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Apple, its beauty, -Ash,-Bay, its verdure,

HERB AND SHRUB. Box, Cedar, goodly and full of sap, Chesnut, Cypress, Fig, its fruit very abundant, its Aloes, Calamus, Myrrh, Saffron, Spikenard, leaves indicative of Summer,--Fir, Juniper, very costly, Anise, Cummin, mint, tithe of them, Lign,-Aloes, planted by the Lord, Mulberry, Cucumbers, Garlic, Leeks, Melons, Onions Myrtle - Mustard, seed small, Oak, Oil tree, in Excpt.---Ca sia, Fitches thrashed or beaten Olive, green, goodly fruit shaken off when ripe, with stoff, -Gourd, its rapid growth,- Hyssop, - Palm, straight and tall, the righteous one, Reeds and Flags, by water-course, and slender Pine, - 'Pomegranate -- Shittim, - Sycamore, or shalten with the wind, — Mauna, angels' cominon by wayside, -Teil, -Willow by the foods brook.



through multitude of business,-also supernatural One mode of divine revelation to the prophets, ones from God, anxiety to interpret them, open vision, false vision, the true vision to be very common, as seen in Pharaoh and Nebu.

chadnezzar-true interpretation only from God written, plain upon tables.

as inferred by Joxph and Daniel VISIONS IN SCRIPTURE. From Jehovah to Abraham, Jacob, Moses in the bush,Samuel the child, and Nathan, -the sublime description of Eliphaz,-vision of Abimelech concerning Sarah, Jacob, of Isaiah and symbolic ones to Ezekiel,-tc the Ladder, -Lavan concerning Jacob,Nebuchadnezzar,—to Daniel of empires and Joseph about his future elevation,-Pharaoh's changes,--and to Amos and Zechariah,- (see butler and baker about their own fate, under Parables and EMBLEMS.)-10 New Pharaoh himself about the coming famine, Testament of various kinds to Ananias, Cor- --Midianite soldiers about Gideon's victory, nelius, Paul, Joun, and the disciples

Solomon, and the gift of wisdom, Nebuchad. nezzar, the colossal image,-nd the mystic

tree,-Daniel, -Jo-eph about the child Jesus, Night and Sleep-dreams natural coming Pilate's wife and that just mu




STEGE. A frequent occurrence, and uscially the result Proclamation of peace or surrender to be ofsintül passion--whence come wars and fighlings? mane ere the siege commenced, often pro-often exemplified in Jewish history—uuder. ductive of great misery to the belligerent city taken sometimes for conques', as under Joshua -parable of the iiille city, besieged by the against the nations of Canaan-sometimes for great king, and delivered by a poor wise man. self-defence, as Israel agaiust Amalek, etc.

Blockade-the raising of a bank, or casting up

a mountt!e trench-building a fort and setting BIOTS,

an engine-the battering-ram and axes-breach

made, and city taken. Or simultaneous uprisings, as at Jerusalem, against Paul-civil wars and passions, as in SIEGES MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE. ancient armies, whon every man's sword was Abel, Ai and the ambush, Debir, Eglon, turned against his fellow.

Gibbethon, Hamath-zobah-Hebron, cities in

north of Palestine-Jabesh.Gilead---Jericho, FIGHTING.

the ram's horns and ark-Jerusalem (see A scourge of Providence, severely felt by under JERUSALEM) --cities of Judah, Keilah, many nations—and therefore peace esteemed Lachish, Libeah, Makkedah, Ramah, Raa great blessing-universal peace predicted- moth - Gilead, Samaria, Shechem, Tirzah, swordsconverted intoploughshares(Strongholds, Thebez, Ziklag. Fenced and Walled Cities (see under ARCHITECTURE)-passes sometimes watched and guarded gurrisons put into strongholds_strict watcnu Overthrow and spoilation-fortress levelled, kept by sentries.

and the city often set on fire, as instanced in


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many of the cities enumerated above, and

RESOLUTION TO GO TO WAR. threatened against other cities by Amos Israel's valour and resolve based on divin

promise-vain-glory, sometimes manifested, MILITARY TACTICS,

and caution und cowardice both exhibited--for The march-Hebrew soldiers during it to divisions of Reuben there were great searching of be pure — the roule of Sennacherib's land heart. drawn by Isaiah-attempt of Israel to march through Edom and the land of the Amorites, God the giver of victory—acknowledged by

RESULTS OF BATTLL. and its consequences—the march of an army productive of great devasta'ion, licking up all Joshua and David—the promiser of it also round about-stopping wells, felling trees, pil- | --defeat from him, and on account of sin, laging barvests.

and that defeat threatened by him.

