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Horebon Elijah's visit to it,-in Uzziah's! pents and scorpions,-subject to scorching reiga, at our Lord's death,--at Philippi,-be. winds, blasts and whirlwinds. fore the destruction of Jerusalem; images of civil commotions.


Arabian, or great desert, Bethaven, Beer. MOUNTAINS

sheba, Damascus, Edom, En-gedi, Gibeon, Characterized as being everlasting, perpetual, Judea, Jeruel, Kedemoth, Kadesh, Maon, ancient, as the pillars of heaven, etc.

Paran, Shur, Sin, Sinai, Ziph, Ziu, of the Red

Sea, and that near Gaza.
Scenes of retirement for prayer and medita-

ROADS, tion; instanced in Moses, when Israel fought | Variously designated, highways, byways, ancient with Amalek; scenes of observation, and paths, old ways, etc.; used by travellers, frescenes of idolatrous worship as everywherequented by robbers, and by beggars asking illustrated.




| Representing in Hebrew poetry distant places, On account of its being the place of God's

those mentioned in Scripture, Chittim, Clauda, presence, hence called God's holy hill.


Effected by the descendants of Noah, recorded
Are, Abarim, Amalek, Amana, Ammah, in the tenth chapter of Genesis, and more
Ararat, Bashan, Beth-el, Bether, Carmel, particularly on the dispersion at Babel.
Ebal, Ephraim, Esau, Gaash, Gareb, Gerizzim,
Gilboa, Gilead, Hachilah, Hermon, Hor,

Horeb, Lebanon, Mars' hill, Mizar, Moreh,
Moriah, mount of the Amorites, Nebo, Olives,

Are Amalek, descended from Esau, Ammon Paran, Perazim, Pisgah, Samaria, Seir, Shenir,

descended from Lot, the Amorites one of the Sinai, Sion, Sirion, Tabor, Zalmon, Zion,

seven nations of Canaan, Arabia noted for its mount of Beatitudes, mount of Transtigur.

kings and merchandise, Assyria, chief city ation, Agar, mountain of Myrrh.

Nineveh, Asia a small district of Asia Minor,

Chaldea sometimes named Sinar, chief city VALLEYS,

Babylon, Bashan on the east of the Jor.

dan, sometimes named Idumea, Edom, de. Achor. Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Bochim, scended from Esau, chief city Bozrah, Charashim, Elah, Eshcol, Gerar, Gibeon, Egypt named also Sihon, Rahab, the land of Hebron, Hinnom, Jehoshaphat, Jericho, Ham, the house of bondage, Elam or Persia, Jezreel, Jiphtha-el. Keziz, Lebanon, Megiddo, Ethiópia a name given to several nations, Moab, Rephaim, Salt, Shaveh, Shittim, sid. Galilee the northern province of Palestine in dim, Sorek, Succoth, Zured, Zeboim, Zepha the time of Christ, Gog and Magog subjects of thah, Valley of Vision, Fat Valleys, Valley of prophecy, Giecia, chiet cities in the days of Dry Bones, Valley of Haman-gog.

the Apostles, Athens and Corinth, Macedonia,

I chief city. Philippi. Italy Rome. Judea thé PLAINS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, southern province of Palestine in the time of Breaches. Jericho, Jordan, Mamre. Moab. I Christ, Medes and Media in the distant east. Shechem, Shinar, Tabor, Vineyards, Wilder

| Midian, Moab descended from Lot, Ophir famed ness, Low Plain.

for its gold, Padan-aram or Mesopotamia;Palestina or Philis'ia long the nearest and

bitterest enemy of Israel, Phenice on the ROCKS,

coast of Syria, Phrygia in Asia Minor, Samaria Used for writing on, as referred to by Job; of the middle province of Palestine in the time shelter and refuge.

of our Saviour, Syria, chief city Damascus,

-Tarshi h noted for its shipping, -Tyre famed ROCKS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, as the mart of nations and Sidon on the north Adullam. Bazez, and Seneh, En-gedi. Etam. / west border of Canaan. Horeb, in Kadesh, Oreb, Rimmon, Sela-hamma-lekoth, Ziz; for obvious reasons Rock is a

DESTINY OF THE EARTII, frequent name of God and Christ.

Predicted by the apostle Peter to consist

in its destruction by fire at the second com. DESERT,

ing of Christ, and is urged as a reason for Characterized as arid, desolate, barren, solitary, a diligent preparation for the coming of that as scenes of danger, pathless, infested by ser- 1 day.


