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72.6troEdue T 249. 15. bio



JUN. 29. 191



IN the gradual evolution of elementary 2. To cultivate a careful and thoughtful courses of study the subject of geography has observation of geographic phenomena. found a place befitting its present-day impor 3. To develop the power to explain geotance; and there has come to be a fairly general graphic phenomena by reasoning clearly agreement as to what constitutes the science of

from cause to effect. geography, its proper aims and objects, and 4. To cultivate the imagination of the the subject matter appropriate, under given pupil, so that maps and pictures shall be conditions, to the several grades. It may not of real assistance in comprehending the be amiss, therefore, to state some of these prin

actualities for which they stand. ciples which are matters of general agreement 5. To make a practical application to

not that they are permanent or infallible, the affairs of life of the facts and 'prinbut that they may, while serving as a guide for ciples gained. the teacher, be continually studied, tested, Third. — Selection of Subject Matter: Geomodified, and adapted to new conditions and graphic material, appropriate at any given stage new truth.

of the pupil's progress, must conform to the First. — The Science of Geography:

following standards: 1. Geography treats of the earth as the 1. It must be such a part of man's environhome of mankind.

ment as exerts an important influence 2. Geography is a present-day science, on his life and activities; or it must be dealing with the earth as it is to-day,

the result of man's contact with that with races and nations in their present

environment that is, the activities state of civilization, and with their

themselves. present social, industrial, and political 2. Subject matter that is essential to environment.

the future progress of the pupil, must 3. Geography is a composite science,

be included in the work of the several drawing its facts from mathematics,

grades. astronomy, physics, geology, botany, 3. Subject matter that is essential to zoology, etc., but employing these facts the understanding of the affairs of life only so far as they elucidate the rela

or which is a necessary part of the equiptions which man bears to the physical ment of an intelligent human being, world.

should be included. 4. Geography as a science, is prevailingly 4. An essential criterion for all subject

inductive, leading from observed facts to matter is that it be adapted to the general laws.

capacity of the pupil at any given stage. 5. The divisions of geographical science Fourth. — Methods of Instruction:

commonly recognized are (1) mathe 1. The proper basis of geographical inmatical, (2) physical, (3) political, (4) struction is the present knowledge and industrial, (5) commercial, and (6) his

immediate environment of the pupil. torical geography.

This basis must be utilized by the teacher Second. - The Aims and Objects of Geo

in introducing new matter. graphical Instruction:

2. Geographical instruction begins with 1. To impart a knowledge of such geo

the pupil's home surroundings and graphical facts and principles as

proceeds outward, explaining the unessential features of the pupil's envi

known and distant by what is familiar ronment.

and near at hand.



3. Simple topics of a broad, general nature tion to the instructor; O

should first receive attention. Examples it, “To throw the childre of such topics are — food, clothing, men's active employment shelter, occupations, travel and trans varied scenery, and in sportation, soil, land and water forms, to anoint their eyes with tl etc., etc.

A careful oral treatment The First Book, however, in the classroom should stimulate the course of study of elemen pupil to observation and research. In

In that children who leaves this way the foundations for future of the course may be fairly progress

laid. Later discussions graphically, for the busines growing out of the analysis of these tions of space have made i simple topics will be more elaborate, a few topics only at cons developing causal relations, general additional work has been truths, and, incidentally, relations to of each lesson to be used a

other subjects of the school curriculum. Special Features — A 4. The fundamental topics of geography chief aim has been to pr

will be constantly elaborated in subse- should call for a minimum quent lessons, through classification and of the teacher and a maxi comparison, and will serve as centers part of the pupil. Tot about which to organize the growing care has been taken to ma fund of geographical knowledge.

of each lesson intelligible 5. All geographical instruction, in order duction has been written

to be successful, must be clearly ob every case when a new ki jective. Excursions for purposes of is taken up, its nature is f observation and study, maps, pictures, notes on HOW TO STT collections of specimens, models and foot of the first page treat drawings must be constantly employed ject. Care has been taken to give clear and concrete notions of Reviews, Observation Wo things.