FLIGAT. SUDDEN ASSAULTS, Producing victory-ambushes, as of Joshua at The pursuit-and the flight often in vainAi, and of Israel at Gibeah-signals employed the wounded not able to rise-the slain, David's of various kinds—the scarlet line of Rabab lament over Jonathan-recorded number of the arrows of Jonathan, etc.

Jews slain, and of Gentiles also — special

cause of disaster and hardship in ancient INTELLIGENCE,

Israel, the treatment of the Levite's concuOften necessary to an army, and sometimes bine by the men of Gibeah. got of old from a divine source, as from the

PRISONERS. prophet:—fromreconnoitering—from prisoners and deserters, from the natives-or from often taken in great numbers, as by Moses, secret emissaries and spies--many examples David and Nebuchadnezzar-sometimes kind. of all these in Jewish annals-various effects ly treated, pitied by those who carried them captive produced by such intelligence-evil tidings, sometimes with ignominy; the five kings, etc.

and their necks made a footstool by Joshua;

David's treatment of the Ammonites Hushai, Abitbophel.

Zedekiah blinded and carried to Babylon. VARIOUS,

BOOTY, Campaigns and manæuvres under Joshua Often referred to-spoil and spoiler-often and the kings—and serving often for illustra- great-distributed among the soldiers, and tion to the prophets.

also among the women who tarried at home. ACTIVE WARFARE.

TRIBUTE Hebrew law-priests addressing the army

Paid by the vanquished Mesha king of sanitary regulation for the host, the paddle Moab, Hezekiah, paid in money,

and in sheep fixed to the weapon of war-watchword of

and goats, Moses-Rise up, O Lord, Return the camp, array of battle-proclamation before engage. To prevent war or in consequence of it-em


bassies as of Jephthah to the Ammonites. Mentioned in Scripture, confederate kings, treaties as between Ahab and BenhadadAmalek, Og, Anachim, Anakims, Sihon-th

treaties sometimes violated-ambassadors aborigines of Canaan, Abimelech, tribe of league with Gibeonites through their teigned Benjamin — Philistines-of David and the ambassadors. other kipgs.

Not always successful-not a few instances in

the historical books. Capitulation, result of Garments rolled in blood-grief and wailing conscious weakness—and urged by the strong produced by the bloodshed— Oh that my head party-miscellaneous allusions to war and its were waters!

concomitants in various portions of Scripture.






BEA3, Gathered together on the third day--the scene Mentioned in Scripture, Adria-Mediter. of great wondersJordan and the Red Sea-- ranean variously named-Red sea-Salt or symbols of affliction always under the com- Dead sea-Sea of Galilee or Tiberia-Sea of mand of God, the Lord sits king on the floods. Jazer.





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Often overflowing the banks—all run into Abounded in Canaan, higbly prized, especially
the sea, -yet the sea not full-mystic rivers in in gardens, mentioned in Scripture, near
Ezekiel, Zechariah, and Revelations. Shur,uear the waters of Nephtoah, Jizrcel, Lebi,

Pisgah, Upper and nether springs.
Mentioned in Scriptures, Abana and Pharrar, Pools mentioned in Scripture-Bethesda,-
Arnon, Chebar, Euphrates, and Hiddekel,
Gihon, Gozan, Jabbok, Jordan, Kanah, Kis: Gibeon,,- Hebron, -Samaria, ---Siloam, -Up.
bon, Ulni,ot Pison, Ahava, of Babylon, of Luen, per pool,-Lower pool, -King's pool, -oid
of Egypt, of Ethiopia, of Jotbath, of Judab, oi pool.
Philippi, River of life.

