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THRASHING, Divided by lot according to the number of Done on floor, thrashing.floor, barn-floor, corn. families, as commanded by Moses, and per- floor, by a rod, or hoofs of unmuzzied cattle, formed by Joshua at Shiloh.

cart-wheels or teethed instruments; straw and TENURE OF LAND,

grain separated by removing with a fan or

fanners; chaff driven by the wind: symbol of Held from God in perpetual entail on con- liudgments etc. dition of military service, returning, if aliena. ted, to its orizinal owner at the year of jubilee,

GRASS, or redeemable on certain conditions, instances in Naomi, Naboth, etc.

For cattle, green and abundant, refreshed by

rain, on house-tops short-lived, soon withered TRANSFER OF LAND,

and used as fuel-cast into the oven : emblem Bought in patriarchal times, and made oyer of life, of prosperity, of the wicked, etc. by charter also in Jewish times.


Beans, bulrushes, flags, flax, gourds, heath,
Rich, fertile, and well watered, with bills, lentiles, mandrakes, mallows, millet, reeds,
and valleys, and minerals underneath. rushes, rye, tares

FAILURE OF CROPS, Wilful fire-raising punished by restitution, as of grass-a terrible visitation, as in days of also devastations of animals,-landmarks not. Ahab:-of grain,-caused by inclement seato be removed,-growing crops might be

son,-by drought and wet, -by locusts, by plucked by the traveller, but not cut with a

predatury enemies,—often very severe;-hunger Bickle.

or cleanness of teeth, urging to various repulsive COLTIVATION OF SOIL,

elements of food, even during a siege to canni. Assigned to Adam and to man, as the means

balism, and producing blackness of skin, ema of sustenance.

nation, fainting, and death : the symbol of METHODS OF CULTIVATION,

spiritual destitution,-instances in the days

of Abraham, Isaac, Joseph, of the Judges, of Ploughing, performed by oxen, and in winter, David, Ahab, Elisha, siege of Samaria, of seven -breaking up the clods and fallow ground; the years, foretold by Elisha, during siege of Jeru. Symbol of reformation, of spiritual industry,

salem, after the captivity, in reign of Claudius and of ruin.


Divers seeds not to be used,- often trodden,

case of into the soil by feet of animals;- a work of hope; and the emblem of increase and spirit- pro ual instruction. PLENTY,

MEANS AGAINST FAMINE, Often experienced to an hundred fold: the gift Granaries of Egypt filled by Joseph, and corn of God.

imported from other countries. REAPING, Corn cut with a sickle by shearers or harvest. |

UNRECLAIMED LAND, men, and gathered into shendes, tares into bund- Dry, desolate, waste, and howling, not soun, marshes ksi-a season of joy and of industry: the often wood or forest, filled with wild beasts, symbol of retribution generally in mercy and and haunted by robbers;- noxious vegetation judgment.

in it, thorns, thistles, nettles, briars, brambles, GLEANING,

these also on scenes of ruin; symbols of spi. Corners of fields not to be reaped;-forgotten ritual sterility and desolation. For names of Blieafs not to be fetched, but left for poor, deserts and forests in Scripture, see under instanced in Ruth.

| Earth. .


CREATION OF THEM BY GOD, | the Dove, an emblem of the Spirit of God;Out of the dust of the ground, and named by

the Eagle, distinguished for its powerful pin.

ions, rapid flight, lofty nest, penetrating eye, Adam.

and rapacity, illustrative of persecutors,-the

Hawk as a bird of passage and prey,-the GOD'S PROVIDENCE OVER THEM,

Ostrich, as timid and easily driven from its In the necessary food and preservation of nest, the Owl as the symbol of desolation, every one of them exemplified at the flood, the Partridge illustrative of the persecuted, in Nineveh, etc., represented as teaching and |--the Peacock as admired for its beautiful tellin, of God, honouring Him, crying unto Him, | plumage,-Poultry noted for affection to their and seeking their meat from Him.

young, -Quails as bírds of passage, which cross the Arabian desert,-the Raven as a bird

of prey,-the Sparrow as common and little WILD BEASTS,

esteemed, two sold for a farthing,—the Swalloro, God's scourge, while on behalf of his people, and Crane as birds of passage,_their instincHe makes with them a covenant and peace. tive knowledge of the time of their migration

employed as a reproof to Israel; and the Vula SUBJECTION OF THE INFERIOR ANIMALS TO ture, as filthy and rapacious, etc

Appointed by God, effected by taming them,

and exemplified in the killing of the lion by Pursued by means of snares, gins, and nets.
Samson, etc.

