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TROILUS AND CRESSIDA.
LITERARY AND HISTORICAL NOTICE. TUIS tragedy was written about the year 1602, and Shakspeare is supposed to have taken the greatest part of its
inaterials from the Troye Boke of Lydgate, an author who derived many of his particulars from a History of Troy, in Latin, by Guido of Columpna. Chaucer had previously celebrated the loves of Troilus and Cressida, in a translation from a Latin poem of one Lollius, an old Lombard author. The characters in this play (which was not originally divided into acts) are strikingly assimilated to the portraits which history has preserved of them--the aged loquacity of Nestor---the insinuating eloquence of Ulysses-- the boasting confidence of Ajax---the sullen self-importance of Achilles---the conscious dignity of Agamemnon, and the sneaking insignificance of tbe cuckold Menelaus, are excellently displayed in the development of the piece ; whilst the scurrile malignity of Thersites most humorously and ingeniously advances its interest throughout. The inode of Hector's death is, however, at variance with historieal record, and was probably accompanied with such baseness on the part of Achilles, to perfect the amiable attributes in which the poet chose to invest the character of his Trojan opponent. Troilus, the hero of the play, has little to recommend him beyond per. sonal intrepidity, and the sincerity of a yonthful attachment---some authors rank him among the elder of Priam's sons : others (and among them Virgil, who describes in the 1st book of the Æneid, line 474, the manner of his death by the hand of Achilles) call him the youngest. Anachronisms are of frequent occurrence in this play; such as Hector's citing Aristotle, and Ulysses alluding to the “bull-bearing Milo," who did not live till many years after the Trojan war. It must, nevertheless, be remembered, that the greater part of Shakspeare's library consisted of ancient romances; and nothing could be less correct than their computation of Jates. The language of tbe piece is greatly tinctured with the peculiarities of the age in which he lived ; and although Dr. Johnson considers it more correctly written than many of its companions, he exempts it from any extent of view or elevation of fancy. “The vicious characters (says that discriminating critic) sometimes disgust, but cannot corrupt; for both Cressida and Pandarus are detested and condemned. The comic characters seem to have been the favourites of the writer : they are of the superficial kind, and es. tuibit more of manners than uature ; bu: they are copiously filled, and powerfully impressed."
DRAMATIS PERSONÆ. . PRIAM, King of Troy.
(THERSITES, a deformed and scurrilous Gre. HECTOR, TROILUS, PARIS, His Sons.
cian. DRIPHOBUS, HELENUS,
ALEXANDER, Servant to Cressida. ÆNEAS, ANTENOR, Trojan Commanders. Servant to Troilus.Servant to Paris,-Ser. CALCHás, a Trojan Priest, taking part with
vant to Diomedes. the Greeks. PANDARUS, Uncle to Cressida.
HELEN, Wife to Menelaus. MARGARBLON, a bastard Son of Priam. ANDROMACHE, Wife to Hector. AGAMEMNON, the Grecian General.
CASSANDRA, Daughter to Priam ; a ProMENELAUS, his Brother.
manders. Trojan and Greek Soldiers, and Attendants. SCENB: Troy, and the Grecian Camp before it.
PROLOGUE, In Troy there jies the scene. From isles of their brave pavilions : Priam's six-gated city, Greece.
Dardan, and Tymbria, Ilias, Chetas, Trojan, The princes orgulous, their high blood chal'd, And Antenorides, with massy staples, Have to the port of Athens sent their ships, And corresponsive and fulfilling bolts, Fraught with the ministers and instruments Sperr up the sons of Troy. of cruel war : Sixty and nine, that wore
Now expectation, tickling skittish spirits, Their crownets regal, from the Athenian bay On one and other side, I'rojan and Greek, Put forth toward Phrygia : and their vow is Sets all on bazard: And hither am I come made,
A prologue arm'd,--but not in confidence To ransack Troy; within whose strong immures of author's pen, or actor's voice ; but suited The ravish'd Helen, Menelans' queen,
In like conditions as our argument, With wanton Paris sleeps : And that's the To tell yon, fair bebolders, that our play quarrel.
Leaps o'er the vaunt t and firstlings of those To Tenedos they come ;
broils, And the deep-drawing barks do there disgorge 'Ginning in the middle ; starting thence away Their warlike fraughtage ; t Now on Dardan To what may be digested in a play. plains
Like, or find fault ; do as your pleasures are ; The fresh and yet unbruised Greeks do pitch Now good, or bad, 'tis but the chance of war.