Highly prized, dug by the Patriarchs, and

sometimes scenes of strife on account of their
The ark of Noah, built of gopher-wood, ships value, -occasionally found in the courts of
of war from Chittim, ferryboat in Jordan, houses,-symbol of spiritual blessings.
navy of Solomon and Jehoshaphat, boats often
used by Christ at the Lake of Tiberias-voy'.
aging ships with their tackling, masts, sails, Mentioned in Scripture, Beer-lahai.roi,
pilot, anchor, helm, rudder-bands,oars, rowers, Beth-lehem, - Beer-sheba, - Elim, — Exek, -
shipmen, mariners, captain, lading and un- in Hagar's history,--Haran, ---Jacob,-Marah,
lading, crew, cargo, and passengers--ship with Rehoboth,-Sitnah,- Floods often breaking
figure head of Castor and Pollux-Shipwreck out suddenly-Symbol of revolution and in-
of the Apostle Paul, storms sent by God, great vasion.
winu, rebuked by Christ, shipwreck - of
ships of Tarshish, of the navy of Jehoshaphat, The flood of Noah, the rain born token of
of Paul,-Euroclydon.

the divine covenant, -Swimming-spreading

forth hands. BROOKS, Abounding in Canaan-mentioned in Scripture, Arnon, Besor, Cherith, Eshcol, Gaush, A fearful punishment, -water failing, (sce Kihon, Kishon, Zered, Of the Willow.

under HEAVEN)



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DISTRIBUTION OF their substance. As the LORD he redeem that which his brother LAND.

comman led Moses, so the chil. sold. And if the man have nono Num. XXVI, 52-56. And the

dr-o of Israel did, and they divided to redeem it, and himself be able the land,

to redeem it; Then let him count LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Unto these the land shall be di

Joshua xviii, 10. And Joshua the years of the sale thereof, and vided for an inheritance accorda cast lots for them in Shiloh before restore the overplus unto the man ing to the number of names. To the LORD: and there Joshua di- to whom he sold it; that he may

vided the land unto the children return unto his possession. But if many thou shalt give the more inheritance, and to few thou shalt of Israel according to their divi he be not able to restore it to him,

then that which is sold shall regive the less inheritance: to every sions.

main in the hand of him that hath one shall his inheritance be given Josh. xix. 51. These are the bought it until the year of jubilee: according to those that were inheritances, which Eleazar the and in the jubilee it shall go out, numbered of him. Notwithstand- priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and he shall return unto his posing the land shall be divided by and the heads of the fathers of session. lot: according to the names of the the tribes of the children of Israel, tribes of their fathers they shall divided for an inheritance by lot

EXAMPLES. inherit. According to the lot shall in Shiloh before the Lord, at the Ruth iv, 3, 4. And he said unto the possession thereof be divided door of the tabernacle of the con- the kinsman, Naomi, that is come between many and few.

gregation. So they made an end again out of the country of Moab, Num. Xxxiii, 53, 54. And ye of dividing the country.

selleth a parcel of land, which was shall dispossess the inhabitants of

our brother Elimelech's: And I the land, and dwell therein: for I

thought to advertise thee, saying, have given you the land to pos


Buy it before the inhabitants, and sess it. And yo shall divide the Lev. XXV, 13-17. In the year of before the elders of my people. land by lot for an inheritance this jubilee ye shall return every if thou wilt redeem it, redeem it: among your familles : and to the man unto his possession. And if but if thou wilt not redeem it, more ye shall give the more in- thou sell ought unto thy neigh- then tell me, that I may know: for heritance, and to the fewer ye bour, or buyest ought of thy neigh- there is none to redeem it beside shall give the less inheritance: bour's hand, ye shall not oppress thee; and I am after thee. And every man's inheritance shall be one another: According to the he said, I will redeem it. in the place where his lot falleth; number of years after the jubilee Ruth iv, 6-9, 11. And the kinsman according to the tribes of your thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, sald, I cannot redeem it for myfathers ye shall inherit.

