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ing spring, by whichever mode they are of a snake ; and in some of the csunties of raised, setting the plants at last 18 inches England this bird is called the snake-bird, apart. (G. W. Johnson's Kitchen Garden.) from this circumstance. These birds feed See MUGWORT and SOUTHERNWOOD.

on caterpillars and various other insects WOUND. A recent and violent separa and are often seen on the ground near anition of continuity in a soft external part hills, consuming, as food, large quantities of of the body, being attended with an effusion the ants and their eggs. The wryneck makes of blood. See Cut, POULTICE, FOMENTA- little or no nest, but deposits its eggs en TION, &c.

the fragments of decayed wood within the WOUNDWORT. (Stachys, from sta hole of a tree. The eggs are from six to chys, a spike, alluding to the mode of flower ten in number, white, smooth, and shining, ing.) A genus of rather weedy-looking nine lines and a half long, by seven lines in plants, hardly worth cultivating for orna breadth. The whole length of the bird is ment. They all succeed in common garden seven inches. The plumage is beautifully soil. The perennial kinds are easily in- marked and shaded with brown and grey, creased by dividing the roots in spring or (Yarrell's Brit. Birds, vol. ïi. p. 152) autumn. The seeds of the annual kinds should be sown in spring, in the open bor

Y. der. As a vulnerary these plants have no power. There are five indigenous species; YARD DUNG. See Farn-YARD MAthe hedge woundwort (S. sylvatica); the | NURE. ambiguous woundwort (S. ambigua); the YARD OF LAND. A quantity of fun! marsh woundwort (S. palustris; see ALL- which in some counties signifies fifteca HEAL); the downy woundwort (S. ger- acres, in some twenty, and in others twentymanica); and the corn woundwort (S. ar- four, thirty, and thirty-four acres. vensis). The marsh woundwort has a fleshy YARROW. (Achillea.) A genus of root, creeping extensively; throwing out in showy, free-flowering plants, succeedia autumn a number of tuberous shoots, which well in any common soil, and readily is render it, in low wet ground, very difficult creased by dividing the roots. The species of extirpation. This, therefore, should be are possessed of aromatic, bitter, tone, attempted in summer before these knobs and stimulating qualities. The following are produced, when the flowers are appear- are indigenous perennials : ing.(Smith's Eng. Flor. vol. iii. p. 98.) 1. Sneezewort yarrow, or goose-tongs

WREN. (Troglodytes vulgaris.) A very (A. ptarmica), which grows in wet hedge diminutive well-known bird, inhabiting all or about the banks of rivers, flowering i parts of Europe, where it maintains itself July and August. The root creeps will during the severest winters. The whole and is difficult of extirpation where the sol length of the bird is rather less than four is moist. Stems upright, about two feci inches. The plumage is of a deep brown high ; corymbose at the top. Leaves sesaka colour. Wrens construct their nests in the linear, pointed, equally and sharply sro corners of out-houses, stacks of wood, or rated, and of a glaucous green. Flowers holes in the wall, being nearly of an oval numerous, small, milk-white in the disks shape, and composed chiefly of moss, lined well as in the radius, with an irregular with feathers. The female usually lays number of ligulate florets. The whole plant from seven to ten minute white eggs, has a pungent flavour, provoking a flowd marked with a few red spots; the eggs saliva, and this flavour renders it accept measure seven lines and a half in length, by | able, as Schreber asserts, to sheep, who six lines in breadth. The wren produces delight especially in saltish food. The two broods in the season. These little sneezing caused by the dried and powder birds feed on small worms and insects. leaves is rather owing to their little stap (Yarrell's Brit. Birds, vol. ii. p. 162.) marginal prickles. Its name is derived from

WRYNECK. (Yunx torquilla.) This this property of causing sneezing. common bird is a well-known visiter to this 2. Serrated yarrow (A. serrata). The country, arriving in the first or second week is a much less common species, in which of April, and departing by the end of Au- the root is fibrous, leaves linear, lancenless gust, or early in September. It frequents downy, deeply serrated. Flowers of a small copses, plantations, orchards, and | yellowish white or buff colour, not half be fields enclosed with tall hedges. This bird size of the foregoing. The whole berb has is called a wryneck from the habit it ex- a powerful aromatic scent and bitter flavour. hibits of moving its head and neck in vari- , somewhat like tansy. ous directions, sometimes describing parts 3. Common yarrow or milfoil (A. wilde of circles, at others from side to side with folium). This species grows abundantly !



