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LITERARY AND HISTORICAL NOTICE. IN tbis mech sss tragedy Shakspeare has elosely adhered to historical fact, excepting that Banquo, out of com
pliment to bis descendant James I. is excluded from all participation in the murder of Dancan. In the reign of Charles II. the songs of the witches were set to music by the celebrated Matthew Lock, and the play re karded as a semi-opera. The ghosts and witches, though admirably pourtrayed, have been censured as an insult to common sense ; and cautions bare been held out to the young and uninformed against imbibing the absurd principles of fatalism which are seemingly countenanced in many parts of this piece. But in the time of Shakspeare, the doctrine of witchcraft was at once established by law and by fashion, and it became not only unpolite, but criminal, to doubt it.---King James himself in his dialogues of Damonologie, re-printed in Lon. don soon after his succession, has speculated deeply on the illusions of spirits, the compact of witches, &c.; and our dramatist only turned to his advantage a system universally admitted. In representation, some un interesting scenes are omitted ; many of the witches' dialogues adapted to beautiful music, and a song or two, probably written by Sir W. Davenant, added to the parts, Betterton, amidst many bad alterations, hit upon the plan of making the witches deliver all the prophecies, by which a deal of the trap-work is avoided, and Garrick substituted some excellent passages to be uttered by Macbeth, whilst expiring, in lieu of the disgust. ing exposure of his head by Macduff. The neatest criticisin upon the play, and the most concise record of its historical facts, are contained in the following extract from a standard publication : “ Macbeth flourished in Scotland about the middle of the tenth century. At this period Duncan was king, a mild and humane prince, but not at all possessed of the genius requisite for governing a country so turbulent, and so infested by the intrigues and ani nosities of the great Macbeth, a powerful nobleman, and nearly allied to the crown. Not contented with curbing the king's authority, carried still further his mad ambition, he murdered Duncan at la. verness, avd theu seized upon the throne. Fearing lest his ill-gotten power should be stripped from him. he cbased Malcolm Kenmore, the son and heir, into England, and put to death Mac Gill and Banquo, the two most powerful men in his dominions. Macduff, next becoming the object of his suspicion, he escaped into England; but the inhuman usurper wreaked his vengeance on his wife and children, whom he caused to be cruelly butchered. Siward, whose daughter was married to Duncan, embraced, by Edward's orders, the protection of his distressed family. He marched an army into Scotland, and having defeated and killed Macbeth io batile, he restored Malcolm to the throne of his ancestors. The tragedy founded upon the history of Macberb, though contrary to the rules of the drama, contains an infinity of beauties with respect to langaage, character, passion, and incident ; and is thought to be ove of the very best pieces of the very best masters in this kind of writing that the world ever produced. The danger of ambition is well described, and the possions are directed to their true ends, so that it is not only admirable as a poem, but one of the most moral pieces existing."
DRAMATIS PERSONA. DUNCAN, King of Scotland,
SEYTON, an Officer attending on Macbeth.
Son to Macduff. DONALBAINS
An English Doctor:- A Scotch Doctor.
A Soldier.-A Porter.-An old Man.
LADY MACDUFF. ROSSE, > Noblemen of Scotland.
Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth. MENTETH,
HECATE, and three Witches.
Lords, Gentlemen, Oficers, Soldiers, Mur. FLEAXCE, Son to Banquo.
derers, Attendants, and Messengers. SIWARD, Earl of Northumberland, General of the English Forces.
The Ghost of Banquo, and several other YOUNG ŠIWARD, his Son.
Apparitions. SCENE, in the end of the fourth act, lies in England ; through the rest of the play, in Scotland ;
and, chiefly, at Macbeth's Castle,
SCENE 1.-An open Place. Thunder and Lightning. Enter three WITCHES.
1 Witch. When shall we three meet again In thunder, lightning, or in rain ?
2 Witch. When the hurlyburly's done, When the battle's lost and won :
3 Witch. That will be ere set of sun.
All. Paddock calls :-Anon.-
(WITCHES vanish, SCENE II.-A Camp near Fores. Confronted him with self-comparisons,
Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm, Alarum within. Enter King DUNCAN, MAL-Curbing his lavish spirit : And, to conclude, COLM, DONALBAIN, LENOx, with ATTEND
The victory fell on us; ANTS, meeting a bleeding SOLDIER.
