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tion, fulfilled, in providing for them, and in

LAWGIVER, making them rich in faith.

Persons employed in transcribing and inter

preting the law of Moses, in later times, orators LEGAL SUPPORT FOR THE POOR.

or lawyers, employed in pleading before The gleanings of the harvest field, of the judges, instanced in Tertullus. vintage, the tithe of the third year, and the spontaneous productions of the seventh


In ancient times set at the gates of cities, as SUPPORT FROM BENEVOLENCE,

in Ruth; in latter times in balls, as the Almsgiving enjoined -characterized, when judgment hall of Pilate, set for deciding in rightly performed, by being done freely, readily, controversies, involving accusation, defence, and unostentariously.

and appeal.


Imprisonment sometimes with fitters and

stocks Paul at Philippi; scourging, which, JUDGES.

however, might not be inflicted on a Roman Appointed by Moses; afterwards in all the citizen, and linnited by Mosaic law to strokes cities of Israel -- were set to hear the foriy., save one, retaliation, fine, stoning, the canses of the people, to dispense righteous sword. judyrnint, neither respecting the persons of the rich nor favowing the poor, noted as fcaring CAPITAL PUNISIMENTS OF FOREIGN NATIONS, God, huling covetousness.

lunging, instanced in Haman,-burning alive,

the sentence pronounced upon Shadrach, WITNESSES.

Meshach and Abednego,-exposure to wild Required to be faithful, considerate, and beasts, instanced in Daniel,-cutting asunder, conscientious; in number at least two or three; threatened by Nebuchadrezzar to his wise sometimes false, inslanced in the trial of men-decapitation, instanced in John the Bap. Jesus.

tist, and crucifixion inflicted upon the Savivur.



Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Governing Israel between the time of Joshua Pekah, and Hosbea. and that of Samuel, the office not hereditary, but the men raised ur, qualitied, and ap- OTHER KINGS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. pointed by God when the circumstances of Hanun and Nahash, kings of Ammon, Hathe nation called for them, usually invested zrel, Ben-hadad, and Aretas, kings of Syria, with extraordinary powers, and continued as Cyrus, king of Persia, Darius the Median, the supreme magistrates of Israel for the space Herod and Agrippa, kings of Judea, and of four hundred and thirty years.

Tiberias, emperor of Rome.
Sometimes chosen by God, who had also the

ANOINTING, CORONATION. formal approval of the people, as Saul and Conducted with great pomp, the pouring of David, with whom God covenanted that the oil on the prson consecrated, sounding of throne should he his, descending in his family trumpets, the shouts of the people, God save the in the line of Solomon ; also Solomon by im King, the cougratulations and good wishes mediate revelation and appointment. of officers, men of rank, and neighbouring

kings, accompanied with general festivity, KINGS OF JUDAH,

among the people, instanced in the coronation Rehoboam, Abijah, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Jeho of Solomon, etc. ram, Ahaziah, Athaliali, Joash, or Jehoash, Amaziah, Uzziah ‘or Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz, ROYAL DRESS, DIGNITY, AND TIQUETTE. Hezekiah, Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoa- Punctiliously attended to, the throne was very haz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah.

magnificent in the case of Solomon, the crown

was sometimes of massive gold and precious KINGS 07 THE TEN TRIBES.

stones, instanced in that of David, the sceptre Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zirnri, also of gold, instanced in the book of Esther, Oni, Ahab, Abaziah, Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoa- and the royal robes were of great magcii. haz, Jehoash, or Joash, Jeroboam the second, Icence.





DUTIES, With little limitation, extending to the power Arising from the compact, real or implied, of life and death, the making of peace or the between the king and the subject-devolving declaration of war, the levying of armies, and upon both partieshe that ruleth over men must the collection of taxes, rulers often surrounded be just. Honour the king, by flatterers, as the young men who gave counsel to Rehoboam.


