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contrary wind, and to be detained on the sea or forced to anchor off Tenedos. We were opposite cape Baba or Lectds, a promontory of mount Ida, in the evening; and had in view Tenedos and Lemnos and the main land both of Europe and Asia. We could discern sires on Lesbos, as before on several islands and capes, made chiefly by fishermen and shepherds, who live much abroad in the air; or to burn trie strong stalks of the Turkey wheat and the dry herbage on the mountains. In the day-time a column of smoke often ascends, visible afar.
Saturday, August the 25th, the fun rising beautifully behind mount Ida disclosed its numerous tops, and brightened the surface of the sea. We were now entering the Hellespont, with the Troad on cur right hand, and on the lest the Cherroneseor peninsula of Thrace. About sir in the morning we were within Sigtum and the opposite promontory Mastusia. They are divided, by a very narrow strait. We then passed between the two castles erected by Mahomet the Fourth in 1659. That on the European side stands high, the other low; and by each is a town. These structures, with the houses, the graceful mijiarets and cypresses, the mountains, and islands, and shining water, formed a view exceedingly delicious. The cocks crowed ashore, and were answered by those in our coops on board, the waves broke on the Asiatic beach with an amusing murmur, and the soft air wafted fragrance.
We now saw a level and extensive plain, the scene, as we conceived, of the battles of the Jliad, with barrow* of heroes, and
the river Scamander, which had a bank or bar of sand at the mouth. The stream was then inconsiderable, butj we were told, is in. winter frequently swollen to a great size, and discolours the sea far without the promontories. The shore of the Cherronese, as we advanced, was steep, of a dry barren aspect, and contrasted by the Asiatic coast, which rises gently, mount Ida terminating the view. The width of the Hellespont, the smoothness of the water, and the rippling of the current, reminded us of the Thames. Xerxes but slightly degraded it, when he stiled it a salt river.
We now approached the inner castles, which were erected by Mahomet the second, and command a very narrow strait, dividing the two continents. By each is a town ; and at that in Ana was hoisted a white flag, near the seaside, and also a red one with the cross. These belonged to the English and French nations. As we had agreed to land here, the Captain, when we were abreast with the Asiatic castle, brought the (hip too. arid made a signal for a scheick or \vhe*ry to come along side. Our baggage was lowered into it with great expedition, and we quitted the ship, which fired thnee guns, and failed away.
After leaving the Anglicana, we had scarcely time to contemplate the savage figures of oar boatmen, who had their necks and arms bare, and their faces yellow from the fun, before we reached land. The current carried us below the castle, where we saw on the shore two Turkish women. But what figures! each wrapped in a white liieet, shapeless, and stalk
ing in boots. A company of Turks assembled on the beach to view the ship, seemed as it were a new species of human beings. They were in general large and tall; some with long, comely or venerable beards, of a portly rnein and noble presence, to which their high turbans and loose garments, of various lively colours, greatly contributed; adding, besides their majesty, to the apparent bulk of the wearers.
We were received on the shore by the English consul, a fat, welllooking Jew, who, aster bidding tis welcome in broken Italian or Lingua Franca, conducted U9 through the town to his house, in the quarter alligned to that nation. We ascended some stairs into a room, which had a raised floor covered with a carpet. Round three sides was a low sopha with cushions for leaning. The cooling breeze entered at the wooden lattices of the windows. Their law not permitting the Jews to touch fire on their sabbath, our host was in distress about our entertainment. However we were soon presented with the customary refreshments, a pipe of lighted tobacco; a spoonful of sweet-meat put into our mouths; and coffee in a china cup, which was placed in one of filligree-work, to prevent it from burning our fingers. The consul then introduced to us a young man his brother, and his wile and daughter; the latter a girl in a long white vest, with a zone about her middle, her feet naked, her nails dyed red, her hair platted and banging down her back. She came to us, and taking the right hand of each separately, kissed and gently moved it to her forehead.
We found some difficulty in complying with the oriental mode of sitting cross-legged, but ac dinner it was necessary, the table being only a large low salver, placed on the carpet. A variety of dishes wera served up in quick succession, and we were supplied at rapidly with cups of wine. We had no plates, or knives and forks, but used our fingers. The whole repast and the apparatus was antique. It concluded with fruits of wholesome quality and exquisite flavour, figs and melons such as are peculiar to hot climates, and grapes in large and rich clusters fresh from the vineyard. The consul ate with us, while his brother waited, with another jew. When we had finished, we washed, one of our attendants bringing an ewer, a bason and a towel, and pouring water on our hand*. We then received each a cup of coffee, and our host, who was much fatigued with his sultry walk to the beach and afterwards 10 the governor to inform him of our arrival, retired with the whole family to sleep, as is the universal practice toward noon, when the beat becomes exceedingly intense.