Din. Great happiness! Dun. What bloody man is that? He can re Rosse. That now port,
Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition ; As seemeth by his plight, of the revolt
Nor would we deign him burial of his men, The newest state.
Till he disbursed, at Saint Colmes' inch, Mal. This is the sergeant,
Ten thousand dollars to our general use. Who, like a good and hardy soldier, fought
Dun. No more that tbane of Cawdor shall 'Gainst my captivity :-Hail, brave friend!
deceive Say to the king the knowledge of the broil, Our bosom interest :-Go, pronounce his death, As thou didst leave it,
And with his former title greet Macbeth. Sold. Doubtfully it stood;
Rosse. I'll see it done. As two spent swimmers, that do cling together, Dun. What he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath And choke their art. The merciless Macdon
(Erennt. wald (Worthy to be a rebel ; for to that
SCENE III.-A Heath.-Thunder.
Enter the three WITCHES. of kernes and gallowglasses is supplied ;
1 Witch. Where hast thou been, sister 3 And fortune, on his damned quarrel + smiling,
2 Witch. Killing swine. Show'd like a rebel's whore : But all's too weak :
3 Witch. Sister, where thou? For brave Macbeth, (well he deserves that
1 Witch. A Sailor's wife had chesnuts in her name)
lap, Disdaining fortuve, with his brandish'd steel, Which smok'd with bloody execution,
| And mounch’d, and mounch'd, and mounch'd :Like valour's minion
Give me, quoth 1 :
| Aroint thee, t witch ! the rump-fed ronyon Cary'd out his passage, till he fac'd the slave ;
cries. And ne'er sbook bands, nor bade farewell to
Her husband's 'to Aleppo gone, master o'the him,
But in a sieve I'll thither sail, Till he unseam'd him from the nave to the chaps,
(Tiger : " And, like a rat without a tail, And fix'd bis head upon our battlements.
I'll do, I'll do, I'll do.
2 Witch, I'll give thee a wind.
1 Witch. Thou art kind. Shipwrecking storms and direful thunders break;
3 Witch. And I another. So from that spring, whence comfort seem'd to
1 Witch. I myself bave all the otber; come, Discomfort swells. Mark, king of Scotland,
And the very ports they blow,
All the quarters that they know mark :
l'the shipman's card. No sooner justice had, with valour armı'd, Compellid these skipping kernes to trust their
I will drain him dry as hay : heels;
Sleep shall, neither night nor day, But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage,
Hang upon his peut-house lid; With furbish'd arms and new supplies of men,
He shall live a man forbid : | Began a fresh assault.
Weary sev'n-nigbts, nine tines nine, Dun. Dismay'd not this
Shall be dwindle, peak, and pine : Our captains, Macbeth and Banquo ?
Though his bark cannot be lost, Sold. Yes;
Yet it shall be tempest-toss'd. As sparrows, eagles ; or the hare, the lion.
Look what I have. .
2 Witch. Show me, show me. If I say sooth, $ I must report they were As cannons | overcharg'd with double cracks ;
1 Witch. Here I have a pilot's thumb, So they
Wreck'd, as homeward he did come. Doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe :
(Drum within. Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,
3 Witch. A drum, a drum; Or memorize another Golgotha,
Macbeth doth come. I cannot tell :
All. Tbe weird sisters, I hand in hand, But I am faint, my gashes cry for help.
Posters of the sea and land, Dun. So well thy words become thee, as thy
Thus do go about, about ; wounds;
Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, They smack of honour both :-Go, get him sur
And thrice again, to make up nine :
Peace 1-the charm's wound up.
Enter MACBETI and BANQUO.
Macb. So foul and fair a day I have not seen Mal. The worthy thane of Rosse.
Ban. How far is't call'd to Fores 2-What Len. What a haste looks through his eyes!
are these, So should be look,
So wither'd and so wild in their attire : That seems to speak things strange.
That look not like the inhabitants o'the earth, Rosse. God save the king!