PAMILY A DIVINE INSTITUTION, the streets, piping and dancing in the market God's blessing promised to it: on behalf of it place, imitating the pursuits of manhood. prayers were offered-exemplified in Abraham,

Jacob, David, etc.

| The sons of Eli, the son of the Shunamite, the

children of Job, etc.; cause grief to parents The gift of God; sometimes asked of Him, as

Sexemplified in David for Absalom-submisby Leah, Hannah, etc.; often promised as a

sion of Job. blessing, as to Abraham, Sarah, the Shuna.

FILIAL PIETY, mite, etc.; and in other cases.

Exemplified in Jacob, Judah, specially in JoBIRTII,

seph, etc.; enjoined throughout the Old and

New Testaments; the violation of it severely A season of sorrow and anguish; also one of

threatened by God. joy; sometimes attended by the death of the mother, as Rachel and the wife of Phinehas;

PARENTAL AFFECTION, accompanied by ceremonial observances in Israel; and an image of spiritual conversion.

Expressed in various acts of endearment, as

by Hagar, Isaac, etc.-Illustrative of the pity BARRENNESS,

of God to bis children. Regarded as a reproach; sometimes healed by

PARENTAL AUTHORITY, prayer, as in Sarah, Rebekah, Hannah, etc.

Accompanied by God's favour; neglect fol. BIRTHDAY,

lowed by God's displeasure-Exemplitied in

Eli; instruction of children in the law of God, A high festivity_instanced in Pharaoh, Herod, I and in the fear of God. etc., -birth place, regarded with the warmest attachment-proverbially noted in its inba.

ADOPTION, bitants for slighting those who had become prophets, instanced in Jesus.

Natural, receiving the children of others into

the family-Spiritual, admission into God's CHILDREN NAMED,

family, with a right to the children's food, iu

struction, chastisement, and inheritance, and At birth, instanced, etc., and at the time of likeness to Father in heaven. circumcision, the name especially in early times being significant of circumstances con.

FAMILY CIRCLES, nected with birth or in childhood-Moses, Ichabod.

| Distinguished by frequent and friendly interNURSING,

course; exposed to anxieties and cares, arising

out of relative profligacy; grief of mind to Isaac Requiring much tenderness and watchfulness; I and Rebekah, etc.;— Want of harmony, arising descriptive of God's care of his people, the from selfishness, from pride, or from bigotrychurch's care of her members.- Weaning in Exeni plified in the brethren of Joseph; the ancient times deferred till an advanced period | son shall rise up against the father. in childhood, was celebrated by a family fes. tival-Weaning of Isaac.


A sore judgment upon a land, as threatened

by Moses, as often predicted by the prophets, Characters early developed-Ishmael, Esau, and as realized in the successive wars of Israel, Samson, etc.;-tenderly cared for by the Sa- the captivity to Babylon, and the final overviour-following their pastimes, playing in throw of the nation by the Romans.


ABRAHAM'S POSTERITY, Recorded in Genesis and Chronicles-and In Genesis and Chronicles-his children in genealogy of his family.

the line of Ismael,-bis sons by Ķeturan,

and his children in the line of Isaac and Esan

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CENSUS OF THE NATION OF ISRAEL, At his first settlement in Egypt, named in First taken at the commencement of their Genesis, comprising threescore and six persons.journeying in the wilderness, secondly on their

entrance into Canaan, and thirdly by David,

having reference to military objects forbidden GENEALOGIES OF THE TRIBES,

by God, Satan tempting the king.
The posterity of Jacob by Leah, Reuben, Simeon,
Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun,-by
Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali,by Zilpah, Gad

CATALOGUES, and Asher,-by Rachel, Joseph, Manasseb Of the spies, in Numbers-of David's heroes, and Ephraim) and Benjamin,

Tin Chronicles, — of Solomon's officers, in
Kings,-of Jews married to Gentiles, in Ezra,

-of Ezra's fellow-travellers from Babylon, in SPECIAL GENEALOGIES,

Ezra,-of the Jews who returned from BabyLevi and the line of the priesthood—Judah lon with Zerubbabel, in Ezra and Nehemiah, and the line of the kings-King Saul-various of priests who returned from Babylon, in families in Chronicles-the sacred orchestra, Nehemiah,-of those who dwelt in the rebuilt and of Ezra

(Jerusalem, in Nehemiah.



belongs to man-of human organs, as the face, Proved by the beauty, barmony, and wisdom

hand, arm, back, eyes, nostrils, mouth, and of the works of creation, denied only by fools! teet. 2. Human feelings, as repentance, sorrow, characterized by majesty, immortality, felicity,

etc. 3. Human appearance and motion, instanced

in the lives of Abraham, Moses, Solomon. 4. unity, incomparability, and glory.

