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citizen should be educated, leaving the quality of the education to the parents.
We will refer, in closing, to two instances of the gross carelessness of 'standard' reviewers. The 'Saturday Review' devotes two long articles to Mr. Mill's book. In doing so, it goes out of its way to account for the quiescence of some old controversies on the principle of the growing consolidation of modern thought; doing this at great length, as if Mr. Mill had overlooked that consideration. Will it be believed that he has, on the contrary, dealt with it openly and powerfully, and said just what his critic says, only a good deal better? See page 79. The other case has reference to Lord Campbell's book on 'Shakespere's Legal Acquirements.' The Athenæum' made up a long, depreciatory article out of criticisms, on points for which hist lordship has handsomely allowed, in plain English, on pages 108-9! Verily, reviewers want reviewing; not so much for their malice and narrow intelligence, as for their laziness and wantonness.
The Old English Pulpit.
MASTER LATIMER'S SERMON OF THE PLOUGH.
(Preached in the Shrouds, at Paul's Church, in London, the 18th day of January, in the year 1548.)
[HUGH LATIMER, born at Thurcaston, Leicestershire, A.D. 1470. Studied at Cambridge. Elected cross-bearer of the University in 1516. Converted, by persuasion of Bilney, in the 53rd year of his age. Preached against the Errors of Rome. Appointed by Henry VIII. to the rectory of West Kington, Wiltshire, in 1533. Cited for heresy, but discharged, and appointed Bishop of Worcester in 1535. Refused to subscribe the Six Articles, and resigned his bishopric in 1539. Imprisoned in the Tower on charge of heresy in 1541, in the 71st year of his age. Released after six years' imprisonment, on the accession of Edward VI., in 1547. Cited for heresy on the accession of Queen Mary, in 1553. Condemned to death with Ridley, and burned at the stake at Oxford, on the 16th October, 1554, in the 85th year of his age.]
ALL things that are written in God's book, in the Bible book, in the book of holy Scripture, are written to be our doctrine. I told you in my first sermon, honourable audience, that I purposed to declare unto you two things. The one, that seed should be sown in God's field, in God's plough land; and the other, who should be the sowers. That is to say, what doctrine is to be taught in Christ's church and congregation, and what men should be the teachers and preachers of it. And now I shall tell you who be the ploughers; for God's word is a seed to be sown in God's field-that is, the faithful congregation, and the preacher is the sower. As it is in the gospel: 'He that soweth, the
husbandman, the ploughman, went forth to sow his seed.' So that a preacher is resembled to a ploughman, as it is in another place: 'No man that putteth his hand to the plough and looketh back is apt for the kingdom of God'—that is to say, let no preacher be negligent in doing his office.
For preaching of the gospel is one of God's ploughworks, and the preacher is one of God's ploughmen. Ye may not be offended with my similitude, in that I compare preaching to the labour and work of ploughing, and the preacher to a ploughman. Ye may not be offended with this my similitude, for I have been slandered of some persons for such things. It hath been said of me, () Latimer, nay, as for him, I will never believe him while I live, nor never trust him; for he likened our Blessed Lady to a saffron-bag, where, indeed, I never used that similitude. But it was, as I have said unto you before now, according to that which Peter saw before in the spirit of prophecy, and said that there should come after 'men by whom the way of truth should be evil spoken of and slandered.' But in case I had used this similitude, it had not been to be reproved, but might have been without reproach; for I might have said thus: As the saffron-bag that hath been full of saffron, or hath had saffron in it, doth ever after savour and smell of the sweet saffron that it contained, so our Blessed Lady did ever after resemble the manners and virtues of that precious Babe that she bare. And what had our Blessed Lady been the worse for this, or what dishonour was this to our Blessed Lady? But as preachers must beware and be circumspect that they give not any just occasion to be slandered and ill-spoken of by the hearer, so must not the auditors be offended without cause. For heaven is in the gospel likened to a mustard-seed; it is compared also to a piece of leaven; and as Christ saith, that at the last day he will come like a thief. Now what dishonour is