And yet are on't ? Live you ! or are you aught Dun. Whence cam'st thou, worthy thane ? That man may question? You seem to under Rosse. From Fife, great king,
stand me, Where the Norweyan banners flout ** the sky, By each at once her choppy finger laying And fan our people cold.
Upon her skinny lips :-You should be women, Norway himself, with terrible numbers,
And yet your beards forbid me to interpret Assisted by that most disloyal traitor
That you are so. The thane of Cawdor, 'gan a dismal conflict: Macb. Speak, if you can ;-Wbat are you 1 Till that Bellona's bridegroom,tt lapp'd in proof,it I Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail to thee,
thane of Glamis ! • They were light and heavy armed troops. + Cause. The opposite to comfort. Truth.
I Cannons were not invested until some centuries • Asmall island in the Frith of Edinburgh. after this period.
+ Avaunt, begone.
I A scabby woman. Make another Golgotha as memorable as the first.
| Accursed. • Mock. Shakspeare means Mars.
9 Prophetic sisters: the fates of the northern nation, Defended by armour of proof.
| the three hand-maids of Odin.
2 Witch. All hail, Macbeth ! hail to thee, / In which addition, hail, most worthy thane! thane of Cawdor!
For it is thine. 3 Witch. All bail, Macbeth! that shalt be 1 Ban. What, can the devil speak true? king hereafter.
Mucb. The thane of Cawdor lives : Why do Ban. Good Sir, why do you start, and seem L yon dress me to fear
in borrow'd robes ? Things that do sound so fair ?--'the name of Ang. Who was the thane, lives yet; truth,
But under heavy judgment bears that life Are ye fantastical or that indeed
Which he deserves to lose. Whether he was Which outwardly ye show ? My noble partner Combin'd with Norway; or did line the rebel You greet with present grace, and great pre. With hidden help and vantage ; or that with diction
both of noble having, † and of royal hope, suot : He labour'd in his country's wreck, I know not; That be seems rapt withal ; to me you speak But treasons capital, coufess'd and prov'd, If you can look into the seeds of time,
Have overthrown him. And say which grain will grow, and which will Macb. Glamis and thane of Cawdor : not;
The greatest is behind.-Thanks for your Speak theu to me, who neither beg bor fear
pains.Your favours nor your hate.
Do you not hope your children shall be kings, 1 Witch. Hail!
When those that gave the thane of Cawdor to 2 Witch. Hail !
Promis'd no less to them?
[ine, 3 Witch. Hail !
Ban. That trusted home, i Witch. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater. Might yet enkindle + you unto the crown, 2 Witch. Not so happy, yet much bappier. Besides the thane of Cawdor. But 'tis strange : 3 Witch. Thou shalt get kings, though thou | And oftentimes, to win us to our harın, be none :
The instruments of darkness tell us truth:s ; So, all hail, Macbeth and Banquo !
Win us with honest trifles, to betray us 1 Witch. Banquo and Macbeth, all hail ! In deepest consequence.Macb. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me Cousins, a word, I pray you. more :
| Macb. Two truths are told, By Sinel's death $ I know I am thane of Glamis :) As happy prologues to the swelling act But how of Cawdor ? the thane of Cawdor lives, of the imperial theme.-I thank you, gentleA prosperous gentleman ; and, to be king,
This supernatural soliciting
[meu. Stands not within the prospect of belief,
Cannot be ill; cannot be good :-If ill, No more than to be Cawdor. Say, from whence Why hath it given me earnest of success, You owe this strange intelligence ? or why
Commencing in a trath? I am thane of CawUpon this blasted heath you stop our way
dor: 3 With such prophetic greeting Speak, I charge of good, why do I yield to that suggestion | you.
(WITCAES vanish. Whose horrid image doth unfix my hair, Ban. The earth bath bubbles, as the water and make my seated ? heart knock at iny ribs, has,
(nish'd ? Against the use of nature ? Present fears And these are of them :-Whither are they va- Are less than borrible imaginings
Are less than borrible imaginings :
[tical, Macb. Into the air; and wbat seem'd cor My thought, whose murder yet is but fantas. poral melted
Shakes so my single state of man, that function As breath into the wind.- 'Would they had
staid ! Ban. Were such things here, as we do speak | Ban. Look, how our partner's rapt. about ;
Macb. If chance will have me king, why, Or have we eaten of the insane root,
chance may crown ine, That takes the reason prisoner ?