Human voice instanced in the communications HIS NATURAL ATTRIBUTES,

made to Elijah and the prophets. Tokens of

divine appearance-Fire, light, and sometimes Spirituality, God is a Spirit, invisibility, for- by darkness conjoined, as when Jehovah apbidding all image worship, eternity, infinitude, peared to Israel on Mount Sinai. and comprehensibility, omnipresence, power, omniscience, possessing a perfect knowledge of everything present and future,-instanced

WORKS OF GOD, in the revelations He has made-human | 1. Creation-the heavens and the earth with thoughts, characters, actions, and circum- its furniture, population, and man. 2. Pro. stances, immutability, I change not.

vidence based on proprietorship, preservation,

and protection. And, 3. Redemption. HIS MORAL ATTRIBUTES, Holiness,-holiness predicated, 1. of persons,

(See under REDEMPTION.) His Spirit, Son, angels, priests, prophets, people--2, of places, His throne, heaven, dwel

THE TRINITY. ling-place, bill, mountain ;–3, things, His oracle, promise, covenant, law, Scriptures. The divine Being existing in perfect unicy of calling, Sabbath, name,-justice, truth, goodness. I essence, yet subsisting in three persons, having and mercy according to which He deals with the same natural and moral perfections and ainful creatures, manifested in the form of the same majesty and glory-instanced in the pity, compassion, kindness, and longsuffering- apostolical benediction, in the formula of bapoften the theme of divine promise, the ground tism, etc. of His people's confidence, and the frequent subject of their prayer and praise.

(For Divinity of Christ see under JESUS CHRIST.)


(For Divinity and Personality of the Holy Ghost, Ascription to God in figure of what properly

sec under REDEMPTION.) xxxix


1.-1st HEAVEN,

SEASONS, Or the region of the wind, clouds, rain, dew, Seed-time and harvest, cold and beat, summer thunder, lightning, hail, snow-agency of God. and winter, each with its own special character

istics—the seed-time marked by refreshing WIND,

rain, the winter by dreariness, the harvest by East wind the strongest-the rough wind, the

joy, the summer by drought. wind of the Lord, spoken of as an instrument of divine power, as in the drying up of the

PROGNOSTICS OF WEATHER, water of the deluge, the dividing of the Red

Clouds rising in the west portending rainbea, bringing locusts upon Egypt, emblem of

o instanced in the prophet ou Carmel; the north aftliction; also of the unseen operations of the

wind bringing fair weather, the south wind Holy Ghost; four winds, a proverbial expression

heat-the red, evening sky, the red, lowering for the four quarters of the heavens

morning sky.


II.—THE SECOND OR STARRY HEAVENS. Characterised as dark, thick, dropping, spread. ing, light, etc., pillar of the cloud-emblentatical of fleeting objects ; also of multitudes, as

THE HEAVENLY BODIES. applied to sins, thick clouds, cloud of witnesses, Sun and moon, marking days, months, and etc.

years, emblem of perpetuity; the stars, noted

for their number, their height, their beauty, RAIN,

their diversified brilliancy, awakening won

der, and prompting the question - What is Refreshing the earth, satisfying the deso- man? late ground, filling the pools; former rain in seed-time, latter rain on the approach of

THE SUN, harvest, the subject of promise and of prayer, At its rise clear, an emblem of prosperity: at as hy Samuel, Solomon, Elijah, emblematical

noon, marking the perfect day-the heat of the of God's word, divine doctrine, righteousness,

day, emblem of the glory of Christ; sunset in etc.,-showers of blessings.

West, metaphorically the season of old age or

death. DROUGHT, A heavy calamity, causing the ground to be

LIGHT AND DARKNESS, chapt, the plowmen to be ashamed, the pas- The former put for knowledge, happiness, and tures to be devoured, the heavens to be as purity; the latter, for ignorance, affliction, and brass, and the earth to be as iron, etc., a prin- pollution,-emblem of the power and characcipal cause of famine, and often threatened in ter of Satan. judgment on account of national sins.


