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counted for righteousness--saved through faith. I selfrighteousness—whichis often threatened-at.
Justification not by works-all men guilty- ease in Zion-genuine confidence-communion
being of the lawunder the curse, but by right with God, rejoicing, hoping and glorying in
eousness of Christ, yet the law not made void - Him-perseverance promised and secured on
second Adam gaining for us what the first God's part, and on man's part enforced as a
Adamn lost. Faith of Miracles-seen in Abra- duty-its nobleness and benefit-kept by the
ham and in many in our Lord's day. Justifi- power of God.
cation leading to good works—yet no merit in
man, at best but unprofitable servants.


Confessions of sin still, on the

part of so many Its duty, necessity, and blessing—broken heart, --yet perfection secured to believers-duty to tender heart-followed by reformation-sin reach it--be ye perfect—instances of compara and curse of impenitence.

tive perfection in Noah, Israel, Asa, Job,

Zechariah and Elisabeth, Nathanael.
A divine institute-composed of various con-

DUTIES RESULTING, gregations—its members believers and saints- To love God-first and great command—to fear organized for mutual edification-heresy there him, to worship him, to meditate upon him, fore be avoided, and for mutual love—the need to beware of sin, temptation to sin common, commandment-power of the Church—in expelling but to be guarded against-safeguards-watch the inconsistent-its unity-sin and danger and pray-gratitude to God-cautions against of divisions—unity of the Spirit-Jewish sects, ingratitude-nonconformity to the world Pharisees, Sadducees, Herodians - believers friendship of world enmity with God-obedience called Christians at Antioch—Preaching (see the test of faith and love-a freqnent theme under MINISTER. Baptism-Lord's Supper see of admonition—to be sincere, or out of a good under ORDINANCES). Church designed to pro- heart — often involving self-denial-plucking mote progress-backsliding often witnessed- - out the right eye-demanding zeal, as seen in but not always fatal as is seen in the divine Phinehas, John,-universal love. invitations to backsliders, but to be avoided -its evils manifold and warnings against it

CONSCIENCE, numerous. Seed on stony ground-Apostacya terrible evil-crucifying the Son of God afresh. Its universal power-accusing or else excusing

- an evil conscience its horrors--in fear where OTHER GRACES AND BLESSINGS, no fear was--seareda good conscience-void of Knowledge, grace, assurance in contrast with offence, and purged from dead works.




orating his resurrection,Jewish Sabbath not Instituted in Eden,—the seventh day one of binding on Christians rest, blessed and sanctified by God. JEWISH SABBATII.

Every seventh year,--the land to rest and lie Day of rest,-sign between the people and still, and vineyards not to be dressed. God, - previous day called the preparation, began at sunset, - kept in wilderness,-its

JUBILEE. historical connection with the manna, no The fiftieth year, or after seven Sabbaths of secular work done in it, no burden carried or years,—trumpet to sound on tenth day of seventh fire kindled,

-day to be spent in meditation month,--the epoch of universal liberty and and reading and worship in synagogue- restoration. in latter times; exception in cases of necessity and mercy,--sheep in pit,-disciples plucking ears of corn, some of Christs miracles done on Three annual feasts,-feast of unleavened bread, Sabbath,-& Sabbath day's journey.

-feast of uceks,- feast of tabernacles, all the males going up to Jerusalem.

FEAST OF NEW MOON, A heinous sin, and incurring awful penalties, Trumpet blown at it,-sacrifices offered and --man stoned in wilderness,--high blessings feast held. attached to Sabbath keeping. CHRISTIAN SABBATH.

OTHER NAMES AND FEASTS, The first day of week,-Lord's day, as commem. Feast of first fruits, the sheaj waved, —



feast of ingathering-feast of tabernacles, Solomon,-feast of Purim in commemoration people dwelling in booths, beginning on fif- of national deliverance througb Esther,teenth day of seventh month,and lasting seven these feasts not binding upon Christians, but days; - feast of dedication, instituted by are beggarly elements,--shadow of things to come.



the rest,--sin-offering and trespass-offerings Often offered in patriarchal times, instances particularized,- instances of great sacrifices in Cain and Abel, Noah,

Abraham, Balaam, at Gilgal, at carrying up the ark, in time of etc.

Solomon, Hezekiah and Ezra.