Without my stir. Macb. Your children shall be kings.
Ban. New honours come upon him Ban. You shall be king.
Like our strange garments; cleave not to thei Macb. And thane of Cawdor too ; went it
mould, not so?
(here? But with the aid of use. Bar. To the self-samc tune and words. Who's Macb. Come what come may ;
Time and the hour tt runs through the roughest Enter Rosse and ANGUS.
day. Rosse. The king hath bappily receiv'd, Mac
Ban. Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your
Macb. Give me your favour : 11-my dull brain The news of thy success; and when he reads
(pains Thy personal venture in the rebels' fight,
With things forgotten. Kind gentlemen, your His wonders and his praises do contend,
Are register'd where every day I turn Which should be thine, or his : Silenc'd with
The leaf to read them.- Let us toward the that,
(time, In viewing o'er the rest o'the self-saine day,
Think upon what hath chanc'd ; and, at more He finds thee in the stont Norweyan ranks,
The interim having weigh'd it, let us speak Nothing afеard of what thyself didst make,
Our free hearts each to other. Strange images of death. As thick as tale,
Ban. Very gladly. Came post with post; and every one did bear
Macb. Till then, enough.-Cume, friends. Thy praises in his kingdom's great defence,
(Exeunt, And pour'd them down before him. Ang. We are sent,
SCENE IV.- Fores.-A Room in the Palace. To give thee, from our royal master, thanks ; To herald thee into his sight, not pay thee. Flourish. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONAL. Rosse. And, for an earnest of a greater bo. BAIN, LENOX, and ATTENDANTS. nour,
Dun. Is execution done on Cawdor! Are He bade me, from him, call thee thane of
Those in commission yet return'd ?
as we do speak / But what is not. Surmise ; •* an
Encitement, 16 Glamis is still standing, and is the magnificent resi. dence of Earl Strathmore.
# Estate. * Rapturously affected. Sinel was Macbeth's father.
The root which makes insane. 1 As fast as they could be counted
i Temptation). Firmly fixed.
.. The powers of action are oppressed by conjecture.
fi Tims and oppor tulity. 1. Pardou.
Mal. My liege,
Troport, they have more in them than morta. They are not yet come back. But I have spoke | knowledge. When I burned in desire With one that saw him die ; who did report, question them further, they made themselves That very frankly he confess'd his treasons ; -air, into which they vanished. Whiles Implor'd your bighness' pardon ; and set forth stood rapt in the wonder of it, came missives + A deep repentance: nothing in his life
from the king, who all-hailed me, Thane of Became him, like the leaving it ; he died
Cawdor; by which title, before, these weird As one that had been studied in his death, sisters saluted me, and referred me to the To throw away the dearest tbing he ow'd,
coming on of time, with Hail king that shalt As 'I were a careless trife.
be! This have I thought good to deliver thee, Dun. There's no art,
my dearest partner of greatness; that thou To find the mind's construction in the face : 7 mightest not lose the dues of rejoicing, by He was a gentleman on whom I built
being ignorant of what greatness is promised An absolute trust.-0 worthiest cousin !
thee. Lay it to thy heart, and farewell.
Glamis thou art, and Cawdor ; and shalt be Enter MACBETH, BANQUO, Rosse, and ANCUS. What thou art promis'd :-Yet do I fear thy The sin of my ingratitude even now
nature ; Was heavy on me : Thou art so far before, ! It is too full o'the milk of human kindness, That swiftest wing of recompense is slow
To catch the nearest way: Thou would'st be To overtake thee. Would thou hadst less de
great ; serv'd ;
Art not without ambition ; but without That the proportion both of thanks and payment The illness should attend it. What thou would'st Might have been mine! only I have left to say,
[false, More is tby due than more than all can pay. That would'st thou holily ; would'st not play
Macb. The service and the loyalty I owe, And yet would'st wrongly wiu : thou'd'st have In doing it, pays itself. Your higbness' part
[have it ; Is to receive our duties; and our duties
That which cries, Thus thou must do, if thout Are to your throne and state, children, and And that which rather thou dost fear to do, servants,
Than wishest should be undone. Hie thee Which do but what they should, by doing every
That I may pour my spirits in thine ear; Safe toward your love and honour.