. FISHES, Each noted for its own characteristic peculi. Often employed for food; Fishing a comm arity, Bear for fierceness Bchemoth or Hip. employment, prosecuted by means of hooks. popotainus for great strength-Boar for wast. nets and drags; illustrative of the work of ing, -Coney for its inaccessible abode,Deer Gospel ministers, and an emblem of the As. for agility and beauty,-Dog for its filthy and sy

-Doo for its filthy and syrians carrying Israel away captive,--the predatory liabits,-For for its smallness and fish-gate, a gate of Jerusalem. cunning, -Lopard for its spotted hide, and swist and sudden spring, Lion for its bold

REPTILES, ness, power, and terrific voice; an emblem

The Dragon, probably including several ani. of a mighty ruler, a powerful people, and Satan the adversary; an instrument of judg.

mals under it, represented as being of terrible ment in God's hand, as in the case of the

and poisonous aspect, and frequenting ruined disobedient prophet and the emigrants sent

cities, rivers, and marshes; illustrating the to Samaria;-Leviathan, or Crocodile, for its

malignity of the wicked one, -the Frog an

object of disgust,--the Horseleech as craving for bulk, terrible appearance, and impenetrable li. scales.-Unicorn for its strength,-Wolf for its

blood,—the Worm as bred in putrifying mat. ferocity, etc.

ter, as also in certain diseases; often alluded to in connection with the grave and illu t.

rative of the punishment of the place of PROPHETIC SYMBOLS FROM ANIMALS

I woe.--the Se pent described as subtil. fieru. Lion denoting Assyria,—the Bear Persia,-the crooked, deadly poisonous, and cusceptible of Leopard Greece,--the beast diverse from all, being charmed, illustrative of the cupping Rome.

of Satan,-the Snail found in damp and

shady places,—the Viper in many respects HUNTING.

sin ilar, and often associated with the ser. Prosecuted by means of the bow, and the net: pento illustrative of persecution.


The Ant noted for diligence; Bees for their FOWLS.

| number and sting; illustrative of enemies Birds marking the approach of summer by numerous and formidable; valuable also for their singing; -cage of unclean birds,-nest built their honey, which is characteristic of Canaan, on the branches of trees, in rocks and in places' and often used for food,-the Calerpillar and inaccessible, ad emblem of a place of peace; Locust for their devastations and as a means -Bat, Bilterii, and Cormorant, alluded to as of divine chastisement, -the Ca ker worm inhabitants of solitary and forsaken places, and Palmer-worm also a divine scourge, the Flea on account of its insignificance,Flies scales and fins;-Clean fowls not formally for their swarme,—the Gnat for its proverbial descrived, but the unclean excepted by name; smallness-Grasshoppers. for their vast numcreeping things. clean in part, described and bers, and individual smallness,--the Hornet named, as the locust, beelle, grasshopper, etc., for the severity of its sting, and as an unclean in part described and named, as the instrument of Divine judgment, — Lice one lizard, etc, of the plagues of Egypt, the Moth for its silent destructiveness--the Spider for its frail

THE HERD, web; illustrative of the hope of wicked men, Callle an important description of wealth in etc.

ancient times, the calf often falted and killed ANIMALS USED FOR LABOUR, .

| as a luxury; -- Bulls, fierce, bulls of Bashan,

the Ox used for agricultural labour, unaccusThe ass for riding and work, persons of rank tomed to the yoke, an image of impenitent men riding on white asses, wild asses regarded as un. under divine chastisement; statutes appointed tameable—the camel used on long desert jonr. enforcing equity and mercy, pasture ground neys, the swift dromedary,--the horse wbich very extensive, dairy produce, Milk, Butter, Israel was forbidden to multiply, used espe. and Cheese, killing cattle for food frequently cially by warriors in early times, and in draw. exemplified, and very often referred to in ing the chariots of the great,- The war steed, Scripture--the Horn frequently employed as characterized by strength, fleetness, and cou- an emblem of power, pride, protection, and rage,-Mules employed in riding, horses of as a prophetic symbol various colours, with their riders and chariots, l. used as prophetic symbols in Zechariah.