PERIODS AND OCCASIONS OF SACRIFICE. Offered on an altar, and by Aaron and his Daily at morning or evening, double sacrifice sons, very rarely in other places as at Sinai, on Sabbath, -at new moon,-at the passover, Gilgal

, the token of devotion, acceptable to on the first, tenth and fifteenth of seventh God,--sacrifice

of a broken sprit, of believers, month, -ceremony of scape-goat bearing inia living sacrifice, - also of praise, --sacrifice quities into a land not inhabited,

-sacrifices at Qever a substitute for obedience; 'instanced child birth,—for sins of ignorance on part of in Saul and the

Hebrew nation, as described people and rulers --for priests, and at cleansby the psalmist, the prophets Isaiah, Jere-ing of lepers,--at dedication of sanctuary, with miah and Hosea,-a right spirit essential to the consecrating of its altar and priesthood. acceptance, sacrifice of wicked an abomination; the discontinuance of sacrifice threatened as

THE RUBRIC. a great calamity to the Jewish people. Victim to be taken and slain, its blood poured

out, its carcase flayed, and fat, kidneys, etc. DIFFERENT MATERIALS OF SACRIFICE,

removed, its inwards and legs to be washed Quadrupeds from flock and herd, and birds in water,--hands laid on it,--and confession their qualifications, that they were without made over it,-its breast and right shoulder blemish, and of a certain age.

waived toward the four quarters of heaven,

carcase of beasts whose blood is carried with MEAT-OFFERING.

the vail, to be burnt without the camp,--no For priests and people,-prepared in different stranger to eat of holy things, but these to be ways,-frankincense,--drink offering of wine, eaten by Aaron and his sons in the holy place. -salt necessary to every meat-offering, but neither leaven nor honey to be employed.


To secure pardon,-the priest shall make an DIFFERENT KINDS OF SACRIFICE.

atonement; seasons of sacritice, therefore joy,Burnt-offering wholly consumed by fire, without power in themselves,—but simply peace-offering in which only certain parts were types,-not possible that blood of bulls and consumed, the priest and worshippers eating i goats should take away sins,



ABOVE TRADITION, Its source in divine revelation-given by inspir- Pharisaical error,--tradition of the Apostles ation of God, the Lord spake, as to Noah, Moses to be held,--the possession of scripture a Aaron, Eleazar, Joshua, Job,-( see under great privilege,-famine of hearing the word PROPHETS.)

Oj the Lord, an awful menace,-advantage of

Israel, in the possession of the oracles of God. TRUTH OF SCRIPTURE, Evinced by many statements, - tried words, upright, true, faithful, not to be superseded,

MODE OF RECORD. of great power, converting the soul, ingrafted Principally by writing as enjoined and word able to save.

practised by Moses and the prophets,-by

Evangelists and Apostles,-write the vis on,etc., TUE SOURCE OF INSTRUCTION AND BLESSING,

-the Decalogue written by Jehovah on two Patience and comfort of the scripture.

tables of stone,-received by Moses on mount


Sinai, first tables broken, and others prepared Times of Uzziah, written by Isaiah,--acts of and inscribed by the divine finger.

Hezekiah, also written by him,- Book of the kings of Israel and Judah,-Lamentation for

Josiah by Jeremiah; Books of the Chronicles In early times the copy of the law was laid up of the kings of Judah and Israel often referred in the side of the ark, and was found by Hilton-profane Authors sometimes referred to, kiah,---read by Ezra, ---Books of the old Testa- as in Esther, and by Paul. ment,-the law, the prophets and the psalms,books in New Testament, Gospels, Acts, Epis


Neither to be diminished nor added to, to

be read in public, as it was often in early BOOKS QUOTED NOT IN TIE CANON, Jewish history, and latterly in the Synagogues, Book of wars of the Lord, quoted in Numbers, -obligation to hear it, - give ear, who hath -Jasher quoted in Joshua, and 2nd. Samuel ears let him hear,-also to obey - neglect of book of Natian the prophet, and Gad the this duty resulting in ignorance, --exposition seer,--prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and of the Scripture as by Ezra and Philip, Israel's visions of Iddo,-book of Shemaiah the pro- happinesss dependant on obcdience, desire phet, and Iddo the seer, story of the prophet and benefit of understanding and searchiddo in 2nd. Chronicles, - also referred to in ing scripture-obligation at the same time to same place, the book of Jehu, Life and I remember it, and to meditate upon it.