In the evening we went with the consul to view the town. We sound the houses numerous, mostly of wood and mean, and the Streets very narrow. We saw the manufactory of earthen ware, which is considerable; and we supposed the fashion had never altered, the jars and vessels in general retaining the old shapes, and seeming formed by antient models. The situation of the place is low and subject to epidemical disorders. Besidesthese, the plague, which commonlyvisits the inhabitants every year, a remarkably fixed as grave-stones; some carved with Turkish characters in relievo, gilded and painted. In the Armenian burying-ground we discovered a long Greek inscription on a flab of white marble, but not legible. On a rocky eminence on the' side
remarkably destructive, and seldom Mary, which was found in the rubfails co make a long stay. The biih of a church there. On the ccemeteries are swelled to a great European side, opposite to the extent round the town, and filled Rhodius, was Cynossema, The Barwith broken columns, pieces of rovi ef Hecuba, which is still very granate, and marble fragments, conspicuous, and within or close
by the castle.
We returned, when we had finished our survey, to our lodging, where we supped cross-legged, about fun-set. Soon after, when it was dark, three coverlets richly embroidered were taken from a
next the Propontis is a range of press in the room, which we re
The town and castle has on the south a river, which descends from mount Ida. Its source, as we were told, is seven hours up in the country; and its violence, after snow or rain upon the summits, prodigious. A thick wall has been erected, and plane-trees disposed to keep off the torrent, and protect the buildings from its assaults. At the mouth, like the Scamander, it had then a bar of sand. The bed was wide, stony, and intersected with green thickets, but had water in the cavities, at which many women, with their faces mufHed, were busy washing linen, and spreading it on the ground to dry.
Thisjiver enables us to ascertain the site of the inner castles, a point of some consequence in the topography of the Hellespont. Its ancient name, as appears from Strabo, was Rhodius ; and it entered the sea between Dardanus and Abvdos. The remnants of marble, which we saw in the buryinggrounds about the town, have been removed thither chiefly from the ruins of these cities, particularly of the latter, which was the most considerable. The consul shewed ns a head of an image of the Virgin Vol. XVIII.
cupied; and delivered, one to each, of us; the carpet or sopha and a cushion serving, with this addition, instead of a bed. A lamp was left burning on a slielf, and the consul retired to his family, which lay in the fame manner in an adjoining apartment. We pulled oft" our coats and (hoes, and expected to be much refreshed by sleeping on shore. We had not been apprized of a nightly plague, which iMunts the place, or perhaps rather the houses of the Jews. Two of us could not obtain rest for a moment, but waited the approach of dawn with a degreeof impatience equalled only by our bodily sufferings, which cannot be described.
We had agreed in the evening to visit some neighbouring places on the continent, with the principal islands near the mouth of the Hellespont. Early in the morning the consul asked for money to purchase provisions, which, with other necessaries, were put into a scheile or wherry. He embarked with as, between the hours of eight and nine by our watches. We had six Turks, who rowed; a Janizary, and a Jew servant. The two latter, with the consul, sate cross-legged R before before us, on a small carpet; as the rais or nailer of the boat did behind, steering with the handle of the helm over his slioulder.
We soon crossed the Hellespont, and coasting by the European shore, saw several solitary king - fishers, with young partridge, among vast single rocks. The winter torrents bad worn deep gullies, but the courses were dry, except a stream, which we were informed, turns a mill. A narrow valley, or two, was green with the cotton plant and with vines, or sowed with grain.
After palling the mouth of a port or bay called anciently Ccelos, we landed about eleven on the Chersonese of Thrace, near the first European cattle, within the entrance of the Hellespont; a:id ascended to (he milerable cottage of a poor Jew in the town. Here a mat was spread on the mud Moor os a room by the sea-side, and the eatables we had provided, were placed on it. The i orn-tide heat at this place was excessive. 1 he consul retreJ, as ui"u;.l. to strep; while we alio retted, or were amuled with the prospect from the window. Beneath us was ihe shining canal, with Cape Mastusia on the right hand ;■ and opposite, the Aiiatic town and c.ltle, with the noble plain divined by the Scamander; and the borrows mentioned before, two standing b\ each Other not far from itie shore, wi'hin Sigeum, and one more remote.