this to God, or what derogation is this to heaven? Ye may not then, I say, be offended with my similitude; for because I liken preaching to a ploughman's labour, and a prelate to a ploughman. But now ye will ask me whom I call a prelate? A prelate is, that man, whomsoever he be, that hath a flock to be taught of him; whosoever hath any spiritual charge in the faithful congregation, and whosoever he be that hath cure of souls. And well may the preacher and ploughman be likened together; first, for their labour in all seasons of the year, for there is no time of the year in which the ploughman hath not some special work to do. As in my country in Leicestershire, the ploughman hath a time to set forth and to assay his plough, and other times for other necessary works to be done. And then they also may be likened together for the diversity of works, and variety of offices that they have to do. For as the ploughman first setteth forth his plough, and then tilleth his land, and breaketh it in furrows, and sometimes ridgeth it up again; and, at another time, harroweth it and clotteth it, and sometimes dungeth and hedgeth it, diggeth it and weedeth it, purgeth and maketh it clean; so the prelate, the preacher, hath many diverse offices to do. He hath first a busy work to bring parishioners to a right faith, as Paul calleth it;
and not a swerving faith, but a faith that embraceth Christ, and trusteth to his merits-a lively faith, a justifying faith, a faith that maketh a man righteous without respect of works, as ye have it very well declared and set forth in the homily. He hath then a busy work, I say, to bring his flock to a right faith, and then to confirm them in the same faith. Now casting them down with the law, and with threatenings of God for sin, then raising them up again with the gospel and the promises of God's favour. Now weeding them, by telling them their faults, and making them forsake them; then clotting them, by breaking their stony hearts, and by making them supplehearted, and making them to have hearts of flesh-that is, soft hearts, and apt for good doctrine to enter in. Now teaching to know God rightly, and to know their duty both to God and their neighbours; then exhorting them when they know their duty, that they do it, and be diligent in it, so that they have a continual work to do. Great is their business, and therefore great should be their hire; they have great labours, and therefore they ought to have good livings, that they may commodiously feed their flock: for the preaching of the word of God unto the people is called meat; Scripture calleth it meat, not strawberries, that come but once a year, and tarry not long, but are soon gone; but it is meat, it is no dainties. The people must have meat that must be familiar and continual, and daily given unto them to feed upon. Many make a strawberry of it, ministering it but once a year; but such do not the office of good prelates. For Christ saith, Who think ye is a wise and faithful servant? He that giveth meat in due time.' So that he must at all times convenient preach diligently; therefore saith he, Who think ye is a faithful servant?' He speaketh it as though it were a rare thing to find such a one, and as though he should say, There be but a few of them to find in the world. And how few of them there be throughout this realm that give meat to their flock as they should do, the visitors can best tell. Too few, too few, the more is the pity, and never so few as now.
By this it appeareth that a prelate, or any that hath cure of souls, must diligently and substantially work and labour; therefore, saith Paul to Timothy, 'He that desireth to have the office of a bishop or a prelate, that man desireth a good work.' Then if it be a good work, it is a work; ye can make but a work of it. It is God's work, God's plough, and that plough God would have still going. Such, then, as loiter and live idly are not good prelates or ministers. And of such as do not preach and teach, and do their duties, God saith, by his prophet Jeremiah, 'Cursed be the man that doth the work of the Lord fraudulently,' guilefully, or deceitfully; some books have it negligently or slackly. How many such prelates, how many such bishops (Lord, for thy mercy!) are there now in England! And what shall we in this case do; shall we company with them? O Lord, for thy mercy! Shall we not company with them? O Lord, whither shall we flee from them? But 'cursed be he that doth the work of God negligently or guilefully. A sore word for them that are negligent in discharging their office, or have done it fraudulently; for that is the thing that maketh the people ill.
