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yearly columns may be in some measure due to the small numbers under observation.
To elucidate this point we add the following:
Number of Deaths on which the preceding per-centages are computed.

Under
Ages.

Upwards. Total.

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The following T. is compiled from the T. given on pp. 247, 279, and 281 of the vol. pub. by the Committee ; and embodies all that we deem material in regard to the mort. and expec. of diseased lives.

DISEASED LIVES-MALE AND FEMALE COMBINED,
Summary of results from New Experience investigation, 1869.

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9 IO II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 23

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I'O 2-5 395 4'5 70 II'O 17-5 22'5 250 29.5 36.5 44:5 49'5 53.5 610 74'0 9145 1150 1590 2015 2530 3420 463.0 5880 7535 906'0 10730 1256'o 1450 5 1656'0 1811'0 1986.0 21270 222145 2328 0 2413'0 2479-5 25460

10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 9865 9865 9865 9679 9583 9431 9321 9140 9093 8972

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98113
99007
98419
98830
98056
*99490
98673
98786
98509
'99124
98759
98611
*98840
'98943
'98966
98830
98711
*98550
'99072
198507

55-56 54:56 53.56 52-56 51.56 50:56 49:56 58.56 47:56 46:56 45:56 44.56 43:56 42:56 41:56 40°56 39:56 39'09 38:09 37'09 36.80 36.16 3573 35:15 34.84 34'Or 33:47 32.87 32'36 3164 31.03 30°46 29.81 29:13

*01351 '00000 '00000 ‘01887 '00993 '01581 '01170 '01944 '00510 01327 'O1214 '01491 *00876 '01 241 '01389 '01160 'O1057 'O1034 '01170 01289 ‘01450 *o0928 01493

186

96 152 IIO 181

47 I21 108 132

77 107 119 98

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23.82 2719'0

*01545 98455 7339 114 23:15 27010

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98667 7225

22:51 2707'0

'01441 *98559 7129 103 21.80 2703'5 *02071 '97929 7026 145

21'II 2662-5 40 '01502

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20'26 2583.5

01781 98219 6674 119 19:57 25450

'01965 98035 6555 129 24730

‘02467 97533 6426 159 18:29 51 23890 54

'02260 '97740 6267 141 17o73 52 230145 52 '02259 *97741

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139 17'13 53 2249'5 57 '02534 '97466 5987

151 16.52 54 21730 70 '03221 '96779 5836 188

15'93 55 2087'0 '02540 *97460

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144 15.45 56 2006-5 49 '02442

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5504 57 1927.5

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'96161 5370 206 14'20 1808-5 64 '03539 '96461

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183 13-74 59 17380 52 '02992 '97008

149 13'23 16715 75 *04487 95513 4832 217

12.62 61 15480 52 '03359 '96641 4615 155 12:19 62 1453-5 62 '04266 95734

190 11.60 63 1347'5 66 *04898 '95102 4270

209

II'09 64 1236'0 71 '05744

94256 4061

234 10.64 65 II22'0 64 '05704

94296
3827 218

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'05397 '94603 3609 195 9.85 67 9280 60 '06466 93534 3414 220 9'38 8450 53 '06272

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93058
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8:56 70 678.5 43 '06338 *93662 2785 176 8.16 71 612'0 41 '06699 93301 2609 175

7:67 72 551'0 44 *07985 '92015 2434 194

7:18 73 482'5 39 '08083 91917 2240 181 74 4210 50 *11876

2059 245 75 343'0 43 '12536

•87464 1814 227

6:10 76 290.0 37 '12759

1587 203

5'90 77 240'0 28 *11667

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85937 645 91 4:52 570 '08772 '91228 554 48

4'17 510 '13725 -86275

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III 301 86 310

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2.99 89 80 *50000 *50000

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26 26 *50 The Rep. from which the preceding details are drawn was submitted, before pub., to the Inst. of Act., and a discussion was raised thereon. The following speakers dealt with the subject of diseased lives.

Mr. A. H. Bailey said :
As regards diseased lives, those upon which an extra prem. has been charged for any disease or ten.

