;
A new one, for taxing the Colonies, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Co.
passed (1767), 73.

grant, 286; exploring expedition to
Establishing a Board of Trade in the the South Seas, 287; appropriation
Colonies, passed, ib.

for light-houses, arsenals, armories,
Prohibiting New York Assembly from 288.
passing laws, ib.

Samuel, rejects the offers of
Shutting up the port of Boston, 117. Governors Bernard and Hutchinson,
Altering charter of Massachusetts, ib. 77; demands and obtains from the
Providing for sending criminals to Eng- Governor the removal of British
land for trial, 112.

troops from Boston, 92.
Adams, John, declines office under Gov. Administration, British; changes in

Bernard, 77; defends the cause of (1763), 52; (1765), 67; (1766), 72;
Captain Preston and other soldiers (1768), 79; (1770), 95; (1783), 333,
before the court at Boston, 93; ap- 334.
pointed Minister to Great Britain, Administrations from 1789 to 1855, 550
299; Commissioner to negotiate for to 554.

Allen, Ethan, plans an expedition
(vol. ii.), early life of, and against Ticonderoga, 153; captures
marriage, 92; chosen representative that fortress, Crown Point, and
to the Legislature of Massachusetts, Skenesborough, 153-4; attempts to
92; his plan for the new State Con- take Montreal, 166; is defeated,
stitution, 93 ; appointed minister to taken prisoner, and sent to England
Great Britain, 93; elected Vice- in irons, ib.
President, 94; President of the American Union, documentary history
United States, 95; his death, 97; of, 489.
his administration, 99; the Fifth Amherst, General, at Ticonderoga, pur-
Congress held at Philadelphia, 101 ; sues the French; returns to Crown
passage of the alien and sedition Point, 42.
saws, 102 ; protection of American André, Major John (Adjutant-General of
seamen, 103; claims of the United the British army), negotiates with
States on France, 105; Gen. Hamil. General Arnold for the surrender of
ton's censure on, 106; law relating West Point, 300; his interview with
to the Federal judiciary, 107.

Arnold, 303; is arrested on his re-
- John Quincy, (vol. ii.), his parent- turn to New York, 304; tried and
age and birth, 256; mission abroad, executed as a spy, 307; his unhappy
259; elected to the Senate, 260; fate lamented, 308; notice of his
Secretary of State, 262; President, early life and character, ib.
264; bis career in Congress, 266; Armed Neutrality, confederacy so called,
administration of, 267; controversy formed, 309; parties to, and contin-
with Georgia, 269; proposed Con- uation of, ib.

peace, 334.

vette on

Army, American, organized by Provin- 153, 154; captures an English cor-
cial Congress of Massachusetts, 147;

Lake Champlain, 154;
Continental, organized by Congress, commands an expedition to Canada,
157; Washington appointed Com- 166; maintains his position near
mander-in-Chief, 158; other generals Quebec, 168; American army evac-
appointed, ib.; march from Morris- uate Canada, 169; appointed Brig-
town, 214; increased number of, adier-General, 205; commands a
ib.; in full possession of New Jersey, squadron on Lake Champlain, ib.;

fights a naval battle on the lake, is
Army, British, dispersed to their homes, defeated, 205, 206; his gallant ex-

38; British troops introduced into ploits and fight with the English
Boston, 76; augmentation of, in troops under Tryon, ib. ; Congress
America, 141, 159, 175; German presents him with a horse, ib.; takes
troops employed, ib. ; arrival of at command of troops on the Dela-
New York, 192; number and con- ware, 214; joins the northern army
dition of, ib.; land on Long Island, under Gen. Gates, 225; takes pos-
194; enter city of New York, 198; session of Philadelphia, 246; Wash-
pass up the East River, 199; num- ington appoints him Military Gover-
ber and condition of, 200; pursue nor of Philadelphia, ib.; his mar-
the Americans across New Jersey, riage and extravagance, ib.; charges
201; various operations of, 203, 204, against him laid before Congress,
210-230; number of, embarked at 299; his sentence, reprimand, and
New York for Philadelphia, 215; disaffection, ib.; Washington ap-
Northern Division of, under General points him commander at West
Burgoyne, account of operations, Point, 300; forms a plan to betray
221-28; entire surrender and dig. his country, by delivering that for-
persion of, 229; division under tress to the British, ib.; opens nego-
Howe at Philadelphia, conduct of, tiations with Sir Henry Clinton, ib.;
in that city, 245, 246; Gen. Howe his interview and conference with
succeeded in command by Sir Henry Major André, 303; escapes on hear-
Clinton, 245; evacuate Philadelphia, ing of the arrest of André, 307; un-
246 ; pursued by Americans, ib.; successful attempt to capture him
number of, in 1778, 246; after battle at New York, ib.; appointed Brig.-
of Monmouth, British retreat to Gen. in the British Army, 308 ; his
New York, greatly reduced in num- expedition against Virginia, 313;
bers, 248; defence of Rhode Island, failure of attempt to capture him
249; conquest of Georgia, 254; sta- and his army in Virginia, 314; de-
tions of, in 1779, 267; operations at stroys much property, and returns
the South, ib.; brutal conduct of the to Petersburg, ibi; his forces joined
soldiers, 271; expedition against by those of Cornwallis, 322; is sent
Virginia, ib.; defence of Savannah, by Sir H. Clinton on an expedition
278; operations at the South, 288; to Connecticut, burns New London,
siege and capture of Charleston and captures the forts, and returns to
the American army under General New York, 325.
Lincoln, 289, 290; operations of, at Associations formed in the Colonies
the South, in 1780, 291-295; in against the Stamp Act, 66; against
1781, 317–322 ; surrender of, at importing British goods, 66, 74; to
Yorktown, 326 ; situation of, at the encourage domestic manufactures,
close of the campaign of 1781, 327;

66, 76.
evacuate the cities held by them in
the United States, 336.

Barré, Col., opposes the Stamp Act. 57;
Army, French, arrive in the United his portrait, with Conway's, ordered

States (at Newport), 297; number in Boston, 62; predicts the loss of
of, ib.; go into winter quarters, the Colonies to Great Britain (in
298; join the Americans, ib. ; march 1769), 81; advocates repeal of tea
for Virginia, 324; action of, at York- duty, 95 ; opposes bills against Mas-
town, 325; canton at Williamsbury, sachusetts, 111, 112; his censure of
327; return to France, 469.

Lord North, 143.
Arnold, Benedict, appointed Colonel in Barton, Col., captures General Prescott,

the Provincial Army by Massachu- 216; Congress presents him with a
setts, 163; proceeds against Ticon- sword, ib.
deroga, ib.; co-operates with Ethan Battle on the plains of Abraham, 44; of
Allen in the capture of Ticonderoga, Lexington, 145; effect of, 147; of
Crown Point, and Skenesborough, Bunker Hill, 161; of Long Island,

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