Now, what shall we say of these rich citizens of London; what shall I say of them? Shall I call them proud men of London, malicious men of London, merciless men of London? No, no, I may not say so; they will be offended with me then. Yet must I speak; for is there not reigning in London as much pride, as much covetousness, as much cruelty, as much oppression, and as much superstition, as was in Nebo? Yes, I think, and much more too. Therefore I say, Repent, O London; repent, repent! Thou hearest thy faults told thee; amend them, amend them. I think, if Nebo had had the preaching that thou hast, they would have converted. And you, rulers and officers, be wise and circumspect, look to your charge, and see you.do your duties ; and rather be glad to amend your ill living than to be angry when you are warned or told of your fault. What ado was there made in London at a certain man, because he said—and, indeed, at that time on a just cause - Burgesses,' quoth he, 'nay, butterflies.' Lord, what ado there was for that word; and yet would God they were no worse than butterflies. Butterflies do but their nature; the butterfly is not covetous, nor greedy of other men's goods, nor full of envy and hatred, nor malicious, nor cruel, nor merciless. The butterfly glorieth not in her own deeds, nor preferreth the traditions of men before God's word; it committeth not idolatry, nor worshippeth false gods. But London cannot abide to be rebuked; such is the nature of man. If they be pricked, they will kick; if they be rubbed on the gall, they will wince; but yet they will not amend their faults, neither will they be ill spoken of. But how shall I speak well of them? If you could be content to receive and follow the word of God, and favour good preachers, if you could bear to be told of your faults, if you could amend when you hear of them, if you would be glad to reform what is amiss; if I might see such an inclination in you, that you leave to be merciless, and begin to be charitable, I would then hope well of you, I would then speak well of you. But London was never so ill as it is now. In times past men were full of pity and compassion, but now there is no pity; for in London their brother shall die in the streets for cold, he shall lie sick at the door, between stock and stock-I cannot tell what to call it-and perish there for hunger. Was there ever more unmercifulness in Nebo? I think not. In times past, when any rich man died in London, they were wont to help the poor scholars of the universities with exhibitions, and relieve other poor people with money. Also, when I was a scholar in Cambridge myself, I often heard good report of London; but now I can hear no such good report, although I inquire for it, and hearken for it; for now their charity is waxen cold, and none helpeth the poor. Also in those days, what did they when they helped the scholars? Marry, they maintained, and gave them livings that were very Papists, and professed the Pope's doctrine; and now that the knowledge of God's word is brought to light, and many earnestly study and labour to set it forth, now almost no man helpeth to maintain them.
O London, London! repent, repent; for I think God is more displeased with London than ever he was with the city of Nebo. Repent, therefore, repent, London, and remember that the same God liveth
now that punished Nebo, even the same God, and none other; and he will punish sin as well now as he did then; and he will punish the iniquity of London as well as he did then of Nebo. Amend, therefore! and ye that be prelates, look well to your office, for right prelating is busy labouring, and not lording. Therefore preach and teach, and let your plough be doing. Ye lords, I say, that live like loiterers, look well to your office; the plough is your office and charge. If you live idle and loiter, you do not your duty, you follow not your vocation; let your plough therefore be going, and cease not, that the ground may bring forth fruit.
But now me thinketh I hear one say unto me, Wot you what say? Is it a work? Is it a labour? How then hath it happened that we have had so many hundred years so many unpreaching prelates, lordly loiterers, and idle ministers? Ye would have me here to make answer, and to show the cause thereof. Nay, this land is not for me to plough; it is too stony, too thorny, too hard for me to plough. They have so many things that make for them, so many things to say for themselves, that it is not for my weak team to plough them. They have to say for themselves long customs, ceremonies, and authority, placing in Parliament, and many things more. And I fear me this land is not yet ripe to be ploughed; for, as the saying is, it lacketh withering. This land lacketh withering, at leastway, it is not for me to plough. For what shall I look for among thorns, but pricking and scratching? What among stones, but stumbling? What, I had almost said, amongst serpents, but stinging? But thus much I dare say, that since lording and loitering hath come up, preaching hath gone down, contrary to the apostles' times; for they preached and lorded not, and now they lord and preach not. For they that be lords will ill go to plough; it is no meet office for them; it is not seeming for their estate. Thus came up lording loiterers; thus crept in unpreaching prelates, and so have they long continued. For how many unlearned prelates have we now at this day? And no marvel; for if the ploughmen that now be were made lords, they would clean give over ploughing; they would leave off their labour, and fall to lording outright, and let the plough stand; and then both ploughs not walking, nothing should be in the commonwealth but hunger. For ever since the prelates were made lords and nobles, the plough standeth, there is no work done, the people starve; they hawk, they hunt, they card, they dice, they pass time in their prelacies with gallant gentlemen, with their dancing minions, and with their fresh companions, so that ploughing is set aside; and by their lording and loitering, preaching and ploughing is clean gone. And thus, if the ploughmen in the country were as negligent in their office as prelates be, we should not long live, for lack of sustenance; and as it is necessary to have this ploughing for the sustentation of the body, so must we have also the other for the satisfaction of the soul, or else we cannot live long ghostly; for as the body wasteth and consumeth