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more natural character: they are at all times unsightly, and never productive of fruit.

Plums against Walls. The wall tree may, in all cases, be considered as an espalier, having the wall for its support, without any reference to its influence in the ripening of its fruit, hence the term espalier is applied by the French, not as by us, but “to a tree fixed against a wall in the form of a fan ;” to this we are indebted, probably, for our method of fan-training, as it is now applied to the Peach, the Nectarine, the Apricot, and the Morello Cherry. Plums, when trained against the wall, require the same management as our English espalier, the same horizontal method of training being pursued.

When Plum trees have been neglected for a length of time, and their spurs become long, naked, and unproductive, the latter may, if the trees are sound, be removed by the same method as directed for the Pear; that of heading them down.

When the young shoots are long enough to be nailed to the wall, two of the strongest and best placed from each shortened limb must be selected and trained as before, till the next winter pruning, when the best of the two must be selected and continued at its full length, cutting the other away.

The spurs must be managed also as directed for the espalier, and in other respects the treatment must be the

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Black Morocco
Blue Gage
Blue Perdrigon
Brignole
Brignole Jaune
Bury Seedling
Caledonian
Catalonian
Cherry
Cheston
Cloth of Gold
Coe's
Coe's Golden Drop
Coe's Imperial
Damas d'Italie
Damas Violet
Dame Aubert
Dauphine
Diaper
Diaprée Rouge
Diaprée Violette
Die Violette Königin
Die Weisse Kaiserpflaume
Downton Imperatrice
Drap d'Or
Early Amber
Early Black Damask
Early Damask
Early Morocco
Early Orleans
Early Red Primordian
Early Tours
Early Violet
Egg
Fair's Golden Drop
Fotheringham
Franklin
German Prune
Goliath
Great Damask Violet
Green Gage
Gros Damas de Tours
Grosse Luisante
Grosse Noire Hâtive

10

16 · 28*

21 58 21 33 33 59 22 33 23 49

5 24 25 11 12 50 14 26 51 47 13 27 28 30

6 28* 45 53

4 40 29

6 Grosse Reine Claude 1 Hampton Court 2 Howell's Large 44 Imperatrice 44 Imperatrice Blanche 45 Imperatrice Violette 28* Imperial 49 Imperiall 13 Imperiale Blanche 14 Imperial Diadem 47 Imperiale Violette 45 Italian Damask 45 Jaune Hâtive 45 Kirke's 23 La Delicieuse 37 La Royale 54 Little Queen Claude 10 Lucombe's Nonsuch 15 Maitre Claude 15 Matchless 38 Mimms 31 Mirabelle 58 Mirabelle Double 46 Mirabolan 47 Monsieur 48 Monsieur Hâtif 6 Monsieur Tardif 6 Morocco 6 Nectarine 16 New Golden Drop 17 New Washington 7 Noire de Montreuil

9 Nutmeg. 59 Orleans 45 Perdrigon 18 Perdrigon Blanc 53 Perdrigon Rouge 19 Perdrigon Violet 20 Petit Damas Blanc

3 Petite Reine Claude 10 Précoce de Tours

3 Prune Altesse 54 Prune Damson 4 Prune de Brignole

2 60

34 . 39 . 56 11

7 30

8 44

: 38

19

40

Prune de Catalogne
Prune de St. Barnabé
Prune Pêche
Prune Suisse
Prunus Cerasifera
Purple Gage
Queen Mother
Quetsche
Quetzen
Red Damask
Red Diaper
Red Magnum Bonum
Red Perdrigon
Red Primordian
Reine Claude Violette
Roche-Corbon
Rotherham
Royale
Royal Dauphin
Royale de Tours -
Saint Catharine
Sainte Catherine
Saint Cloud
Sheen
Simiana
Verte-bonne
Violet