OATH, Primeval tongue-naming of animals by An appeal to God—the Lord liveth-oath to Adam-confusion of tongues at Babel-a peo- be scrupulously kept-instances of oaths ple of unknown tongue often meaning a dis. in Old Testament - of Abraham to the tant and tierce people—various languages king of Sodom, and to Abimelech-of Abramentioned in Scripture, and a dialective ham's servant to his master-of Jacob to variety-Sibboleth-names of persons and Laban-of Joseph to his father, of Joshua to places significant of old, usually explained and Rahab—of Joshua to the Gibeonites--of Moss often referred to.

to Joshua-oath of Gideon-Saul's adjuration

to the people—in the intercourse of David THE ORGAN OF SPEECI,

and Jonathan-in the history of David and Tongue-government of it difficult, but

Solomon-of Elijah-Nehemiah_Gedalichțial-word spoken in season-slow to speak, Jeremiah; in New Testament-of Herodbridling the tongue, soft answer, etc.--Loqua- Peter-forms of adjuration used by Paul; selfcity-prating fool-uttering all his mind-sileuce imprecation on the part of David, Job and --I was dumb and opened not my mouth.

the Psalmist.


Based on many qualities—principally valout Often used in challenge or address, and reply in Hebrew times a good name to be valued -numerous instances in Scripture and in Job the good often evii spoken of contemned

and maligned.


Falsehood in various forms-equivocationA duty specially referred to often in Pro- dissembling-in-tances in Abraham, Sarah, verbs.

Jacob, David, Peter, Ananias-flallery, taleGOOD WISHES,

bearing,-vain boasting-boasting of Paul-a Expressed by the Jews and by individuals. record of facts, mockery, reproach, censorious

judgments, calumny-hard names not always VOWS,

unjust-Herod, that fox-swearing forbidden of Jacob, Israel, Absalom-the Psalmist-of in the form of profanity and perjury. Paul--vows to be kept, or paid with punctu.

FIGURES OF SPEECH, ality--rash vows of Jepthah, and of the Jews Satire in song of Deborah, etc --Irony-Elijah's against Paul-special and kind, Levitical law speech to the worshippers of Baal, etc., climax, in case of a woman vowing.

hyperlole--comparison, metaphor-striking say.

ings of Solomon-personification-various in. BENEDICTION,

stances of it-gifts of tongues at Pentecost, not Sacerdotal and private-instances often re- to be used for an idle display, acording to corded.

Paul's advice to the Church in Corinth.


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wrestled-appearing in the burning bushAngels—as to nature, spirits, as to number, and to Joshua, and to Manoah and his wifevast-twelve legions; distributed into various the God of the temple—even Jesus Christorders--Gabriel, Michael, of great power, ex. angels to be venerated, not worshippedcelling in strength-standing in the presence of worshipping of angels reprobated-not acGod.

cepted on any account by them—see thou do it THEIR OFFICE,

not. Instructors, descending with oracles-law received by the disposition of angels; guardians, Malignant and fallen-their head, Satan

DEVILS, ministering spirits sometimes inflicting vengeance—as seen by David in the angel with Abaddon, Apollyon,

god and prince of this the drawn sword over Jerusalem, in the de. world—lying-evil in character-synagogue of struction of Sennacherib's army, and in the Satan—numerous-name Legion-of mysteri. Apocalypse.

ous power, and influence-scene in Job-Apo.

calyptic imagery-final doom of fallen spirits VISITATIONS OF ANGELS,

-Satan bruised-worship paid to them in the Often in the form of men with bright ap: customs of idolatrous countries-cup oj devils areb-strange symbols in the book of Ezekiel -apocalyptic dragon, or old erpent. --the angel of the covenant-prominent in patriarchal history-with whom Jacob (DEMONS, see under MIRACLES.)

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daily burnt-offerings — having on it a fire Of divine origin-made according to pattern which was never to go out-laver of brass. shown in mount—a quadrangular structure

ARTISTIC GENIUS, formed of Acacia boards, each ten cubits Of Bezaleel and Aholiab, in constructing the high, and a cubit and a half broad, with two Tabernacle and its furniture — they being on north and south side-six for west side, and filled with the Spirit of God. two for each of its corners—held up by boards

SOLEMN DEDICATION, of Acacia—with a curtain of blue and purple In wilderness, amidst numerous sacrifices and suspended over eastern side or entrance, hav- costly offerings, made by the princes of the ing over it three coverings of linen—cashmere tribes and the descent of the Shecinahor goat's hair-morocco leather or rams-skins Tabernacle pitched at various places-Sinai, dyed red and badger's skin for the outer Gilgal, Shiloh, Nob, and Gibeon-spiritual and

typical meaning of the structure and its

services illustrated in the Epistle to the HeCOURT,

brews. Round about, fenced in by curtains-Taber.

