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PREFACE.

corrections and annotations of Dr. A. T. Thomson, the author of the justly popular “London Dispensatory," and other scientific works. It has also been enriched by extracts from the best works of contemporary authors, such as those of Professors Low, Sir J. E. Smith, Liebig, Brande, Youatt, Thomson, Lindley, and J. F. Johnston ; of Messrs. William Yarrell, John Morton, Henry Stephens, William Shaw, James Hudson, Samuel Taylor, French Burke, James Paxton, the Rev. W. Rham, Miss Louisa Johnson, &c.; the Editor believes, however, on no occasion without acknowledging his obligations to these valuable authorities : and, by their assistance, he trusts the work will be found to contain a fund of matter that will be permanently useful for reference and for study to all the cultivators of the soil. In conclusion, the Editor begs to express the hope that the friends whose kindness he has experienced on former occasions, will add to their favours by supplying him with corrections and suggestions for the improvement of future editions of “ The FARMERS' ENCYCLOPÆDIA.”

CUTHBERT W. JOHNSON.

14. Gray's Inn Square,

May, 1842.

THE

FARMER'S ENCYCLOPÆDIA,

AND

Dictionary of Rural Affairs.

ABBEY LANDS. A, in the composition of botanic terms, is slaughter-rooms, which are of stone, and in the Greek a, privative, and signifies “ with the ox and sheep pens, every attention is out;" as, apetalous means “ without petals," paid to cleanliness, and all the latest meaphyllous “ without leaves," acaulis * with-chanical improvements have been introout stem," or “ stemless."

duced. Each butcher has separate stalls Aaros's BEARD. See Rhus COTINUS. and conveniences for forage, and pays a AARON'S ROD. See Phlox PANICULATA. certain fixed price for the accommodation

ABATE. (French, abbatre; Spanish, aba and attendance of the labourers of the estir; Italian, abbatere ;) to beat down. In tablishment. These annual payments from Commerce, to let down the price in selling. the butchers of Paris average a very large

sum. In 1824 they amounted to 40,0001. * la letting leases of bis impropriations, if he found the curates' wages but small, he would abate much of his

The erection of similar establishments in fine to increase their pensions." Sir G. Paul's Life of Abp. Whitgift, p. 38. - In horsemanship, a horse is said to abate, or take down his curvets; when, working upon

be a most beneficial measure for the public curvets, he puts bis two hind-legs to the ground both at once." Johnson's Dict. by Todd.

sideration that more than 2,000,000 head In Law, means the beating down or re- of live-stock are annually slaughtered in this moval of an obstruction or nuisance, which great capital. (Dulaure, Hist. de Paris, tom. any person may remove, provided he does it ix.) in a peaceable manner, so as not to occasion

ABBEY LANDS. Lands once the proa breach of the peace, such as the obstruc-perty of an abbey. The chief circumstances tion of an ancient light, which is a private attendant upon these lands worthy of the nuisance, or the erection of a gate across a farmer's notice are, their general exemption common road, which is a public nuisance, from the payment of tithes, a privilege which and which any one may beat down and re- is thus described by Blackstone (Commenmove.

taries, vol. i. p. 31.) :-“ As possessed by spiABATTOIR. The French term for ritual persons or corporations, for instance slaughter-houses. Previous to the year monasteries : 1. By real composition. 2. By 1818, Paris was subject to the nuisance the Pope's bull of exemption. 3. By unity of which still exists to a great extent in Lon- possession; as where the rectory of a parish don and other towns, of having beasts in and lands in the same parish both belonged tended for slaughter driven through crowded to a religious house, those lands were disstreets, to the great danger of the passengers. charged of tithes by this unity of possession. But by an edict of Napoleon, in 1810, public | 4. By prescription, having never been liable slaughter-houses were ordered to be erected to tithes, by being always in spiritual hands. on the banks of the Seine. These build-5. By virtue of their order; as the Knights ings, which were completed in 1818, are five Templars, Cistercians, and others, whose in number, and of very large dimensions. lands were privileged by the Pope with a They are placed three on the right, and discharge of tithes. Though, upont two on the left, bank of the Seine. In the lution of the abbeys by Henry

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ABBEY LANDS.