Were levied uron the people as by Pharaoh,

the kings of Israel and Judah, the Roman
Emperor, etc.,-royal revenues and lands as in

days of Solomon-gathered by tax collectors as
Their throne being established by righteousness, the publicans who collected the Roman tribute
scattering vicked men, examples in David, from the Jews.
Asa, Jehoshuphat, Amaziah, Azariah, Jotham,
Hezekiah, Josiah, Rehoboam (for a time), and


Under the king, executed the offices of govern-

ment, described as being over the host-over the Causing the people to mourn–examples in Solo. tribute-over the house, etc., as being recor ers, mon, in some things, Abijam, Nadab, Baasha, scribes, wise men, counsellors, companions of the Omri

, Ahab, Ahaziah,Jehu, Jehoahaz, Jehoash, king, etc. Zechariah, Aliaz, Jehoram, Jehoiachim, Manasseb, Jeroboam, Pekah, and Pekebiah.


Rebellion forbidden and loyalty enjoined and

enforced--repeated instances of rebe lions, reLuxury, pride, flattery, falsehood, avarice, ty. volts, revolu'ions, regicide, and even the extirva. ranny, and idolutry as in Jeroboam.

tion of a royal family.


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see through a glass darkly-earnest efforts
Sce under FAMILY APPETITES AND ORGANS,' obtain it-seek for her as silver. Wisdom per.
see under Body-FRAILTY AND MORTALITY, see sonitied in Book of Proverbs.


Its mischief-contrasted often in Proverbs
His first estate holy, made in God's image and with Wisdom.
his îst abode in Eden---subsequent allusione
to Eden's beauty by the sacred writers.


Counsel-questioning, many instances of it in

Adam's sin and exile from Eden; therefore

he drove out the man-labour and mortality The pursuit of happiness-vanity of vanitics,
in the curse-bread to be eaten in sweut oj etc.
browby one man sin came-human depravity

declared to be grea', universal, hereditary, early Industry, diligent in business, illeness and its
manifested-seen in sins of every class, wilful
violation of God's law, and in spite of all his baneful results

vineyard of sluggard-lion in
warning-the Apostle's account of the inner waywealth, God's gift, but not to be coveted;
combat--what I would, that I do not.

treasure in heaven, earthly riches often ill-aca

quired, of small value in many cases, and DELIVERANCE FROM THIS FALLEN STATE,

very precarious-riches fly away as an eagleSee under REDEMPTION,

dangers of wealth--ostentation-pride-one

thing thou lackest.

The evil of ignorance great-blessing of wis-
dom and its responsibility-a wise man is Sorrow, patience, pride and its ruin, bumi.
strong-instances in Solomon and Daniel—the lity, contentment, joy, hope, anxiety, mur.

wisdom of the world crafty-of no avail befora
Goul-wisilom God's gilt as seen in Solomon'a

dream--yet imperfectly possessed by man, we! Anger, revenge and its siufulness, envy, sin.



cerity of dealing and speech, bypocrisy, strife, vision, deafness, want of heat old and gray meekness-equity, gratitude and ingrati, headed -- (see under Bony) weariness of lice tude, love-first and great commandment-second and peculiar instances of it-suicide in Samson, like unto it-sympathy, forgiveness of injuries Saul, Zimri, Ahithophel, and Judas. until seventy times seven-duty of setting a good example-bad example to be avoided.


(See under Disease and Death). Original equality-rich and poor rest together;

RESURRECTION. solitude in various forms, neighbourhood, A prominent doctrine of Scripture—the work friendship-David andJonathan-false friends of God-special proof in Christ's resurrection -cvil company to be shunned—influence of --Sadducean objection and its refutation by piety and of sin upon others.


THE JUDGMENT, Places of residence-farewell with a kiss, Solemn, certain, universal, and impartial--throne journeying singly and with flocks and herds set and books opened-allusion to its awful -mans of travel-scrip and statt-meetings, phenomena—earth burnt up, and heaven pasrefreshments, hospitality, feet washed, and salu. sing away. tation of peac:-provender for the asses-stay, abide with usfrequent injunctions that stran. A state of happiness and glory-fulness of joy gers be well treated-God's tender care over strangers and travellers–the return to home --of immortality eternal life, enjoyment of the and its joy, David returned to bless his house. divine presence-its special occupation being

praise. MAN'S DESTINY. Old age-gray hairs-length of days a blessing Place of finally wicked-of intense anguish-instances of longevity before the flood and fire, pit, brimstone, darkness—its misery without among the patriarchs—the aged to be treated end-solemn lessonsthe terror of the Lord with great respect-signs of age-dimness of l awful imagery and allusion.