and according unto the number self, lest I mar mine own inheriJoshua xiv, 1-5. And these are of years of the fruits he shall sell tance: redeem thou my right to the countries which the children unto thee: According to the mul- thyse for I cannot redeem it. of Israel inherited in the land of titude of years thou shalt increase Now this was the manner in Canaan, which Eleazar the priest, the price thereof, and according former time in Israel concerning and Joshua the son of Nun, and the to the fewness of years thou shalt redeeming and concerning changheads of the fathers of the tribes diminish the price of it: for ac- ing, for to confirm all things; a of the children of Israel, distri-cording to the number of the man plucked off his shoe, and buted for inheritance to them. By

years of the fruits doth he sell gave it to his neighbour; and this lot was their inheritance, as the unto thee. Ye shall not therefore was a testimony in Israel. ThereLord commanded by the hand of oppress one another; but thou fore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Moses, for the nine tribes, and for shalt fear thy God: for I am the Buy it for thee. So he drew off the half tribe. For Móses had LORD your God.

his shoe. And Boaz said unto the given the inheritance of two tribes Lev xxv, 23-28. The land shall | elders, and unto all the people, Yo and an half tribe on the other side not be sold for ever: for the land are witnessesthis day, that I have Jordan: but unto tho Levites he is mine; for ye are strangers and bought all that was Elimelech's, gave none inheritance among sojourners with me. And in all and all that was Chilion's and them. For the children of Joseph the land of your possession ye Mahlou's, of the hand of Naomi. were two tribes, Manasseh and shall grant a redemption for the And all the people that were in Ephraim: therefore they gave no land. If thy brother be waxen the gate, and the elders, said, part unto the Levites in the land, poor, and hath sold away some of we are witnesses. save cities to dwell in, with their his possession, and if any of his 1 Kings xxi, 3. And Naboth said buburbs for their cattle and for kin come to redeem it, then shall to Ahab, The LORD forbid it me,

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that I should give the inheritance , tent, at the hand of the children fruit of her hands she planteth of my fathers unto thee.

of Hamor, Shechem's father, for a vineyard. 2 Kings viii, 3-6. And it came to an hundred pieces of money, Acts v, 1, 2. But a certain man pass at the seven years' end, that

Josh. xxiv, 32. And the bones of named Ananias, with Sapphira his the woman returned out of the Joseph, which the children of Is- wife, sold a possession, And kept land of the Philistines: and she rael brought up out of Egypt, back part of the price, his wife went forth to cry unto the king buried they in Shechem, in a para also being privy to it, and brought for her honse and for her land. cel of ground which Jacob bought a certain part, and laid it at the And the king talked with Gehazi of the sons of Ilamor the father of apostles' feet. the servant of the man of God, Shechem for an hundred pieces saying, Tell me, I pray thee, all of silver: and it became the in

ANCIENT CHARTERS. the great things that Elisha hath heritance of the children of Jo- Gen. xxili, 17, 18. And the field of done. And it came to pass, as seph.

Ephron, which vas in Machpelah, he was telling the king how he had restored a dead body to life, city of Samaria, which is called and the cave which was therein,

John iv, 5. Then cometh he to a which was before Mamre, the field, that, behold, the woman, whose son he had restored to life, cried Sychar, near to the parcel of and all the trees that were in the to the king for ber house and for ground that Jacob gave to his son field, that were in all the borders

round about, were made sure unto Joseph. her land. And Gehazi said, My

Abraham for a possession in the lord, o king, this is the woman,

UNDER JEWISH LAW. presence of the children of lleth, and this is her son, whom Elisha restored to life. And when the

2 Sam. xxiv, 21-24. And Araunah before all that went in at the gate king asked the woman, she told said, Wherefore is my lord the of his city,

Jer. xxxii, 10–15. And I subhim. So the king appointed unto king come to his servant? And her a certain oficer, saying, Re- David said, To buy the threshing- scribed the evidence, and sealed store all that was hers, and all floor of thee, to build an altar unto it, and took witnesses, and weighed the fruits of the field since the the LORD, that the plague may be him the money in the balances,