Divided, the former into twelve divisions, Refreshing to the grass and herbs, emblem of setting of the sun, emblem of human life ;

called hours, counting from the rising to the divine grace, of blessings descending upon latter divided into four watches, named, the Israel, and of the influences of the Holy Spirit. evening, midnight. cock crowing, and morning.

emblein of death, and life's labour finished. HAIL AND SNOW, Dreadful effects of hail upon the fields and NAMES OP SOME OF THE MONTHS, vineyards, discomfiting armics, etc.; snow, Nisan or Abib, Zif, Sivan, Thammuz, Elul, emblem of purity.

Tizri, Ethanim, Bul, Chisleu, Thebet, Sebat,


III.—THE THIRD HEAVENS, From divine agency-the former said to be the Called the heaven of heavens, paradise, etc., utterance of God's voice, and the latter to be the scene of God's glory, and the abode of the fire of Gud, described as shot, cast forth, Christ, angels and saints; Paul caught up sent out, etc.; the twenty-ninth psalm.

to it.





I_OBJECTS OF FALSE WORSHIP Anammelech, Nibhaz, Tartak, Ashima, Ner. 1st. The host of heaven, the sun at its rising, and Igal, Succoth-benoth, Ashtaroth, Baal. Baalthe moon as the queen of heaven; 2nd, images or

berith, Baalim, Baal-peor, Baalzebub, Bel, idols made of gold, silver, stone, iron, and

Berith, Chemosh, Chiun, Dagon, Diana, God wood, mollen and graven; 3rd, men and spiri's ;

of forces, Jupiter, Mercurius, Milcom, Molech, 4th, inferior animals, birds, four . footed beasts

Merodach, Nebo, Nisroch, Queen of Heaven, and creeping things--the golden calf, calves

Remphan, Rimmon, Tammuz, and the Una of Dan and Bethel



The law prohibited the making of any image,

required groves to be cut down, altars to be SCENES.

broken and overthrown, forbade the worship Groves of trees,-tops of hills, -roofs of houses, of images on any pretext. temples, instanced in the house of Baal-temple of Dagon-the temple profa ned by heathen altars, images, and idolatrous worship, intro.

PENALTY OF IDOLATRY. duced into Israel by Ahaz and Manasseh. Death by stoning-spiritual judgments, as God's

curse, the hiding of his fare, the destruction IDOLATROUS PRIESTS,

of the temple, with the riscontinuince of its Taken by Jeroboam from the lowest of the services, etc., and natronil punishm 'nts, as, war, people in Israel, imitating the true priesthood, lamine, captivity, civil discord. wearing ephod, robes, and broidered garments.

Praying, burning incense, presenting sacrifice,

Inflicted by pious kings and others, with a

· view to extirpate it, instanced in swearing by them, etc.; indulgence in intoxi.!

Jacob, cation, lewdness, pretended inspiration, cut

| Gideon, David, Jehu, Asa, Hezekiah, Manasthemselves with lancets-Baal's priests.

W seh, Josiah, etc.


V-INCONSISTENCY OF IDOLATRY, Sacrifices of slain beasts; also human sacrifices The idols made by ordinary craftsmen, ont of -sons and daughters made to pass through ordinary materials, being without conscious. the fire to Molech, drink-offering and meat-ness or sense, or power of motion; early preofferings, flour, oil, honey, corn, wine, etc.

valence of idolatry, instanced in the family

of Abraham -- the obstinate attachment to CONSULTATION OF IDOLS,

idolatry, instanced in Israel worshipping the

golden calf within sight of the glory of Sinai. With a view to ascertain the result of wars, journeys, and undertakings-a variety of forms of witchcraft, divination, necromancy,

REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF OPPOSITION TO magic, sorc-ry, etc., placed on the same

IDOLATRY, ground as idolatry by Moses, and pronounced

Recorded of Naaman the Syrian, after he was to be vanity and delusion.'

cured by the prophet of his leprosy, of ShaIII. - NAMES OF IDOLS,

drach, Meshach, and Abednego, and of others,

of whom it is predicted that they will cast their Mentioned in Scripture are-Adrammelech, 1 idols to the moles and to the bats.



II. ---HIS RELATION TO THE FATHER. I-NAMES OF GOD GIVEN TO HIM. Described as God's Son, His only begotin Son, The incommunicable name, Jehovah, the Lord His beloved Son, His image, His curl, His (Jehovah) of hosts, the Lord (Jehovah) our Shepherd, His fellow; one with the Father, so righteousness, the mighty God, the true God, that he who hath seen Him hath scan the God blessed for ever. God our Saviour, King | Father, while on the other hand what belonged of Kings, and Lord of Lords, etc.

I to the Father belonged to Him

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