Merab promised, but Michal given to David; Man and woman-a male and female-personal dowry given for the bride by her husband beauty often referred to, and furnishing imagery the kind proposed to our Lord - peculiarities

law abont marrying a brother's widow-case of in the book of Canticles-thou artfair my love.

and restrictions of various kinds in Jewish VIRGINITY,

marriage law. Damsels employed in carrying water, and in watering the flock.

Duties of husbands, fidelity and love; of wife, LOVES,

affection and obedience-Sarah, etc. ; good

wives one of them described in Proverbs; Various in Scripture-sick of love; courtship | bad wives-Jezebel-contentious and brawling in various forms-Rebecca, Dinah, Samson, woman, Adonijah; rape, and its punishment-death by law to the ravisher.


By death-widows often desolate_special ob. Of divine origin in Eden—its continuance an indeed; God himself being the judge of the

jects of sympathy, at least such as are widows ordinance; marriage is honourable, conditions

widow-second marriages — younger widows as to selecting a partner for such a union, refused as office-bearere in the church, both in Old and New Testament-image of the union of Christ and his church: parental authority of old over children in forming ma. trimonial matches — apostolic law the Hebrew law permitting divorce, allowed for nuptial feast-scene of great rejoicing and hardness of heart-bill to be formally written lasting many days—procession with lamps to out—the judgment of Jesus on this subject, meet the wedded pair-marriages of policy, and his conclusion, that fornication only war




[MINISTERS OF RELIGION. rants divorce-instances of putting wives law prohibiting the sexes from exchanging away in the book of Ezra-divorce the symbol garments-cautions against lewdness—a coof God's separation from Israel; other kinds venant with the eyes; uncleanness not to be referred to both in Old and New Testament. named; Fornication--associated often with

idolatrous worship such whoredom with VIOLATION OF MARRIAGE LAW.

daughters of Moab--spiritual allusion, the Polygamy-Lamech-a common occurrence

symbol of idolatry-gone a whoring from Godamong the patriarchs and Jews, wherefore one? Babylon, mother of harlo's; Hebre:v statute that he might seek a godly seed a violation of against it, and frequent condemnation of it, the original law of marriage, which united punished often in providence by poverty, loss only one man and one woman-concubines, of health and character and final rnin-brought or secondary wives, common in Jewish and to a piece of bre11-her steps take hold on holipro. particularly in royal households.

stitution forbidden-she forgetteth the covenant of

her Guda VIOLATIONS OF THE LAW OF CHASTITY. Incest—its punishment to be death-adultery a heinous crime-seventh commandment-image Bastards not admitted to the congregation of of the national intidelities of Israel;—an ordeal the Lord, and not subjected to discipline and of jealousy prescribed in drinking of water of training-bastards and not sons—sins against the curse-chastity and modesty solemnly en. nature-sin of Sodom-its terrific punishjoined-flee youthful lusts--lew iness condemu- inent—tiro and brimstone rained down from ed, and all practices leading to it, the Hebrew | heaven.




Found in Tarilah-gold of Parvaim-plentiful Smelted out of stones-formed into tools-nor.
in days of Solomon, tried by fire - gold of thurn iron and steel specially hard—the emblem
Ophir, very fine-wed,es und shekels of it. of hardness-brass and iron often connected

as useful metals.
Made into vessels-found in veins, tried in a

OTHER METALS. furnace, and the dross taken away-a com- Copper or bronze-lead and tin. mon medium of exchange. Gold and silver often connected together as a general expres.

MINERALS, ETC. sion for money-silver and gold have I none.

Salt-jewels-precious stones-precious stones

mentioned in connection with Aaron's breastBRASS.

plate, and the gates of the New JerusalemDrug out of mines - employed in making Agate and Carbuncle-Beryl-Coral-DiaVessels, doors, and gates-the emblem of mond-Emerald and Sardine-Jacinth Jasstrength.


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ing the pontificate,-faithful priests blessed of Under the old dispensation-priests-Melchi- God, -law of truth in their mouth. zedec king and priest, -Jewish priests, holy to God,-their various duties, to teach the people,

-take charge of the sacred things, offer sacri- Rebellion as of Korah,--and dissipation as in
fice and form a board of health, as inspection sons of Eli,-profanity,--polluted from want
of lepers,—their services in rotation,-courses in of register,--practising idolatry as pictured by
roation,—their services, etc.