And so I took the evidence of the pur

stayed from the people. day that she left the land, even Arsunah said unto David, Let my chase, buth that which was sealed until now. Lam. V, 2. Our inheritance is what seemeth good unto him: be- and that which was open: And I

lord the king take and offer up according to the law and custom, turned to strangers, our houses to hold, here be oxen for burnt sacri- gave the evidence of the pnrchase aliens.

fice, and threshing instruments unto Baruch the son of Neriah, the

and other instruments of the oxen son of Maaseiah, in the sight of TRANSFER OF LAND. for wood. All these things did Hanameel mine uncle's son, and

Araunah, as a king, give unto the in the presence of the witnesses

king. And Araunah said unto that subscribed the book of the Gen. xxiii, 7-9. And Abraham the king, The LORD thy God ac- purchase, before all the Jews that stood up, and bowed himself to cept thee. And the king said unto sat in the court of the prison, the people of the land. even to the Araunah, Nay; but I will surely And I charged Baruch before children of leth. And he com- buy it of thce at a price: neither them, saying, Thus saith the LORD muned with them, saying. It it will I offer burnt offerings unto of hosts, the God of Israel; Take be your mind that I should bury the Lord my God of that which these evidences, this evidence of my dead out of my sight; hear me, doth cost me nothing. So David the purchase, both which is sealed, and intreat for me to Ephron tho bought the threshing-floor and and this evidence which is open; son of Zohar, That he may give the oxen for fifty shekels of sil- and put them in an earthen vessel, me the cave of Machpelah, which rer.

that iney may continue many days. he hath, which is in the end of his

Jer.xxxii,6-9. And Jeremiah said, For thus saith the Lord of hosts, field; for as much money as it is The word of the LORD came unto the God of Israel; Houses and worth he shall give it me for a pos: mo, saying, Behold, Ilanameel the fields and vineyards shall be pussession of a burying-place amongst

son of Shallum thine unelo shall sessed again in this land. you.

Jer. xxxii, 44. Men shall buy anto Ephron in the audience of my field that is in Anathoth: for fields for money, and subscribo

Gen. xxill, 13-16. And he spake come into thee, saying, Buy thee the people of the land, saying, to buy it.

the right of rodemption is thine evidences, and seal them, and take

So Hanameel mine witnesses in the land of Benjamin, But if thou wilt gire it, I pray uncle's son came to me in the and in the places about Jerusalem, thee, hear me: I will give thee court of the prison according to and in the cities of Judah, and in money for the field; take it of me, the word of the Lord, and said the cities of the mountains, and in and I will bury my dead there. unto me, Buy my field, I pray the cities of the valley, and in the And Ephron answered Abraham, thee, that is in Anathoth, which cities of the south: for I will cause saying unto him, My lord, hear, is in the country of Benjamin: for their captivity to return, saith the ken unto me: the land is uorth the right of inheritance is thine, Lord. four hundred shekels of silver; and the redemption is thine; buy what is that betwixt me and thee? it for thyself. Then I knew that bury therefore thy dead. And

SOIL OF CANAAN. Abraham hcarkened unto Ephron; And I bought the field of lana-son of Nun, and Caleb the son of this was the word of the LORD.

Num. xiv, 6-8. And .!oshua the and Abraham weighed to Ephron meel my uncle's son, that was in Jephunnch, which were of them the silver, which he had named in the audience of the sons of lleth Anathoth, and weighed hiin the that searched the land, rent their four hundred shekels of silver, curmoney, eren seventeen shekels of

clothes: And they spake unto all silver. rent money with the merchant.

the company of the children of Gen. xxxiii, 18, 19. And Jacob

Jer. xxxii, 43. And fields shall Israel, suying. The land, which we came to Shalein a city of Shechem, be bought in this land, whereof passed through to search it, is an which is in the land of Canaan, ye say, It is desolate without man exceeding good land. If the LORD when he came from Padan-aram; or beast; it is given into the hand delight in us, then he will bring and pitched his tent before the of the Chaldeans.

us into this land, and give it us; city. And he bought a parcel of Prov. xxxi, 16. She considereth a land which floweth with milk #field, where he had spread his a field, and buyeth it: with the and honey.


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