And chastise with the valour of my tongue Dun. Welcome hither :
All that impedes thee from the golden round, I have begun to plant thee, and will labour Which fate and metaphysical aid doth seem To make thee full of growing. 1--Noble Banquo, To have thee crowu'd witbal. What is your That hast no less deserv'd, nor must be known
tidings ? No less to have done so, let me infold thee, And hold thee to my heart.
Enter an ATTENDANT, Ban. There if I grow,
Attend. The King comes here to-night. The harvest is your own.
Lady M. Thou'rt mad to say it: Dur. My plenteous joys,
Is not thy master with bim ? wbo, wer't so, Wanton in futuess, seek to hide themselves Would bave inform'd for preparation. In drops of sorrow. --Sons, kinsmen, tbanes, Altend. So please you, it is true ; our thane And you whose places are the nearest, kuow,
is coming : We will establish our estate upon
(after, One of my fellows had the speed of him ; Our eldest Malcolm; whom we name here. Who, almost dead for breath, bad scarcely The prince of Cumberland : which honour must
more "Not, unaccompanied, invest himn only,
That would make up bis message. But signs of nobleness, like stars, sball shine Lady M. Give him tending, On all deservers.- From hence to Inverness, He brings great news. The raven himself is And bind us further to you.
[Erit ATTENDANT. Macb. The rest is labour, which is not us'a That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan for you:
Uuder my battlements. Come, come, you I'll be myself the harbinger, and make joyful
spirits The hearing ef my wife with your approach ; That tend on moi tal thought, unsex me bere ; So, humbly take my leave.
And ill me, from the crown to the toe, top-full Dun. My worthy Cawdor!
Of direst cruelty I make thick my blood, Macb. The prince of Cumberland |--That is Stop up the access and passage to reinorse, I a step,
'That no compunctious visitings of nature On which I must fall down, or else o'er-leap, Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace betwecu
[Aside. The effect and it ! Come to my woman's breasts, For in my way it lies. Stars, bide your fires ! And take my milk for gall, you murd'ring Let not light see my black and deep desires :
ministers, The eye wink at the haud ! yet let that be, Wherever in your sightless substances Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick
night, Dun. True, worthy Banquo; he is full so And pall ** thee in the dunnest smoke of hell ! valiant ; 11
That my keen knife tt see not the wound it And in his commendations, I am fed :
makes ; It is a banquet to me. Let us after hiin, Nor heaven peep through the blanket of the Whose care is gone before to bid us welcome :
Cawdor! It is a peerless kinsman. (Flourish. Exeunt. To cry, Holá, Hold !--Great Glamis ! worthy SCENE V.-Inverness.-A Room in
Greater than both, by the all-bail hereafter !
Thy letters lave transported me beyond Enter Lady MACBETH, reading a letter. This ignorant present, it and I fiel now Lady M. They met me in the day of suc-The future in
met me in the day of me. I The future in the instant, cess; and I hare learned by the perjectest
• The best intelligence.
1 Messengers. * Owned, possessed.
$ Supernatural | Murderous.... + We cannot construe the disposition of the mind by
l'itr. • Wrap as in a mantle.
4 Knife cirut the lineaments of the face. Exuberant. meant a sword or darger.
11 le. Besond the The walls of Macbeth's Castle at Inverne83, are vet prevent time, whicb is according to the prices ul na etning.
Tull as valiant as described. liure ignorant of the future.
Mech. My dearest love,
SCEVE VII.--The same.- A Room in the Duncan comes here to-night.
Castle. Lady M. And when goes bence ?