THE FLOCK. DISTINCTION OF ANIMALS INTO CLEAN AND Sheep a common element of ancient wealth,

UNCLEAN, FOR SACRIFICE AND FOOD, kept for their wool and flesh, prone to wander, Animal food given to Noah, etc., blood for.

are illustrative of mankind going astray from

| God; symbols of innocenco and helplessness, bidden, and fat, animals unclean which had been killed by beasts, or died a natural death;

of a scattered people, and of Christ's followers christian law, and conscience require ab tidence under persecution-Tending the flock performed from what may be doubtful to ourselves, or

| by the sheepmaster and household, similitude offensive to weak brethren.

of the rulers and teachers of a nation and of Christ the Shepherd of souls ;-Multiplication

of the flock, a token of the Divine blessing ANIMALI CLEAN AND UNCLEAN IN THEMSELVES, with

Wild goats, inhabitants of inaccessible rocks Quadrupeds clean which parted the hoof, and and mountains,—the domesticated led in flocks chewed the cud, unclean which did not part by a he-goat-the milk and flesh valuable for the hoof or chew the cud;-Fishes clean which food, and the hair employed in manufactures; had scales and fins, unclean which had not1-emblem of the wicked; symbol of Macedon.



| employed, bricks, stones, timber,-Erection

was executed by carpenters, masons, etc.; used Tents, used in part at least by the Antedilu

| as a symbol of the increase of families, and of vians, by the Patriarchs, and by Israel in the

spiritual edification. wilderness,-- Materials composing them, cords, cirtmins and stakes: figuratively applied to the

ORDINARY FORM OF HOUSES, earth, with the curtains of heaven above, Walls so built as very much to seclude the and also to the body of man.

I building. Courts uncovered. open spaces:

Roof required by the Mosaic law to be flat, and OCCASIONAL DWELLINGS,

fenced with battlements, usually communi. Coves resorted to. for shelter, and in seasons cated with the house, and was often resorted of danger; caves mentioned in Scripture, to for the purpose of observation, for making Makkedah, Adullam, Engedi, etc.

public proclamation, and for retirement and

prayer,-Peter on housetop,-Pillars employed ORDINARY DWELLINGS,

for strength and ornament, symbolically ap.

plied to eminent men,--Door, porch, gule, the Houses of various forms, palaces, castles and passage for entering and departing - Windows cottages; Foundation metaphorically applied for light,--the Dial for determining the hour, to the mountains, and to the world at large, —the various apartments constructed so as to illustrative of strength; a name given to suit the various objects for which they are Christ and his Apostles;—Materials usually designed.


- names given to them from that of the in unwalled villages heldon the same principle builder, from the object of the erection, or us ia ordinary inheritance,– Houses in wal from

ouses'in wal trom some circumstance connected with the led cities limited in respect to their redemp

erection. Different kinds of cities speci.

fied, uamely, Roval, Treasure, Commercial, tion and restoration; dedicrtion attended by certain ceremonies and privileges, the thir.

Chariot, Fenced Cities, the walls of great tieth Psalm.

strength, and provided at intervals with

watch - lowers and battlements; - gaies some. FURNITURE,

times constructed of brass, iron, etc., being

places of concourse, spaces around them used Beds sometimes richly ornamented, but ordi. for merchandise, and for judicial proceedings, narily couches ranged round the walls of the often alluded to as the resort of the idle,rooins; used as an emblem of the grave; Streets and thoroughfares usually narrow in botties made of leather or the skins of animals; the east, IVatchmen employed to guard during instanced in Hannah, the Gibeonites, etc.,- the night; elders of the people appointed by The pilcher used for carrying water, exem- Moses to act as magistrates; instanced in the plified in the woman of Samaria, -The table history of Ruth. used for meals and often lised figuratively for the food itself as "providing a table." Seats (domestic) often formed simply of the sleep

CITY OF GOD, ing couches folded up;-other household stuf Jerusalem, often called the holy city, so named consisted of pots, baskets, etc.

from being specially the place of God's pre

sence, the scene of his worship, and the conTHE HEARTIT,

vocations of his people Israel Fires for cooking, and during the winter months for warnith; instanced in the hall o

ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS, the high priest during the trial of Jesus; for. bidden to be lighted on the Sabbath day, 1ER

*Erected by good men to mark special manifes. Fuel of wood, thorns, dried grass, etc.,- The


t ations of God's favour, as by Jacob at Beth-el, Candle or lamp of oil usually kept burning

Moses at Sinai, Joshua at Gilgal, etc. during the night, and often employed as an emblem of domestic prosperity, but "lamp pu:

CITIES IN RUINS. out," the symbol of domestic adversity; kprosy As the result of God's displeasnre: often the in houses and law about it

subjects of prophecy, and often described as

in the case of Babylon, Damascus, Nineveh, CITIES,

etc. Rebuilding of a city once in ruins is illus. Erected for security, for convenience in mer. trated in the case of Jerusalem after the Babychandise, and often from personal ambition, lonish captivity.