ABELE TREE. of those exemptions would have fallen with | ABBREVIATIONS, from the Latin them, and the lands become tithable again, Abbreviare. had they not been supported and upheld by

" This book - was laid up as sacred in the church of the 31 Hen. 8. c. 13., which enacts, that all

Winchester ; and for that reason, as graver authors say,

was called “ Liber Domus Dei," and by abbreviation persons who should come to the possession "Domesday Book." (Temple, intr. Hist. of England. of lands of any abbey then dissolved, should Johnson, by Todd.) hold them free and discharged of tithes in as! For shortening botanical descriptions, large and ample a manner as the abbeys some authors, as Linnæus and Willdenow, themselves formerly held them. And from contract the terms, as Cal. for Calyx, and this original have sprung all the lands which, Cor. for Corolla ; while others, particularly being in lay hands, do at present claim to be Trattinick, have invented for the same purtithe free ; for if a man can show his lands to pose a species of hieroglyphics. The only have been such abbey lands, and also imme-effect of both is to save space in writing morially discharged of tithes, by any of the or printing, an advantage which is overmeans before mentioned, this is now a good balanced by the trouble of recollecting the prescription de non decimando. But he must contractions, or studying the hieroglyphics. show both these requisites; for abbey lands, The following are a few of the abbreviawithout a special ground of discharge, are tions most common in botanical works :not discharged of course, neither will any

Anth. Anther.

Or. Ovary. prescription de non decimando avail in total Br. Bractea.

Ped. Peduncle.
Char. Character.

Pet. Petal. discharge of tithes, unless it relates to such

ci. Class.

Pist. Pistil. abbey lands.” “And where," says Mr. Cult. Culture.

Rad. Radix or Root. Div. Division.

Ram, Ramus or Branch. Hovenden, when commenting upon the text

Ess. Essential.

Sem. Semina or Seeds. of Blackstone, “ lands appear to have been Fam. Family.

Stam. Stamens.
Fil. Filament.

Stig. Stigma or Summit. before, and at the time of the Council of

Fl. Flower.

Sp. Species, Lateran (Stavely v. Ulithorne, Hardres, Fol. Folium or Lear. Syn. Synonimes.

Fr. Fruit. 101.), part of the possessions of any of the

T. or Tabula or Picture. Gen. Genus.

Tab. 3 greater monasteries suppressed in the time

Trib. Tribe.
Hab. 3

Var Variety. of Henry VIII., and to have remained so

Hort. Hortus.
Hori.

v. Vidi, or I have seen. till the dissolution (Norton v. Hammond, Ic. Icon or Engraving,

I have seen a speci

Inn. Inflorescence. 1 Y. & J. 108.), and there is no evidence

Nat. Natural.

V.o. I have seen it living. of the payment of tithes for those lands at Ord. Order.

(Miller.) any time, our courts will consider them as 1 ABDOMEN. The lower part of the discharged by some way or other before the belly; from the Latin abdo, to hide or condissolution. (Lamprey v. Rooke, Amb. 291.) ceal. The abdomen in insects includes the The abbey lands, in fact, were widely dis- whole portion of the body behind the corsepersed throughout England, for there were let (thorax), embracing the back as well as few districts in which they had not posses- the belly, sions. Their revenues, by the valuation ABELE TREE (Populus alba). White taken at the time of the dissolution, were | Poplar, or Dutch Beech, otherwise called enormous, especially if we take into account the Arbeel. The Abele is a tree of very the altered value of money since that time: rapid growth, but seldom exceeds forty or thus it has been calculated that the annual fifty feet in height. The leaves are large, revenue of the Abbey of Glastonbury was and divided into three, four, or five lobes, equal, at the time of the dissolution, to which are indented on their edges. They 40,0001. of our money. The following is are of a darker colour on their upper side, the list of the revenues of seventeen of the and very white with a dense down on their largest of the mitred abbeys; that is, of those under. The foot-stalks are about an inch whose abbots sat in parliament in the House in length. The young branches have a of Peers.

| purplish bark, and are covered with a white

down, but the bark of the older branches St. Peter's, Westminster .

and trunk is grey. In the beginning of Glastonbury

. . . 3508 13 41 St. Alban's

2510

April, the male flowers, or catkins, appear, St. John's, Middlesex

2385 1 which are cylindrical, scaly, and three St. Edmund's Bury

2336 1 Reading

2116

inches long; and about a week after, the St. Mary's, near York

2085

female flowers come out on catkins, which Abingdon.

2042 Tewkesbury

1598

have no stamens like those of the male. Ramsey, Huntingdon

1983

Soon after the female catkins come out, the Peterborough Gloucester

1550

| male catkins fall off; and in five or six St. Augustine's, Canterbury Evesham .

| weeks after, the female flowers will have

1268 Crowland

· 1217 Š ii | ripe seeds inclosed in a hairy covering, when Waltham, Essex

1079 12 ) the catkins will drop, and the seeds will be Cirencester

. 10517 (Farmer's Waltham Abbey.)' wasted by the winds to a great distance.