Hautboys and torches. Enter, and pass over Macb. To-orrow,-as be purposes. Lady M. Oh I never
the stage, a Sewer, and divers Ser. Shull sun that morrow see!
vants with dishes and service. Then enter Your face, my thane, is as a book, where men
MACBETH. May read strange matters :-To beguile the Macb. If it were done, when 'tis done, then time,
'twere well Look like the time ; bear welcome in your eye, it were done quickly : If the assassination Your hand, your tongue : look like the innocent Could trammel up the consequence, and catch, flower,
With his surcease, success; that but this blow But be the serpent under it. He that's coining Might be the be-all and the end-all here. Must be provided for : and you shall put
But here, upon, this bank and shoal of time. This night's great business into my despatch; We'd jump the life to come.-But, in these Which shall to all our nights and days to come
cases, Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. We still have judgment here; that we bnt teach Macb. We will speak further.
Bloody instructions, which, being taught, return Lady M. Only look up clear ;
To plazue the inventor: This even-handed jusTo alter favour ever is to fear :
tice Leave all the rest to me.
Commends the ingredients of our poison's [Ercunt.
To our owu lips. He's here in double trust : SCENE IV.--The same.-- Before the Castle.
First, as I am bis kinsman and his subject,
Strong both against the deed ; then, as bis host, llautboys.-Servants of Maceeth attending.
Not bear the kuife myself. Besides, this Dun. Enter DUNCAN, MALCOLM, DONALBAIN, BAN:
cail QUO, LENOX, MACDUFF, Rosse, ANGUS, and Hath borne his faculties so meek, bach been Attendants.
So clear in bis great office, that his virtues Dun. This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the air
Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against
The deep damnation of his taking-off :
And pity, like a naked new-born babe,
Stridiug the blást, or heaven's cherubim, liors'd The temple-haunting martlet, does approve,
Upou the sightless couriers + of the air,
Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye, By his lov'd mansionry, that the heaven's breath
That tears shall drown the wind. I have no Smells wooingly here : no jutty, frieze, buttress,
spur Nor coigne of 'vantage. but this bird hath 110 prick the sides of my intent, but only made
Vaulting ambition, which o'er-Jeaps itself, His pendent bed, and procreant cradle : Where
Aud falls on the other.-How now, what news 3 they
Enter Lady MACBETH. Most breed and haunt, I have observ'd, the air
Lady M, He has almost supp'd; Wly bave Is delicate.
you left the chamber? Enter Lady MACBETH.
Macb. Hata he ask'd for me?
Lady M1. Know you not, he has ? Dun. See, see ! our honour'd hostess :
Macb. We will proceed no further in this The love that follows us, sometime is our
business : trouble,
He hath honour'd me of late ; and I have bough: Which still we thank as love. Herein I teach |
Golden opinions from all sorts of people, you,
Which would be worn now in their newest gloss, How you shall bid God yield 1 us for your
Not cast aside so soon. pains,
Lady M. Was the hope drunk, And thank as for your trouble.
Wherein you dress'd yourself? hath it slept Lady M. All our service
since ! In every point twice done, and then done
And wakes it now, to look so green and pale double,
At what it did so freely ? From this time, Were poor and single business, to contend
Such I account thy love. Art thou afeard Against those honours deep and broad, where
To be the same in thine own act and valour, with
As thou art in desire ? Would'st thou have Your majesty loads our house : For those of old,
that And the late dignities heap'd up to them,
Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, We rest your hermits.
And live a coward in tbine own esteem; Dun. Where's the thane of Cawdor ?
Letting I dare not wait upon I would, We cours'd him at the heels, and had a purpose
Like the poor cat i'the adage ? To be his purveyor : but he rides well;
Macb. Pr'ythee, peace : And his great love, sharp as his spur, hath holp
I dare do all that may become a man;
Who dares do more, is none. To his home before us : Fair and noble hostess,
| Lady M. What beast was it then, We are your guest to night.
That made you break this enterprize to me? Lady M. Your servants ever
When you durst do it, then you were a man ; Have their's, themselves, and what is their's, in
And, to be more than what you were, you compt, li
(place, To make their audit at your highness' pleasure,
Be so much more the man. Nor time, noj Still to return your own.
Did then adhere, I and yet you would make Dun. Give me your band :
both : Conduct me to mine host; we love him highly, They have made themselves, and that their fit. And shall continue our graces towards him.
know By your leave, hostess.
Does unmake you. I have given suck: aud