Chief of them, not allowed to mourn or

marry a widow or a divorced woman,-Aaron Turban and Mitre,—that of high-priest with
and his sous in hereditary succession possess. I the inscription on it of HOLINESS TO THE




LORD,--the coat or tunic of fine linen or woven, increase of thy seed,—other perquisites belong. work, the robe of the Ephod of blue,—the linen ing to them, as first-fruits and firstlings, the breeches of tine twined lined,--the girdle, - hides of the victims, and portions of some of bells and pomegranates on hem of garments, the sacrifices,--with fines, redemption-money, the Ephod joined at shoulder by epaulettes poll-tax, share of booty, and voluntary gift of onyx stone, – Ephod, the characteristic the treasury-royal gifts during the period of portion of sacerdotal dress.--the breastplate the temple. with its gems-Urim and Thummim.

UNDER THE NEW ECONOMY, LEVITES, Dedicated in room of the first born,—to be Paul added, having special prerogatives to

Twelve Apostles Chosen by Jesus, Matthias and without corporeal blemish, - to serve froin bind and loose, -witnes'es of the resurrection, thirty to fifty years of age,-divided into three their special claim on the people to hear classes, Gershon, Kohath and Merari,-inthem,-the seventy,—bishops, -elders,—deacons, ferior to the priests and paying tithes to them, itinerant labourers. their general duty,—as a help to the priests, assisting in the national worship, and taking

THE APOSTLE PAUL, charge of the sacred editice,-wandering Leyites, -Micah, etc.

His sudden conversion, - his travels and

labours,-his exemplary conduct, his preachNETHINIMS.

iny,--his character in several aspects. Descendants of the Gibeonites,--doing the

him devolving the care of all the churches. menial work of the sanctuary.


A divine institute,-duties enjoined, faithful.

NE's, --- studiousness, – consis'ency, -- aptness to The seventy elders,-elders of cities–Naza- teach, - preach the word.—sins ascribed to it in rites with their vow of abstinence and pe- the old Testament.-idleness, the prophet is a culiar restraints.

fool, (sce under ANIMALS, FLOCKS,) its punish.

ment severe—under New Testament,-sins SUPPORT OF SACRED MINISTERS,

referred to,-jealousy, contention, pide, heresy, Levites having no inheritance, but only some selfishness: duty of people, obe rience and land round their forty-eight cities, Tithesi esteem. affection support, they which preach paid to them, thou shalt surely tithe all the I should live of the Gospelo

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capture of Jericho, sun and moon arrested Their purpose to produce conviction of a as told in Jasher, -in cone tion with Samdivine interposition, --sometimes failing to son, men killed, Philistines slaughtered, ettect this, both in days of Moses, Christ and efforts of personal strength;--in connection his A posiles, a divine work, and beyond the with Samuel, thunderstorm in harvest, power of man, and often causing a great disease, death of Uzziah, men of Beth-shemesh; Sensation of marvel and jear.

descent of fire upon the altar in days of David

aud Solomon,-Jeroboam's hand withered. MIRACLES IN OLD TESTAMENT,

IN CONNECTION WITII ELIJAH. Those in connection with Enoch, Noah, Abra. ham, Lot, Hagar, Er; Moses,—ten plagues of Miracles of Elijah, drought, widow's meal, proEgypt, water turned'into blood, Frogs, Lice, phet fed, dead child restored, tire upon altar Flies, Murrain, Boils and Blains, Hail, Lo- in contest with priests of Banl, captain and custs, Darkness, Death of first-born, --Red fifty destroyed—Jordan divided by his mantie. Sea, — the Shecbinah, - Transfiguration of Moses, Water sweetened, Manna, Quails, Water from Kock, Aaron's rod blossoming, Leprosy of Water healed, young men destroyed, in the Dliriam, destruction of Korah, death of Nadab dearth, child restored, Naaman braled, Gehazi and Abihu,---waters in Kadesh, healing punished, iron swimming, Syrians smitten brazen serpent-plague, fire from God, those with blindness, restored to sight, Syrians miracles often referred to, and forming themes defeated, man revived by touching his corpse. of subsequent meditation and praise.


1. UPON EXTERNAL NATURE. In connection with Joshua, Jordan divided, Water turned into wine, –draught of fishes.


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