• Proud, disdainful
shat went before.
(what goddess ever And he's as tetch Cressid, but by Pauligue me!
| an she be not, she has the mends in ber own
bands. SCENE I.-Troy.-Before PRIAM's Palace. Tro. Good Pandarus! How now, Pandaris !
Pan. I have had my labour for my travel ; 1.1. Enter TROILUS arm'd, and PANDARUS.
thought on of her, and ill-thought on of you: Tro. Call here my varlet, l'll unarm again : gone between and between, but small thanks for Wby should I war witbont the walls of Troy, iny labour. That find such cruel battle here within 3
Tro. What, art thon angry, Pandarus ? what, Each Trojan that is master of his heart,
with me ? Let him to field : Triolus, alas ! hath none.
Pan. Because she is kin to me, therefore, Pan. Will this geer ne'er be mended ?
she's not so fair as Helen : an she were not kin Tro. The Greeks are strong, and skilful to to me, she would be as fair on Friday, as Helen their strength,
is on Sunday. But wbat care 11 I care not, Fierce to their skill, and to their fierceness vaan she were a black-a-moor ; 'tis all one to me. liant ;
Tro. Say , she is not fair? But I am weaker than a woman's tear,
Pan. I do not care whether you do or no. Tamer than sleep, fonder + than ignorance ; She's a fool to stay behind her father ; let her to Less valiant than the virgin in the night,
the Greeks; and so I'll tell her the next time I And skilless as unpractis'd infancy.
see her: for my part, l'Il meddle nor make no Pan. Well, I have told you enough of this ; more in the matter. for my part, i'll not meddle nor make no further. Tro. Pandarus, He that will have a cake out of the wheat must | Pan. Not I. tarry the grinding.
Tro. Sweet Pandarns, Tro. Have I not tarried ?
Pan. Pray you, speak no more to me; I will Pan. Ay, the grinding; but you must tarry leave all as I found it, and there an end.' the bolting.
(Exit PANDARUS. An Alarum. Tro. Have I not farried ?
Tro. Peace, you ungracious clamours ! peace, Pan. Ay, the bolting ; but you must tarry the
rude sounds! leavening.
Fools on both sides ! Helen must needs be fair, Tro. Still have I tarried.
When with your blood you daily paint her thus. Pan. Ay, to the leavening; but here's yet, in I cannot fight upon this argument; the word, hereafter, the kneading, the making it is too starv'd a subject for my sword. of the cake, the heating of the oven, and the But Pandarus-0 gods, how do yon plague me ! baking : nay, you must stay the cooling too, or I cannot come to Cressid, but by Paudar; you may chance to burn your lips.
And he's as tetchy to be woo'd to woo, Tro. Patience hersell, (what goddess e'er As she is stubborn-chaste against all suit. she be)
Tell me, Apollo, for thy Daphne's love, Doth lesser blench at sufferance than I do What Cressid is, what Pandar, and what we At Priam's royal table do I sit,
Her bed is India; there she lies, a pearl : And when fair Cressid comes into my thouglats,- Between our lium and where she resides, So, traitor !--When she comes ! When is she Let it be call'd the wild and wandering flood; thence ?
Ourself, the merchant; and this sailing Pan Pan. Well, she looked yesternight fairer than
dar, ever I saw her look, or any woman else. Our doubtful hope, our convoy, and our bark. Tro. I was about to tell thee,-When my
Alarum. Enter ÆNEAS. As wedged with a sigh, wonld rive 5 in twain, Ene. How now, prince Troilus? wherefore Lest Hector or my father should perceive me,
not afield? I have (as when the sun doth light a storm,) Tro. Because not there. This woman's an. Buried this sigh in wrinkle of a smile :
swer sorts But sorrow that is couch'd in seeming glad. For womanish it is to be from thence. ness,
What news, Æneas, from the field to-day? Is like that mirth fate turns to sudden sadness. Æne. That Paris is returned home, and hurt.