The anci nt name.of this town, which is exceecingly nt. n and •wretched, was fcleus. 1 he streets or lanes are narrow and in*i.e. te.
It is on the north side of the castle, and ranges along the brink of a precipice.
When the heat was abated a little, we were informed that the governor gave us permission to refresh in his garden. We dismissed his messenger with a bac-ihish or pristnt of three piasters*, and an excuse, that we were just going away ; but this was not accepted; and we paid another piaster for seeing a very small spot of groond, walled in, and containing nothing, except two vines, a fig and a pomegranate tree, and a well of excellent water.
The Turks, after we were landed, had rowed the wherry rour.d Mal>usia, and waited for us without the point. In our way to them, by the castle-wall, we saw a large Corinthian capital; and an altar, made hollow and used as a mortar for bruising corn. Near the other ei d of the town is a bare barrow. By this, was formerly the sacred portion of Proteiilaus, and his temple, to which perhaps the marble fragments have belonged. He was one of the leaders in the Trojan expedition ; and was killed by Hector. Afterward he was worshipped as a hero, and reputed the p.K on or tutelar deity of Elects.
On our arrival at the wherry, which was behind the castle, we found our Turks fitting on the ground, where they had dined, chiefly on ripe froits, with ordinary bread. We had there a wide and deep gulf, • portion of the Ægean sea anciently called Melas, on oar rght hand; with Imbros toward the entrance, twenty five mile* from Maslusia, and twenty - two from Lemaos, which lay before us, and beyond these, other islands and the continent of Europe, in view. We had intended to visit Lemnos, and the principal placet in that quarter, but, the wind pro ving. contrary, we now steered for Tenedos, and, after rowing some time with a rough sea, hoisted sail: we passed by some islets, and about three in the afternoon, reached the town. On opening the harbour, we discovered in it, besides small craft, three Turkish gallies waiting to convey the Venetian bailow or resident, who was expected daily, to Constantinople ; the ships of that republic being by treaty excluded from navigating the Hellespont.
• A piaster is about hrlf-a-crown English, and is equal in value to thirty peraus. These ure a small silver coin, about the sue of an English pens;.
The island Tenedos is chiefly rock, but fertile. It was anciently reckoned about eighty ltadia or ten miles in circumference, and from Sigeum twelve miles and a half. Its position, thus near the mouth of the Hellespont, has given it importance in all ages; vessels hound toward Constantinople finding shelter in its port, or safe anchorage in the road, during the etesian or contrary winds, and in foul weather. The Emperor Justinian erected a magazine to receive the cargoes of the corn-ships from Alexandria, when detained there. This building was two hundred and eighty feet long, ninety broad, and very lofty. The voyage from Egypt was rendered less precarious, and the grain preserved, until it could be transported to the capital. Afterwards, during the troubles of the Greek empire, Tenedos experienced a variety of fortune. The pirates, which infested these sets, made it for many years their
place of rendezvous; and Othntan seized it in 1302, procured vessels, and from thence subdued the other islands of the Archipelago.
The port of Tenedos has been inclosed in a mole, of which no part now appears above water, but loose ftones are piled on the foundations to break the waves: The basin is encompassed by a ridge of the mountain. On the sou-h side is a row of wind-mills and a small fort ; and on the opposite, a castle by the shore. This was taken in the year 1656 by the Venetians in four days, but soon aster abandoned, as not tenable. The houses, which are numerous, stand at the foot, or on the slope, of an acclivity, with a flat between them and the sea, formed partly by soil washed down from above. They reckon six hundred Turkish families, and three hundred Greek. The church belonging to the latter is decent.
We found here but few remains of antiquity worthy notic: We perceived on our landing a large and entire sarcophagus er stone coffin serving as a fountain, the topstone or lid being perforated to admit a currene of water, which supplies the vent below; and on one side is an inscription. Near this we saw part of a fluted column converted into a mortar for bruising corn ; and in a shop was a remnant of tessellated pavement then recently discovered. In the streets, the walls, and buryinggrour.Js, were pieces of marble, and fragments of pillars with a few inscriptions.
in the evening, this being Sunday and a festival, we were much amused with seeing the Greeks, who were singing and dancing, in several companies, to music, near
R 2 the