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506 436 325

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dency to disease, we find that the mort. is so much in excess of that of the healthy lives, that anything like a small or even moderate add. to the prem, is of very little avail. Take, for instance, the age 25 to 29; whilst among healthy lives the mort. is 73 in 10,000, amongst diseased it is 121. Among other information in which the old experience (Experience T. No. 1) was wanting, but which the materials now collected will furnish, is the mort. at the oldest ages, and also the effect of selection-a matter of great interest to us all, and, to my mind, the most interesting part of the present results. When these tables come to be pub., it will be found that as far as the healthy lives are concerned, both for male and female, the mort. in quinquennial periods of age for every year of assu. is given separately for each of the first 10 years of assu., also for the first 5 years and the subsequent period, also for the

first 10 years and the

subsequent period; and I have been very much struck with finding how very remarkable the effect of selection is in the first three or four years, and how very soon it seems to pass away. There is a curious result about the fourth year, when the mort. seems to be in excess, for which I am quite

unable to account, but speaking broadly and generally, the facts show that the effect of selection is very noticeable for the first three or four years, but is not very marked after that. In the diseased lives the mort. is more uniform throughout. The effect of selection, as might be expected, is con. siderably less amongst diseased lives than amongst healthy lives; but the results do not show what I think was at one time anticipated, that the diseased lives, like port wine, improve by keeping. We have some of us found from experience that the mort. amongst diseased lives is heavy in early years; and it was hoped that that would be compensated for by an improved mort. in after years of assu. But that is not the case.

Mr. F. Hendriks said:

I doubt whether we can apply these particular tables with any certainty to any practical use, because we know that these lives were admittedly bad, and the question is whether they have turned out better or worse than the addition we have made to them? I regret to say we have not here the chance of seeing in these particular obs. upon that class any useful information.

Mr. Thomas Carr, after the discussion, wrote to the Ins. Record:

I cannot understand how any opinion on the subject alluded to could be duly formed, except after an investigation of the mort. among diseased lives, made separately for the successive stages of duration of the policies, so as to afford the means of comparing, at any given age, the mort. among lives on which the pol. have been in force a few years with that among lives whose pol. are of older date. No such investigation has, however, been made before the present one, to my knowledge. The ex. perience of the Clerical, Medical, and General office (already noticed) does not supply the means for such a comparison as I have alluded to. Instances of diseased lives attaining great ages are by no means unknown, and if from such instances, and from perhaps ascertaining that the mort, among diseased lives was heavy during the earlier years of assu., any persons have gone on, not merely to hope, but to decide favourably as to future and untried cases, I conceive this is not only a faulty process of reasoning, but a proceeding to which the words of Lord Bacon will apply—"Vague and arbitrary experience is mere groping in the dark."

The Report of the Scottish Joint Committee appointed to collect the Experience of the Scottish Life Assu. Offices to 31 December, 1863, was also pub, in 1869, and from it we take the following:

The rate of mort. experienced among lives diseased at their first assu. has also been computed, and will be found in the accompanying tables (see No. cv.). The rate experienced over the whole healthy and diseased lives taken together is also given (No. cvi.). Viewing diseased lives as a separate class of risks, those which were diseased at a first and those diseased at a second or subsequent assu. may be combined, and the rate of mort. deducible from the combination may be viewed as the true rate among diseased lives. This rate is accordingly given in one of the following tables (No. cvii.).

It occurred to the committee that it would be useful to subdivide the whole class of diseased lives into separate sections, according to the nature of the deteriorating influence affecting the life, and they accordingly obtained supplementary returns from the several offices, (1) As to the amount of extra prem. charged, and consequently the increased age at which the

life had been rated; and (2) As to the nature of the deteriorating element for which the extra prem. had been imposed. In the previous tables under this head, the lives had been taken at their actual ages, but from the materials now obtained the committee were able to deduce the rate of mort. among diseased lives, on the assumption that they entered at the ages corresponding to the increased prems. charged. They were also able to divide the wbole diseased lives into several classes corresponding to the nature of the deteriorating influence affecting the life, viz.—(see tables cxii.-cxvi. and tables I. and K. in printed appendix).