Pan. An her hair were not somewhat darker Tro. By.wbom, Æneas 7 than Helen's, (well, go to,) there were no more Ane. Troilus, by Menelaus. comparison between the woinen,-But, for my Tro. Let Paris bleed: 'uis but a sear to part, she is my kinswoman : I would not, as they
scorn; term it, praise her..But I would somebody had Paris is gor'd with Menelaus' horn. Alarum. heard ber talk yesterday, as I did. I will not
Æne. Hark! what good sport is out of town dispraise your sister Cassandra's wit; but
to-day! Tro. O Pandarus ! I tell thee, Pandarus,
Tro. Better at home, if would I might, were When I do tell thee, there my hopes lie drowu'd,
(ther 7 Reply not in how many fathoms deep
But to the sport abroad ;- Are you bound thi. They lie indrench'd. I tell thee, I ani mad
Ane. In all swift haste. In Cressid's love : Tbou answer'st, she is fair; Tro. Come, go we then together. (Exeunt. Pour'st in the open ulcer of my heart Her eyes, her hair, her cheek, her gait, her voice : 1 SCENE II.-The same.-A Street. Handlest in thy discourse, oli ! that her hand, In whose comparison all wbites are ink,
Enter CRESSIDA and ALEXANDER.
Alex. Queen Hecuba, and Helen.
Whose height commands as subject all the vale
Is as a virtue fix'd, to-day was mov'd : Thou lay'st in every gash that love hath given me He chid Andromache, aud struck his armourer ; The knife that made it.
And, like as there were husbandry in war, Pan. I speak no more than truth.
Before the sun rose he was harness'd light, Tro. Thou dost not speak so mich.
And to the field goes he ; wbere every flowes Pan. 'Faith. I'll not meddle in't. Let her be Did as a prophet weep what it foresan as she is : if she be fair, 'tis the better for her : in Hector's wrath.
Cres. What was his cause of anger 1 • A serrani a knight.
+ More foolish. 1 Shrink Split.
• Is becoming.
Alex, The noise goes, this : There is among Pan. The other's not come to't; zon shall tell the Greeks
me another tale, when the other's corne to't. A lord of Trojan blood, nephew to Hector ; Hector shall not have his wit this year. They call him, Ajax.
Cres. He shall not need it, if he have his own. Cres. Good; And what of him
Pan. Nor his qualities ;---
Pan. Nor his beanty. Cres. So do all men ; unless they are drunk, Cres. 'Twould not become him, his own's sick, or have no legs.
better. Aler. This man, lady, hath robbed many beasts Pan. You have no judgment, niece: Helen of their particular additions : t he is as valiantherself swore the other day, that Troilus, for as the liouchurlish as the bear, slow as the ele a brown favour, (for so 'tis, I must confess.) phant : a mar into whom nature bath so crouded Not brown neither. huunours, tha bis valour is crushed into folly, Cres. No, but brown. his folly sauced with discretion : there is no man Pan, 'Faith, to say truth, brown and not hath a virtue that he hath not a glimpse of ; nor brown. any man an attaint, but he carries some stain of Cres. To say the truth, true and not true. it: he is melancholy without cause, and merry Pan. She prais'd his complexion above Paris against the hair : He hath the joints of every Cres. Why, Paris hath colour enough. thing; but every thing so out of joint, that he is Pan. So he has. a gouty Briareus, many hands and no use : or 1 Cres. Then, Troilus should have too mucb : purblind Argus, all eyes and no sight.
if she praised bim above, his complexion is Cres. But how should this man, that makes | higher than his; he having colour enough, and me smile, make Hector angry?
the other bigher, is too famig a praise for a Aler. They say, he yesterday coped Hector in good complexion. I had as lief Helen's golden the battle, and struck him down ; the disdain and tongue had commended Troilus for a copper sbame whereof hath ever since kept Hector fast nose. ing and waking.
Pan. I swear to you, I think Helen loves him
better than Paris. Enter PANDARUS.
Cres. Then she's a merry Greek, indeed. Cres. Who comes here?
Pan. Nay, I am sure she does. She came to Alex. Madam, your uncle Pandarus.
him the other day into a compassed window, Cres. Hector's a gallant man.
--and, you know, he has not past three or four Alex. As may be in the world, lady.
bairs on his chin. Pan. What's that I what's that?
Cres. Indeed, a tapster's arithmetic may soon Cres. Good morrow, uncle Pandarus.
bring bis particulars therein to a total. Pan. Good morrow, cousin Cressid : What do Pan. Why, he is very young : and yet will he. you talk of l-Good inorrow, Alexander.--How within three pound, lift as much as his brother do you, cousin & When were you at Ilium ? Hector. Cres. This morning, uncle.
Cres. Is he so young a man, and so old a Pan. What were you talking of when I came ? | lifter? Was Hector armed, and gone, ere ye came to Pan. But, to prove to you that Helen loves llium ? Helen was not up, was she?
him ;-she, came, and puts me her wbite hand Cres. Hector was gone; but Helen was not up. to his cloven chin, Pan. E'en so ; Hector was stirring early.