tary Reading, to use the s 6. The importance of books of reference to make only such requirer

should be taught in the earlier stages ably be expected to fall wit by having interesting and pointed selec- comprehension of the pupil tions read in the class; in the more Treatment of Home Ge advanced work, statistical tables, at laid down above, under“ lases, guide books, railroad folders, tion” have been rigidly a tourists' booklets, year-books, and other space has been given to reference works may be utilized.

than in any other Ameri The Foundations of Geography. Realiz has come to the attention ing the immensity of the geographic field and

a series of introductory p the proper functions of the textbook, the aim

under various typical con in the present series has been to lay the foun- extended discussion is pre dation, rather than to furnish a compendium elements of human enviro of information;- to establish so thoroughly the more familiar forms of 1 habit of thoughtful observation and research elements of climate, and t that the course of study in geography shall be

acteristic of both city a delight to the pupil and a source of satisfac

discussions apply to type

provision is made for obse 1 For a more extended discussion of methods, see

mental work which shall McMurry: Special Method in Geography. King: Methods and Aids in Geography. Geikie: The Teaching of Geog

and forms to the experie raphy.

matter where he may live

definitions of nature forms are given at proper mentary Reading" and the “Suggestions fo places in the text, and it is advised that the Additional Work.” It is not expected that an concepts formed by the pupil from the discus-class will do all the work provided, but enoug sions, be compared and harmonized with these should be selected from the variety of exercise more formal statements.

presented to impress the pupils with the fac Paragraph Heads and Bold-Face Type. In that geography is a live subject and to encou Parts I and II the text matter has been care age them to associate closely with the geog fully organized into paragraphs of moderate raphy lesson many matters of current interes

in bold-face type. This heading constitutes the ment. The author has studiously endeavore paragraph topic and is, in general, the sole to follow out the principles enunciated at th topic treated; but in case any subordinate beginning of this article — to emphasize th topics occur in the paragraph, they also are set human element of geographical data, to ap in bold-face. These topics form the proper proach new topics from known standpoints subjects for discussion in the classroom. In to link cause and effect, and to make the pupi Part III, the paragraph heads are less specific think independently of the book. The effect cally stated, and the pupil is expected to classify of surface, climatic conditions, and natura the content of the paragraph under appro- resources are constantly illustrated, and the priate sub-heads. This practice should be in- pupil is encouraged to search for the reasons o sisted on until proficiency is attained. It things. It is for this purpose that the story should be a regular part of the preparation for of “Millville" is told at some length (page 54) the next day's lesson to select the topics which The chapters on “City and Country Life" and are to be made the basis of the recitation and “Occupations," and the material occurring in discussion, for no other device will so greatly various places in the text on manufacturing facilitate the "learning of the lesson."

conditions, have the same purpose in view Fullness of Treatment and Incidental Teach- The importance of the human element in geoging. The author is not in accord with the raphy in its reactions upon natural conditions “strict constructionists” in geography, who is given due prominence in explaining present would rigidly exclude from the textbook every- geographical conditions. (See pp. 201, 214, 270.) thing that is not manifestly a “life response" to In general the policy has been to limit the text natural conditions. A large amount of material to' such facts as the pupil is capable of coördinot strictly geography, though closely related nating with his present stock of knowledge, ou to that subject, has been freely introduced such as are essential in building the chain oi from history, astronomy, and the physical geographical sequences. Of course, many fact: sciences, as well as some things which are are included because their intrinsic or practica matters of general interest and which are most value renders them indispensable to the pupil's easily taught in connection with geography. intellectual training and equipment. We believe with the highest authorities on the Maps and Illustrations. The usual practice pedagogics of geography that too concise a in school geographies is to have each maj treatment, or the paragraph style, means occupy a full type page, with the result that there paucity of information and defeats the object are as many different scales as there are maps of a good textbook. Such treatment of the While this method is convenient from the stand subject may be desirable for the pupil who point of economical manufacture, it is sadly is “cramming” for an examination, but it con- misleading to the younger pupils, who easily tributes little toward enlisting interest and get the idea that all continents and their di enthusiasm. A full treatment is indispensable visions are of the same size. Massachusetts to an interesting story, and while it is impos- seems just as large as Texas, and other part: sible in a textbook to indulge the story-telling of the world as distorted in a similar manner. propensity too freely, an abundant supply of The maps of the present book are a radica stories has been suggested in the "Supple-departure from

departure from this method. Three maj


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