Ammon, and the league of the tribes with Musters made by Moses in the wilderness, by the cunning Gibeonites. Ehud and Gideon among the judges; by command of the States-general, and very

BANNERS. fiequently by the kings of Judah, and Israel, Israel marching in the wilderness, had the etc. Strange niethod of sudden summons em.

standard of Judah, Issachar, and Z bulun ployed by Saul.

on the east, Reuben, Simeon and Gad, on STANDING ARMY,

the south, Ephraim, Manasseh and B njamin

on the west, Dan, Asher and Naphtali on the Began by Saul, attempted by David, and

north; sign of mustering nations, and the completed under the kings.--Foreign armies often referred to “7 those of Egypt, Midian,

gathering of converts to Christ. Amalek, Philistir. Moab, Syria, Assyria, Ammon, etc,- Allied arinies also often re

DISCIPLINE, ferred to in sacred history, as in the case Founded on gradations of rank. the common of the kings of Canaan against Joshua, — soldiers being the mass of the army, and the Judah allied with Simeon,--Anmon with officers in command, consisting of various Syria,- Judah with Syria.-Judah with grades, distinguished in different armies as, Israel, -- Judah with Assyria, - Moab with captains of thousands, captains of hundieds, levy.

captains of 'fifties, captains of the host, cap-, they heard the evil report of the spies,-by tains of the guard, centurions, etc.

Moab when they saw the numbers of Israel, by the kings of the Amorites when they heard

of the wonders which God had wrought for CONSTITUENTS OF ARMIES,

the tribes,—by the Roman guards at the Infantry. Cavalry largely employed in foreign sepulchre of Jesus, – promise made to Israel armies, but forbidden by Moses to Israel, lest

+ that their enemies would be panic struck bethey should traffic with Egypt,--those who

fore them, which was often fulöilled in their

fought in chario's, pioneers, etc.; — the Com.
mi-sariat provided sometimes by voluntary
contribution, and sometimes by compulsory

Usually worn by soldiers in battle, used sym.

bolically to denote the weapons by which WAR TRUMPET,

the Christian may meet and successíuily repel Employed in mustering the people and in his spiritual foes, the defensive consisting of directing them while under arms, commanded the helmet, for the head, -the shielit fastened by Moses, used by Joshua at the siege of on the left arm, and used in parrying off the Jericho, - by Gideon,-by Nehemiah, etc. strokes of enemies, the symbol of divine

protection,the coat of mail fitted to the VALOUR,

body to protect it - greaves, titted round

the legs to protect them, the offensive Often displayed in the troops, often in indiv. consisting of the bow and arrow, the character. jinal heroes, as in those who attached them. istic weapons of the Jews and foreign nations; selves to David, and in heroines, as instanced image of terrible evil inflicted by man, as also in Deborah, - Challenges to deeds of valour of divine: judgments, the dagger, durts, or made by Caleb, calling to the assault of Kir. javelin, the spear, the sling, used by shepherds jath-sepher, - by Jonathan to attach the in defending their tlocks, as well as in war, Philistines, -by Goliah to meet himself, etc. illustrative of casting or expelling a people out

of their own land, and the sword the most COWARDICE,

deadly of all the ancient weapons; the sym.

bol of divino punishment and of human Evinced by Israel in the wilderness, when ' persecution.



THE HEAD. Formed out of the dust-fearfully and wonder-Hair its natural covering, often standing for fully made-symbol of the Church, in its the person or life itself, a natural symbol of sympathetic unity; has an interest in Christ's chief or governor-bowed in token of reve. salvation; grows in stature, and possesses rence to God and respect to man-covered senses, appetites, and organs.

with dust a mark of mourning-hoary, a mark CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THE BODY.

of age and venerable appearance-baldness a Flesh the name often given to the whole cor-token of contempt, anointed for refreshment,

token of disease, grief, and reproach-tossed in poreal person, or to corrupted human nature, one hair not falling to the ground denoting used to signify what is external, denotes not

es perfect safety. Beard usually worn among humanity generally. Bone, name and index of

the Jews--Forehead, a spot on it marking blood relationship, often alluded to as the

public or official rank-Face bowed down in seat of pain, often applied to the dead body,

obeisance-falling on it the result of sudden as bones of Joseph. Joints said to be loosened in

or overpowering sensation–To set the fuce de. fear. Skin black, expressive of severe disease, I

noting steady purpose-cheek, to smite on it an bones cleaving to it denoting emaciation

act of haughty contempt-ear the organ of sinews hardened, a symbol of obstinacy-blood often used to express murder as "the pollue characteristics of the ear denoted by the epi.

hearing, to give ear denoting attention-bad tion of blood." Flesh and blood an expression thats

thets, uncircumcised, stopped, not inclined-tar. for humanity.

rings, a common ornament. Eye the organ PARTS AND ORGANS OF THE BODY. of sight, and the source of tears; sometimes Are often alluded to and frequently employed dimmed by age or sorrow; occasionally painted by the inspired writers.

'I by women, exemplified in Jezebel, an evil eye

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