Cres. Juno have mercy I-How came it cloOres. That were we talking of, and of his ven ? anger.
Pan. Why, you know, 'tis dimpled : I think, Pan. Was he angry?
his smiling becomes him better than any man in Cres. So he says here.
all Phrygia. Pan, True, he was so; I know the cause too ; Cres. Oh! he smiles valiantly. he'll lay about him to-day, I can tell them that:1 Pan. Does he not? and there is Troilus will not come far bebind Cres. O yes, an 'twere a cloud in autumn. him; let them take heed of Troilus; I can teil. Pan. Why, go to then ;But to prove to you them that too.
that Helen loves Troilus, Cres. What, is he angry too?
Cres. Troilus will stand to the proof, if you'll Pan. Who, Troilus ? Troilus is the better nian prove it so. of the two.
Pan. Troilus ? why, he esteems her no more Cres. O Jupiter ! there's no comparison. than I esteem an addle egg.
Pan. What, not between Troilus and Hector ?1 Cres. If you love an addle egg as well as you Do you know a man if you see him?
love an idle head, you would eat chickens i'the Cres. Ay; if ever I saw him before, and knew shell. him.
Pan. I cannot choose but laugh, to think how Pan, Well, I say, Troilus is Troilus.
she tickled his chin ;- Indeed, she has a mar. Cres. Then you say as I say; for I am sure vellous white band, I must needs confess. he is not Hector.
Cres. Without the rack. Pan. No, nor Hector is not Troilus, in some. Pan. And she takes upon her to spy a white degrees.
hair on bis chin. C'res. "Tis just to each of them; he is himself. | Cres. Alas, pour chin! many a wart is richer.
Pan. Himself? Alas, poor Troilus ! I would, Pan. But there was such laughing ;-Queen he were,
Hecuba laughed, that her eyes ran o'er. (res. So he is.
Cres. With mill-stones. I
Cres. But there was a more temperate fire Cres. He is not Hector.
under the pot of her eyes ;-Did her eyes ruu Pan. Himself ? no, he's not himself.-'Would o'er too ? a were himself! Well, the gods are above:1 Pan. And Hector laughed. Jime must friend, or end : Well, Troilus, well, Cres. At what was all this lanzhing? - would my heart were in her body No, Pan. Marry, at the white hair that Helen spied Hector is not a better man than Troilus.
on Troilus' chin. Cres. Excuse me.
Cres. An't had been a greep hair, I should Pan. He is elder.
have laughed too. Cres. Pardon me, pardon me.
Pan. They laugbed not so much at the hair.
as at his pretty answer. • By himself. Characters. Mingled with. Grain.
• Bow window. Thief. A proverbial sayine Cres. What was his answer ?
Cres. Can Helenus fight, uncle ? Pan. Quoth she, Here's but one and fifty Pan Helenus ? no ;-yes, he'll fight indiffer hairs on your chin, and one of them is white. ent well : marvel, where Troilus is --Hark! Cres. This is her question.
do you not hear the people cry, Troilus 1-HePan. That's true ; make no question of that. Icnus is a priest. One and fifty hairs, quoth he, and one white : Cres. What sneaking fellow comes yonder That white hair is my father, and all the rest are his sons. Jupiter quoth she, which of
TROILUS passes over. these hairs is Paris my husband? The forked
Pan. Where? yonder ? that's Deiplobus : one, quoth be ; pluck it out and give it him.
• 'Tis Troilus! there's a man, niece !-Hem!-But, there was such laughing ! and Helen so
Brave Troilus! the prince of chivalry ! blushed, and Paris so chated, and all the rest so
Cres. Peace, for shame, peace! laughed, that it passed.
Pan. Mark him; note him ;-0 brave Troi. Cres. So let it now; for it has been a greatlus -look well upon him, niece; look you, how while going by.
his sword is blondied, and his helm . more Pan. Well, cousin, I told you a thing yester
hack'd than Hecto: ); And how he looks, and day ; think on't.
how he goes !-O admirable youth! he ne'er saw Cres. So I do.
three and twenty. Go thy way, Troilus, go Pan. I'll be sworn, 'tis true; he will weep
thy way; had a sister were a grace, or a you, an 'twere + a man born in April.
daughter a goddess, he should take his choice. Cres. And I'll spring up in his tears, an
O admirable man ! Paris Paris is dirt to him ; 'iwere a bettle against May,
and I warrant, Helen, to change, would give an (A Retreat sounded. D. Pan. Hark, they are coming from the field : 1
de Thou are makine from all eye tu boot. Shall we stand up here, and see thein as they
Forces pass over the stage. pass toward lium ? good niece, do; sweet niece Cressida.