TEMPLE, nacle--divided by the veil into the holy and David's intention to build it not allowed to most holy place.

be carried into execution-he being a man of

war--materials of all kinds amassed by him FURNITURE,

erected by Solomon in the 480th year after the In holy place—the lamp—with seven lights, Exodus—its site—the threshing-floor or Ornan table of show-bread-and golden altarofincense. -Sion. In Holy of Holies—the ark, or sacred chest,

ITS DIMENSIONS, with the mercy-seat and cherubim — the Sixty cubits long, twenty broar, and thirty august dwelling-place of Jehovah, who dwelt high_divided into the floly of Ilolics, twenty in thick darkness - Ark solemnly guarded cubits square, and into the holy place, forty by when carried from place to place sometimes

twenty cubits. taken out in war-once taken captive by the Philistines, but soon released, and stationed

ITS PORCH, with solemnity at various places prior to the 120 cubits high, with two brazen pillars beauerection of the temple.

tifully carved, called Jachin and Boaz-its doors of fir and posts of olive, and cei'ing floors,

and walls panelled with cedar, liguted by In court of Tabernacle-made of brass for narrow windows.

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rebuilt under divine promise, uttered by Round about, and of three stories.

Haggai and Zechariah-Obstacles presented by

various adversaries, but at length overcomeFURNITURE,

Dedication—under Ezra-purified by Jesus,

and its ruin foretold by Him-Ezekiel's mys. In holy place, lamps, etc,-in Holy of Holies, tic temple—its measurement and form, etc., ark and cherubim.

detailed at length in the concluding chapters

of his prophecy. COURT ROUND ABOUT, There being in it the lava and molten sea

SYNAGOGUES, the brazen altar—an asylum as well as a place Places for reading of Scriptures, and for prayer of sacrifice

on Sabbath-very numerous-presided over DEDICATION,

by rulers — filled with seats, some chief or By Solomon with great splendour.

uppermost seats-offenders punished in them,

expelled from the blind man to whom Jesus SACRILEGE,

had given sight cast out. Asa taking away treasures of the temple-also Jehoash-Ahaz mutilating its furniture- PURPOSE OF TABERNACLE AND TEMPLE, Hezekiah guilty also.

As the dwelliog-place of Jehovah—access to

him, and oracles from him there-very holyDEPREDATION,

shoes put off in token of reverence, sin and By Joash, king of Israel-Shishak, and Nebu. death of Aaron's sons, for profanation—Christ's chadnezzar--temple vessels being used at ban- vindication of its sacredness-strange event quets in palace of Belshazzar,

in apostle Paul's history. REPAIRS,

DIVINE PROMISE OF PROTECTION AND BLESSING, Under kings Jehoash and Josiah-purification The promise to hear prayer-command to under Hezekiah and Josiah. Ruin of Temple, worship

followed by the blessed experience of foretold by various prophets, and accomplished worshippers-praising and blessing. God; the by the Chaldeans.

scene of resort-instanced in Hezekiah-Jeho

shaphat_Jeremiah-anna-the ApostlesRESTORATION,

Doeg detained before the Lord-Ezra and his Predicted and accomplished under Cyrus pulpit of wood.


TREES, A common and early possession,one planted Characterized as green, with fruitful boughs, by Noah, vineyards very numerous in Judea, parts of tree, the stock, root, leaves, fruit

often planted on hills, sometimes trained on sides serving for illustrations to the poets of Israel, of houses, sometimes let and rent paid in Forests, - thick,-felled with iron, or axe,fruit,-fruit of, not to be eaten for three years, symbol of spiritual sterility,-forests mentionthe symbol of Jewish privilege,-parable of ed in Scripture, – Bashan and its oaks,the husbandman, and its reference to Jesus. Haroth,-Ephraim and its wood, Lebanon, Its blossom, --sour grapes,-, grapes in clusters Carmel-of Arabia and of the south,-king's often heavy as at Eschcol, dwelling under forest and its timber. vine symbol of security; - wood of vine use.

ORCHARD, less save for fuel,-a fruitful source of imagery to the prophets.

A scene of greenness,—planted with trees and

shrubs of pleasant shadow, in valleys and by LAW OF PLANTING,

streams,- liable to devastation,-trees known One who had newly planted, exempt from by fruit, -good trees and good fruit. military service, not to be sown with diverse

HEBREW LAW, seede,-dressed by husbandmen with pruning. Fruit for first three years to be reckoned unhooks,-protected by hedges and towers.

circumcised and not to be eaten,-no extortion to be practised in transfer,--and fruit trees

not to be cut down and employed in a siege. Grapes gathered into baskets with singing, Flowers and aromatics in song of Solomon. trodden in wine presses with shouting,-symbol of divine wrath-vine, a figure of Christ, —- TREES AND SHRUBS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, its branches, of his people.

Almond,—its flourishing,—Almug for pillars,


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