49 Violet Damask

-.37 49 Violet Diaper 28* Violette Hâtive

9 30 Violet Perdrigon

39 13 Virginian Cherry

13 31 Washington

53 32 Wentworth

54 19 Wheat

40 Wheaten 29 White Bullace

55 15 White Damask

56 33 White Damson

57 34. White Holland

59 17 White Imperatrice

58 31 White Imperial

59 51 White Magnum Bonum 59 42 White Mirable

51 25 White Mogul

59 35 White Perdrigon

60 36 White Primordian

49 52 White Prune Damson

57 52 Whitton

40 20 Wilmot's Early Orleans 41 18 Wilmot's Late Orleans 41

Wilmot's New Early Orleans 41 10 Wilmot's Orleans

41 9 Winesour

42

30

CHAP. XIX.

QUINCES.

Mr. Miller has three varieties of the Quince, the only hardy kinds known in this country, viz.

1. CYDONIA OBLONGA. PEAR-SHAPED QUINCE. Leaves oblong-ovate. Fruit lengthened at the base. 2. CYDONIA MALIFORMIS. APPLE-SHAPED QUINCE. Leaves ovate. Fruit rounder than that of the last. 3. CYDONIA LUSITANICA. PORTUGAL QUINCE. Leaves obovate. Fruit oblong.

The last variety is of a fine purple colour when dressed ; is more juicy and less harsh, and much better for marmalade, than either of the others. It is the only sort now cultivated in England for domestic purposes.

Propagation. The Quince is propagated by layers at any time during the winter months. When the young shoots are laid down, there should not be more than two eyes left above ground, and when those have grown five or six inches long, one of them should be cut clean off, leaving the other to form the plant, which by the autumn will be three feet high.

The layers must be taken off the stools as soon as the leaves are fallen, and planted out in rows at three feet apart from row to row, and ten or twelve inches from plant to plant in the row. At the end of one or two years they will be fit to bud or graft with the different sorts of Pear, for quenouille or for espalier training; or they may be allowed to grow up and form standards for orchard planting.

Those, however, which are intended for budding or grafting, should be shortened to eighteen inches, as soon as quartered out in the rows, which will keep them upright, firm, and steady; but those intended for standards should be staked and tied up as soon as planted, and at the end of three years they ought to be fit to be planted out where they are intended to remain.

Cultivation.

The Quince is cultivated in no other way in this country than as an open standard. Its management is the same as that of the Plum.

The Quince may very safely be planted out in the orchard, without any fear of its degenerating either the Apple or the Pear, an idea entertained both by Miller and Forsyth; which see, under the head of MEDLAR.

CHAP. XX.

RASPBERRIES.

1. Antwerp, Double Bearing 10. Double Bearing. Yellow.

Perpetual Bearing. 2. Antwerp, Late Bearing.

Red Double Bearing.
Knevett's Antwerp.

Siberian. 3. Antwerp, Red.

11. Double Bearing, Williams's. Burley Antwerp.

Pitmaston Double Bearing. 4. Antwerp, Yellow.

12. Lord Exmouth. White Antwerp.

13. Oakhill. 5. Barnet.

Jillard's Seedling
Cornwall's Prolific.

14. Old White.
Cornwall's Red.

15 Prolific, Early. Cornwall's Seedling,

16. Red Malta. Large Red.

17. Spring Grove. 6. Cane, Brentford.

18. Superb. 7. Cane, Red.

19. Taylor's Paragon. Smooth Cane.

Scarlet Paragon. 8. Cane, Rough.

20. Williams's Preserving. 9. Cornish.

21. Wilmot's Early Red. Large Cornish.

22. Woodward's Red Globe.

A Selection of Raspberries for a small Garden. Barnet

5 Red Antwerp Cornish

9 Williams's Preserving Double-bearing

10 Yellow Antwerp

3 20

There are, no doubt, many other sorts besides the above to be found in different parts of England, and possessing different degrees of merit; those already enumerated are, however, amply sufficient for every useful purpose.

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