Cres. Here come more. Cres. At your pleasure.
Pan. Asses, fools, dolts! chaff and bran, chati Pan. Here, here, here's an excellent place; and bran! porridge after meat! I could live and here we may see most bravely : I'll tell you them die i'the eyes of Troilus. Ne'er look, ne'er look ; all by their names as they pass by: but mark the eagles are gone ; crows and daws, crows and Troilus above the rest.
daws! I had rather be such a man as Troilus,
than Agamemnon and all Greece. ANEAS passes over the stage.
Cres. There is among the Greeks, Achilles ; a Cres. Speak not so loud.
better man than Troilus. Pan. That's Æneas ; Is not that a brave mau? Pan. Achilles 1 a drayman, a porter, a very he's one of the flowers of Troy, I can tell you ; camel. But mark Troilus ; you shall see anon.
Cres. Well, well. Cres. Who's that ?
Pan. Well, well 3-Why, have you any dis.
cretion ? bave you any eyes? Do you know what ANTENOR passes over.
a man is Is not birth, beauty, good shape, disPan. That's Antenor; he has a shrewd wit, course, manhood, learning, gentleness, virtue, I can tell you; and he's a man good enough; | youth. liberality, and such like, the spice and he's one oʻthe soundest judgments in Truy, salt that season a man? whosoever, and a proper man of person ; Cres. Ay, a minced man: and then to be When comes Troilus --I'll show yon Troilus baked with no date + in the pye, for then the anon : if he see me, you shall see him nod at man's date is out. me.
Pan. Yon are such a woman ! one knows not Cres. Will he give you the nod ?
at what ward t you lie, Pan. Yon shall see.
Cres. Upon my back, to defend my belly ; upon Cres. If he do, the rich shall have more. my wit, to defend my wiles ; upon my secrecy,
to defend mine honesty ; my mask, to defend HECTOR passes over.
my beauty ; and you, to defend all these : and Pan, That's Hector, that, that, look you, that ; at all these wards I lie, at a thousand watches. There's a fellow 1-Go thy way, Hector ;-There's Pan. Say one of your watches. 2 brave man, niece.-0 brave Hector 1-Look, Cres, Nay, I'll watch you for that ; and that's how he looks I there's a countenance : Is't not a one of the chiefest of them too : if I cannot brave man?
ward what I would not have bit, I can watch you Cres. Oh ! a brave man!
for telling how I took the blow; unless it swell Pan. Is a not? It does a man's heart good past biding, and then it is past watching. Look you what hacks are on bis helmet? look Pan. You are such another ! you yonder, do you see ? look you there! There's no jesting : there's laying on ; taket off who
Enter TROILUS' Boy. will, as they say : there be hacks!
Boy. Sir, my lord would instantly speak with Cres. Be those with swords?
Boy. At your own house ; there be warms Pan. Swords ? any thing, he cares not : an him. the devil conie to him, it's all one: By god's Pan. Good boy, tell him I come: [Exit lid, it does one's heart good :-Yonder comes Box.) I doubt he be hurt.-Fare ye well, good Paris, yonder comes Paris : look ye yonder, niece. niece: Is't not a gallant man too, is't not ? Cres. Adieu, uncle. Why, this is brave now. Who said be came Pan. I'll be with you, niece, by and by. hurt home to-day? he's not hurt : why this will Cres. To bring, uncle, do Helen's heart good now. Ha ! 'would 1 Pan. Ay, a token from Troilus. could see Troilus now you shall see Troilus
Cres. By the same token you are a bawd. anon.
(Exit PANDARUS. Cres. Who's that ?
Words, vows, griefs, tears, and love's full să
crifice, HELENUS passes over.
He offers iu another's enterprize : Pan. 'That's Helenus,-1 marvel, where Troj. But more in Troilus thousand fold I see ns is :- That's Helenus ;-I think he went not Than in the glass of Pandar's praise may be ; forth to day :- That's Helenus.
• Helmet. Au ingredient in all ancient pavery. • Exceeded all bounds
+ As il 'twere.
1 A metaphor from the art of defence,