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by market gardeners previous to severe frosts, and kept in sheds or cellars for market,
No. 7. Sow the middle of April, and the crop will come into use in March and April.
No. 8. Sow the end of March, and the crop will come into use in March and April.
No. 9. Sow the middle of April, and heads will be produced in February, March, and April : these frequently measure two feet in circumference.
No. 10. 11, 12. Sow in March and April, and the crop will come into use in April and May.
No. 13. is the hardiest of all the Broccolis, as the severest winter will not destroy it. Sow the end of April, and the crop will come into use in May the following year.
To secure Broccolis through the winter, it is always best to take up part of all the last nine sorts in the beginning of November, disturbing the roots as little as possible, and lay them in slopingly with their heads towards the north, only a few inches above the ground, and about eighteen inches asunder. By this means the crown of the plant lying low, is soon covered and protected by the snow which generally falls previously to long and severe frosts; the plant is also rendered tougher in fibre, and hardier by the check received in this last removal. Hort. Trans. Vol. iii. p. 161. 169.
Poterium Sanguisorba, or Common Burnet, is a perennial plant a native of England. A drink was made of it formerly, which was reckoned useful in many complaints, and was also an ingredient in cool tankards: the young leaves taste something like cucumbers, and are occasionally put into salads.
Although a perennial, the seeds are generally sown in drills, at two or three different periods between the spring and autumn.
12. CABBAGES. The Cabbage is the most ancient of our esculent vegetables : the tribe includes an extensive assortment of varieties and subvarieties, all probably proceeding from one common origin. The common Cabbage produces firm heads, green, greenish yellow, or red : they are all white within, except the last, which ought to be of bright deep red, very firm and compact.
The following are the principal varieties cultivated in our gardens :
1. Early Battersea. 2. Early Cornish.
Penton. 3. Early Dutch. 4. Early Dwarf. 5. Early York. 6. East Ham. 7. Emperor.
The Cabbage being a biennial plant, the chief or early summer crop is to be sown in the preceding autumn, from the 12th to the 20th of August ; but the latter summer and autumn crops, to come in from July to the end of the year, will require to be sown in the spring, from the beginning of April till the end of May. The Red Cabbage, if wanted for pickling early in the autumn, should be sown in August ; but for the winter and spring use, those sown in April will resist the frost much better, and be of a better quality than those sown in the autumn.
The Vanack Cabbage is scarcely to be found in the seedsmen's lists, but is highly deserving of notice. It has been cultivated in the garden of the Earl of Egremont, at Petworth, so long since as the year 1776. Seeds of it have been presented to the Horticultural Society of London by Mr. Torbron, gardener to the
Countess of Bridgewater, at Ashridge, in Hertfordshire. It was cultivated some time ago by the gardeners in Sussex and Hampshire. By timely sowings the Vanack Cabbage is always in season ; it makes excellent spring Coleworts, becomes a white-hearted Cabbage very early, and pushes fine sprouts from the stump after the Cabbages are cut. In quality it is inferior to none of the best Cabbages.
13. CAPSICUM. The Capsicum cultivated in the garden for its fruit, is an annual plant, a native of India. The pods are used in a green state for pickling; and, ripe, for mixing with other ingredients, as Tomatos, &c. to form sauces. They are also dried and ground, and used like Cayenne pepper.
There is a great number of varieties, some of which are yellow, others red, and others black. The colour, direction, and figure of the fruit is also very variable ; the sorts with small oblong erect pods are the hottest, and are commonly called Chilies.
The seed should be sown in March or beginning of April, on a moderate hot-bed. When two inches bigh, they should be pricked out into small pots of three inches diameter, afterwards to be repotted and placed under a frame, where they may be hardened to the open air by degrees. In June, they should be turned out of the pots into a south border of light rich soil, at twelve or fifteen inches asunder. Should the nights prove cold, they must be sheltered with a mat, otherwise they will require no further trouble ; and their fruit will be fit to gather green in August, and ripe in September.
14. CARAWAY. Carum Carui, or Caraway, is a biennial plant, a native of Britain. It is cultivated both in agriculture
and horticulture for its fruit, which is used to Alavour cakes, to form sugar-plums or comfits, to flavour spirits, and to form a carminative distilled water.
The seeds should be sown broadcast in March or April; and when the plants are two or three inches high, they should be thinned out to five or six inches apart.
They will require no other care than to keep them clean from weeds, till the fruit is ripe in the following summer.
15. CARDOONS. The Cardoon, Cynara Cardunculus, is greatly admired by many, and ought to have a place in every gentleman's garden. The stalks of the leaves, usually called the ribs, when blanched, are the useful part. They grow very large, three, four, or five feet high; and in autumn, when full grown and blanched, they are tender and well-flavoured.
The following sorts are grown in France, and are also known in this country:
1. Common Cardoon.
Cardon Plein Inerme.
Cardon Plein sans épines. 2. Spanish Cardoon.
3. Cardoon of Tours.
côtes très pleines.
Cardon Piquant. 4. Red Cardoon.
Cardon à côtes rouges.
The French gardeners have for some time cultivated two sorts of Cardoon ; Nos. 2. and 3., the latter being by them considered the best, because, they say, its ribs are thicker, more tender, and delicate. With us, however, the Spanish Cardoon appears the best, as we find the ribs are larger and more solid than the others. One sort is quite sufficient for a garden ; that, therefore, which has its ribs perfectly solid, and at the same time large, is to be preferred.
The soil to be chosen for the growth of Cardoons should be deep and light, but not over rich. Sow the seeds about the middle of April, in trenches six inches deep, and twelve inches wide, into which a small quantity of rotten dung has been previously dug. The rows to be set four feet distance from each other, and the seed sown in patches, three or four together, at about eighteen inches apart. When the plants have acquired four or five leaves, they should be thinned out to single plants. During summer they must be kept clean from weeds, and, in dry weather, frequently watered, as they require a good deal of moisture. About the end of October, when the plants have attained nearly their full size, a dry day is to be chosen, when the plants are free from damp. The leaves of each plant are carefully and lightly tied together with strong matting, keeping the whole upright, and the ribs of the leaves together. The plant is then bound closely round with twisted haybands, about an inch and a half in diameter, beginning at the root, and continuing to about two-thirds of its height, covering the whole so as to prevent the earth, when applied to it, coming in contact with the ribs of the leaves. If the Cardoons are to be used early, and before frost sets in, the plants may remain thus banded without earthing up, and will become sufficiently blanched for use; but if there is any danger of their being exposed to frost, then it is necessary that they should be earthed up in the same manner as Celery, care being taken that this is done in a dry day, and not to raise the earth higher than the haybands.
There have been other methods of blanching recommended; but this has been practised in the Horticultural Garden at Chiswick, and the plants have been superior, both in colour and the length of the blanched part, to others under different management.