1. Unfavourable personal history, excluding gout and hernia
2. Unfavourable family history

525
4. Hernia...

842

3620 lives. Most of the T. referred to in the foregoing are unpub.: the references being to the MS. tables; but T. I. and K. are printed, and show the number exposed to the risk of mort., the number of deaths in each year, and the prob. of dying in one year at each age. Abstracts of these T. are given on the next page, 350.

Examples. —Table I.— The total number of diseased lives" between their 39th and 40th birthdays was 875, of whom 12 died within the year, thus indicating for each life exposed to risk a ratio or probability of death of 013714. The sum of such ratios for the ages 35-39 = '049925, and for the ages 30-39=106992.

Table K.-Taking the lives at their assumed ages, corresponding to the increased prems. charged, the number between their 39th and 40th birthdays was 825.5, of whom 8 died within the year, thus indicating for each life exposed a ratio or probability of death of 009691. The sum of such ratios for the ages 35-39 = '042716, and for the ages 30-39 = '098574.

Another T. is given (Q.) (see page 351), showing the rates and causes of mort, among the diseased lives as compared with that experienced by the general pop. of Scotland in 1855-64. The T. applies to diseased lives, male and female.

1325 lives.

928

3. Gout

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TABLE I.-FIRST AND SUBSEQUENT Assu. (ACTUAL AGES).

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TABLE K.-FIRST AND SUBSEQUENT Assu. (ASSUMED AGES).

Age.

No. exposed to

Probability of
Risk of Deaths. Dying in
Mortality.

One Year.

Quinquennial

Sum.

Decennial

Sum.

29

64

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'098574
44
9215

017363 '053900
49
869: 14
'016110 *056315

'110215
54
732 12

*016393

*083034
59

558.5 15 *026858 *132967 *216001
390

12 *030779 *149465
69

230*

17 '073913 250125 *399590
74
113

'053097 '282213
79
46.5

'129032 451370 *733583
84
20°

200000 '499671
89
70

•142857 623917 1'123588
94

'000000 1'233334 Totals of 27583'5 545 (019758)

entire T. In 1870 Mr. James Meikle, of Edinburgh, in whose hands the responsibility of preparing the rep. on the Scotch mort. experience already noticed had been entrusted, read before the Royal So. in Edin. a paper which he had prepared by having "embraced the opportunity of making further investigation, comparison, and obs.” upon the large mass of materials which necessarily fell into his hands in making the orig. investigation and rep. Of the merits of these combined publications it is impossible to speak too highly. They will be generally reviewed under SCOTTISH MORT. EXPERIENCE; and will be spoken of incidentally under many other heads. At present we have simply to note the add. obs. regarding diseased lives which are contained in this second production, pub. in elegant form in 1872.

At p. 49 we find the heading “ rate of mort. of diseased lives," and are there told that "the lives not assured at ordin. rates, sometimes termed 'imperfect lives,' or diseased lives,' and numbering 3551, of whom 496 died, seem to have experienced a higher rate of mort. than would have been provided for them by the Carlisle or Actuaries T. (17 offices) as healthy lives.” A tabular comparison of the actual and computed mort. is then given, by which it appears

That the mort. of the lives whose initial assu. were charged extra for personal infirmities, hereditary tendency to disease, or unfavourable family hist., is, overhead, about 9/7-10 p.c. greater than provided for by the Carlisle or Actuaries T. of mort. As the Carlisle is about 5/4-10 and the Actuaries 3/7-10 greater than the actual mort, experienced on healthy lives, it may be in ferred that the number of deaths among diseased lives exceeds that among the healthy by about 13 to 15 p.c.

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Table Q.--Showing the Rates and Causes of Mort. as compared with that experienced by the general pop. of Scotland, 1854-64.

DISEASED LIVES—MALES AND FEMALES.

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It will be remembered that the results of the Scotch obs. are included in the general results of the first rep. already noticed under this date.

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