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ABELE TREE.

This tree is not to be considered as a if not all that have rooted, will be fit to native of England. “We do not find," says plant out for good, on the sites where they Phillips, “ any old English name for these are to remain for timber. The size of the trees; the word Poplar is from the Latin plants considered the best for final transPopulus, or the French Peuplier, and Abele plantation, is from one and a half to three from the Low Dutch Abeel, a name which feet in length, but much larger plants will they gave to this tree on account of its succeed very well by paying proper attenhoary or aged colour." Turner, in 1568, tion to keep the roots as perfect as possible. says, “ As touching the Whyte Asp, I re- The Abele is sometimes made a variety membre not that ever I saw it in any place of the Grey Poplar (Populus canescens), and in England." (Phillips's Shrubbery, vol. i. several British as well as foreign botanists p. 124.)

have sometimes confounded the two species, Hartlib, in his “Complete Husbandman,” | but they are very distinct. The pistils of 1659, states that some years ago, there were the female flowers in the Abele are four, ten thousand Abeles at once sent over into on egg-oblong catkins, while in the Grey England from Flanders, and transplanted | Poplar the pistils are eight, on cylindrical into many counties; that the timber is in- | catkins ; but the distinction between the comparable for all sorts of wooden vessels, trees is most obvious to common observation especially trays; and that butchers' trays in the habits of each. The Grey Poplar cannot be made without it, it being so ex- rises with a clear round stem and silvery ceedingly light and tough. The Abeles bark, crowned with compact branches, formgrown at Hartwell, near Aylesbury, in ing a pretty regular rounded outline; whereBuckinghamshire, the seat of Sir William as the Abele has a branched stem with grey Lee, Bart., were remarkable for their height, bark, the branches long, comparatively and the cleanness of their stem or bole. spreading and scattered, exhibiting an irThere are some very fine specimens also in regular outline frequently tending to the Poland.

spiral, but nearer to the rounded figure of * A specimen of their advance," says the top of the Grey Poplar. On a nearer Evelyn, we have had of an Abele tree inspection, the leaves offer clear characters at Sion, which being lopped in Feb. 1651, of distinction. In the Abele, the leaves are did, by the end of October 1652, produce lobed and toothed, dark green and smooth branches as big as a man's wrist, and seven- above, and snow white with dense down teen feet in length. As they thus increase beneath ; while those of the Grey Poplar in bulk, their value advances likewise, which, are scarcely half the size, are roundish and after the first seven years, is annually worth deeply waved, and hoary with grey or one shilling more. The Dutch, therefore," whitish down beneath. he continues, “ look upon a plantation of There are many varieties of the Abele, these trees as an ample portion for a daugh- arising from local circumstances. The vater." Besides the uses of the wood before riety called on the Continent Polan de Holstated, it is considered good for wainscoting, land, is preferable for avenues and for for floors, laths, and packing cases; and, landscape gardening, from its rapid growth, from the boards of it not splitting by nails, its majestic height and aspeet, and from its but closing over the heads, it is esteemed fine white leaves contrasting well with the superior to deal for the latter purpose. It green of other leaves. There are some is found to answer for works under water. magnificent ones near the Hague, and more Peaty and low damp soils are the most pro- | particularly extensive avenues of them along per for the Abele, and in these it is well most of the highways in the lower districts worthy the attention of the forest planter. of Belgium, near Bruges and Ghent. It is It should never be planted near the margins so common on the romantic banks of the of, nor in grass fields, for it extends its roots Rhone, that some French authors call it under the grass to a great distance, and Arbre du Rhône. sends up numerous shoots. The Abele is According to M‘Intosh, the best cuttings propagated by layers, cuttings, and off- are taken from the wood of the preceding shoots or suckers. If cuttings are adopted, year; and when made, each cutting should they should be from two to three feet long, I be nine inches in length, and planted in inserting them in a moist light soil to the nursery lines eighteen inches apart, and the depth of a foot and a half; and it is better cuttings about six inches distant from each to plant them in a gentle slanting direction other. When inserted in the ground, they than in an upright position. If the season should be put in deep enough to resist the prove dry, the beds or rows should be re drought; and if only two inches of the top freshed with water when necessary. The appear above ground, it will be found sufmonth of February is the best season for ficient. In two years, or three at most, planting the cuttings. In two years, many, these cuttings will be fully grown to fit ABERCROMBIE (JOHN). them for being finally planted out; but if this, and entered into the seed and nursery they are to remain the third year in the business at Newington and Tottenham nursery, they ought to be taken up and re-Court, carrying on at the same time an planted at a greater distance. The Abele extensive trade as a kitchen gardener and often sends up naturally vast numbers of florist. About 1778 he prepared his “ Every suckers from its roots, and such are some Man his own Gardener," which has passed times used for young plants; cuttings are, through many editions. He actually howhowever, preferable. Langley asserts that ever paid Mr. T. Mawe, gardener to the he has known great quantities produced by Duke of Leeds, twenty pounds to allow his chips only, where the trees have been hewed name to be attached to this work. Afterafter felling; and one of our earliest authors wards becoming more confident, he pubhas proposed ploughing down these slips, lished his “ Gardener's Pocket Journal, or with a view to produce an economical cop- Daily Assistant," which obtained a very pice.

