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ent parts of the wall, half filled with vinegar and water mixed with honey, sugar, or treacle, emptying the bottles from time to time, and returning the liquor into them again.
Ants are also great devourers of ripe fruit. When they are numerous, they may be effectually destroyed by one quart of water in which an ounce of pounded arsenic has been boiled half an hour, and mixed with sugar, so as to form a thin syrup: this must be placed in oyster-shells at the foot of the trees or bottom of the wall, covering them so as to keep off the rain : this will require to be frequently removed, and kept in a liquid state.
Net Morello Cherries, to preserve them from birds.
Apples and Pears will mostly require to be gathered this month for laying up in the fruit room. The valuable autumnal varieties may be continued in season much longer than their usual time, by gathering one third of the crop a fortnight or three weeks before it be ripe, one third a week or ten days afterwards, and the remaining third when it is ripe : the last gathering in this case will be the first to be brought to table; the second gathering will be the next; and the first gathering will continue the longest fit for use. After hot dry summers, some of the finer winter Pears will continue longer in succession, by pursuing this method, than if the whole crop were to be left on the tree till ripe.
Imperatrice, Saint Catharine, and Coe's Plums, may be gathered and suspended by their stalks on twine, and placed near the glass withinside of a south window for a few weeks, and will continue to improve in flavour. If after this time Coe's Plums are wrapped in thin, soft, white paper, and put in boxes in a dry room, they
may be kept perfectly well for twelve months, when they become an excellent sweatmeat.
Trench and prepare borders and quarters; and transplant fruit trees against walls, and standards and dwarfs in orchards ; open quarters and borders in the fruit garden.
Plums and Cherries planted out at this time will make fresh roots during the autumn and mild part of the winter, and grow with much more vigour when headed down in the spring, than those planted out a month or more afterwards.
It will not, however, be advisable to plant these at this season, after a cold wet summer, unless the leaves will come clean off by drawing the hand upwards from the bottom of the shoot to its extremity.
Plant out cuttings of Gooseberries and Currants, as directed under that head.
The fruit room at this time will require particular attention as to the distribution of the fruit, as every sort of Apple and Pear should be kept by itself. · In order to keep some of the more valuable Apples in a perfect state to a late period of the season, they should hang till they can be readily detached from the tree. They should then be placed in casks or boxes, as they are gathered, beginning with a layer of thoroughly dry pit sand in the bottom, then a layer of Apples, placed close to each other, then another layer of sand, just sufficient to cover the fruit, and no more, and so continuing alternately, till the cask or box is full, finishing with a covering of sand. These should be placed in the fruit room; where they may remain undisturbed till the others of the same kind kept on the shelves are nearly done. This method has been practised many years ago at Holkham, where I have tasted the Golden Harvey Apple and some others, so kept, in as high a state of perfection in the month of May
and June as I ever saw the same kinds at any earlier period. I have myself, as well as several of my friends, adopted this method for several years, and found it an excellent one. The windows of the fruit room should be furnished with inside shutters, and kept closed, as it is found fruit keeps longer and better thus than when exposed to the light.
Plant out Strawberries where they are finally to remain. See STRAWBERRIES, Cultivation of.
Plant out all sorts of fruit trees and bushes in the orchard, against walls, and in the quarters and borders of the garden ; see directions under the separate heads.
Prune and train Vines, and all other fruit trees against walls and espaliers, except Figs, which must be left till April. Prune also all standard and dwarf fruit trees and bushes in orchards, and in the quarters and borders of the garden.
Where late Grapes are now hanging upon the vines, in an immature state, the bunches may be cut off, with a joint or two of the branch above and below the fruit, and hung up in a dry, warm room, or in a warm, airy kitchen, which is much better, where they may be preserved two months, and will acquire a higher degree of maturity. Fig trees, which are likely to be injured by frost, should now be covered with mats, having previously tucked in a little soft hay among the branches, as directed under the Cultivation of Figs.
Newly planted trees should be mulched, to prevent the frost from injuring their roots.
Examine the fruit-room ; and should any of the fruit become mouldy, it must be wiped off : such of the sorts of Apples as have become very moist should be wiped also, giving the house air and light during the time
this operation is going on; and if some clean dry fern can be had, the fruit should be laid upon it, reserving as much as will cover it over as soon as frost sets in. Fine dry fern is by far the best thing on which to lay Apples, and to cover them also, of any material whatever, as it is perfectly sweet, and not liable to contract any unpleasant smell, and it keeps sound much longer than straw.
Continue to prune and train wall trees and espaliers, and to prune all standard and dwarf trees and bushes in the orchard and garden. In looking over the espaliers, where any of the stakes are decayed they must be replaced with new ones, and the whole put into a thorough state of repair, previously to the commencement of training.
Where the trees and bushes have been pruned in the quarters or on the borders, these places should be dug over, leaving the ground rough to be acted upon by the winter frosts; and where manure was wanted, it ought to have been dug in, which will benefit the trees much more than it would if left till the spring. . In the various operations directed to be done in the different months in pruning and training of particular fruits, it will be advisable, in all cases, to turn to those fruits in the body of the work, previously to the commencement of those operations.
Little has been said in regard to the propagation of the different fruits : this will be found at length under its proper head.
Angelica Archangelica is a biennial plant, a native of Hungary and Germany, and ranked among medicinal plants.
The gardeners near London, who have ditches of water running through their gardens, propagate great quantities of this plant, for which they have a considerable demand from the confectioners, who make a sweetmeat with the tender stalks, cut in May, and candied with sugar.
The seeds should be sown in autumn as soon as they are ripe ; and in the spring, when the plants are six inches high, they should be transplanted upon the sides of ditches and pools, or, for want of these, on cold moist ground, at two or three feet asunder. The second year after sowing, they will shoot up to flower : therefore, if you wish to continue their roots, you should cut down the stems in May, which will occasion their putting out heads from the sides of their roots; by which means they may be continued for two or three years; whereas if they had been suffered to seed, their roots would have
perished soon afterwards. • Angelica may also be cultivated by planting the young
plants in shallow trenches, earthing up their stems in the manner of cardoons or celery ; but when these are cut for use, the earth should be levelled down again to the crown of the roots, from whence another crop may be obtained the following year.