extensive sale, and has since passed through Amongst other uses of this tree, it may a very large edition annually. Besides be mentioned that, on the Continent, the these, he compiled, “ The Universal Diewood of the larger branches is prized, on tionary of Gardening and Botany, 4to;" account of its lightness, for making wooden | “ The Gardener's Dictionary;" “ The Garshoes ; while the smaller twigs are used for dener's Vade-Mecum ;" “ The Kitchen fire-wood. By splitting the wood into thin Gardener and Hot-bed Forcer;" “ The shavings, like tape or braid, the stuff called Hot-house Gardener ;" “ The Wall Tree sparterie, used for hats, is manufactured. Pruner;" “ The Gardener's best ComThese shavings are always made from green panion," &c. He died from an accident on wood. One workman can, with the aid of the 2d of May, 1806. He at one period, a child to carry off the shavings, keep seve- after the publication of his “Every Man his ral plaiters employed. The ancient Greek own Gardener," had actually embarked to athletæ wore crowns made of the branches superintend the gardens of the Empress of of this tree, because it was sacred to their Russia ; but the sight of the ocean inspired patron deity, Hercules. (Julius Pollux, de him with terrors which he could not overIudis. Miller's Dict.)

come. (Memoir prefired to his Gardener's ABERCROMBIE (JOHN), a popular Pocket Journal ; Gentleman's Mag. and writer on gardening, was born at Edin Monthly Mag. for 1806.) Abercrombie was burgh in 1726, near which city his father induced to become author by a visit which conducted a considerable market garden. he received, in 1770, from Mr. Davis, a At fourteen he became an apprentice of his London bookseller, and the celebrated Dr. father. He was thoroughly grounded in Goldsmith, who made overtures to him for his profession, the practice of years being an original work, the latter promising to retained and concentrated by a habit of revise the language, which he afterwards committing to paper all the observations he neglected to do. made in its pursuit from a very early age. After the publication of the second Soon after his apprenticeship expired, being edition of his " Every Man his own Garabout eighteen, he came to London, where dener," he accepted an invitation from Mr. he obtained employment in some of the Mawe, whose name he had borrowed for Royal gardens at Kew and Leicester House. the title page; but when introduced to him, Afterwards he became gardener to Dr. having never before seen him, he was so Munro. He was present at the battle of powdered and dressed, that Abercrombie Preston Pans, which was fought under his mistook him for his master the Duke of father's garden wall. He was a loyalist. Leeds. They were, however, mutually About 1751-52 he became gardener to Sir | pleased with each other, and subsequently James Douglas, during his continuance in continued to correspond. whose service he married, and, in 1759, re- From 1796, to the time of his decease, he turned to Scotland with the intention of continued to reside in Charlton Street, becoming kitchen and market gardener, but Somers' Town. (Loudon's Encyclopædia of came again to England, after an absence of Gardening, p. 1106. ed. 5.) only ten months. He was engaged in the The following is a list of his horticultural service of several noblemen and gentlemen | works, in the order in which they were until 1770, when he engaged a kitchen published:garden and small nursery-ground between Mile End Road and Hackney, attending

1. Every Man his own Gardener. London. 1774. 2. The Universal Gardener and Botanist. London. 1778,

4to. Mr. Weston says the first Edition appeared in 1770. 1771-72. At this period he became a publican

3. The Garden Mushroom, its nature and cultivation.

London. 1779. 8vo. 4. The British Fruit Garden, and in Dog-Row, Mile End, at a house afterwards Art of Pruning, Londona u

Art of Pruning. London. 1779. 8vo. 5. The Garden Mushroom, its nature and cultivation. London. 1779. 8vo.--1802. 12mo. 6. The complete forcing Gardener.

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