YEW TREE. creeping, with smooth, reddish, subterra- will keep for a whole twelvemonth. During neous shoots, which are warm and agree the summer season they boil a quantity of ably pungent, partaking of the flavour and wheaten bran and hops in water; the desalivating quality of the pellitory of Spain coction is not long in fermenting, and when (Anthemis pyrethum): Stems furrowed, this has taken place they throw in a suffierect, about a foot high. Leaves doubly cient portion of bran to form the whole pinnatifid, hairy; segments linear, toothed, into a thick paste, which they work into pointed. Flowers numerous, white, occa- balls, that are afterwards dried by a sionally reddish or purple. The whole herb slow heat. When wanted for use they are is astringent, and weakly aromatic. Although broken, and boiling water is poured upon considered a bad weed in pasture and arable them; having stood a proper time, the lands, in consequence of its creeping root, | fluid is decanted, and in a fit state for Dr. Anderson and others have recom leavening bread. See BREAD. mended it for cultivation; but its produc YELLOW-HAMMER. (Emberiza citive and nutrient properties are very in- trinella.). A well known diminutive bird, ferior to many other plants equally adapted which inhabits Britain and other parts of to light soils ; 64 drachms of the leaves Europe. The crown of the head and belly and stems, cut when in flower, afforded are of a pale yellow or straw-colour; the 98 grains of nutritive matter. Linnæus hinder part of the neck is tinged with green, says that its properties are vulnerary and and the breast is of an orange red. These styptic. An essential oil is extracted from birds frequent meadows, where they conthe flowers; and an ointment made of the struct their large flat nests of dried moss, leaves is reckoned good against the scab in roots, and horse-hair. The female lays six sheep. A. moschata, an exotic species, a white eggs, streaked with purple veins. The native of Italy, is sudorific and acrid, and yellow-hammer is of considerable service to makes a wholesome food for cattle.

the husbandman, by devouring innumer4. Woolly yellow milfoil, or yarrow (A. able insects during the summer. tomentosa). This species grows about dry

YELLOW-WEED. See WELD. hilly pastures in Scotland and Ireland. The YELLOW-WORT. (Chlora, from root is woody, slightly creeping, with many chloros, green. The flowers of C. perfolong fibres. Stems scarcely a foot high, liata are a perfect green when dried, but curved at the base, then erect. Leaves | yellow when fresh;

hence the common and doubly pinnatifid, woolly, segments linear, generic names.) This is a pretty genus, crowded, acute. Flowers densely corym and the species well worth cultivating as bose, on woolly stalks, of a bright golden hardy annuals; they only require to be yellow. The whole herb, as well as the sown in the open borders as soon as the flowers, has an aromatic scent when rubbed. seeds are ripe. It serves to decorate rock-work in gardens, The perfoliate yellow-wort is indigenous, but will not bear wet or shade. (Smith's growing on chalky bills or clay soils. The Eng. Flor. vol. iii. p. 460.; Sinclair's Hort. stems are a foot and a half high, terminating Gram. p. 412.)

in an upright, leafy, repeatedly forked paYEARLINGS. A term applied to nicle of many elegant bright yellow flowers, calves, colts, and other young stock, when open in sunshine only: they are without they have completed their first year.

scent. Leaves ovate, acute, combined and YEAST. The froth or scum which perfoliate. The whole herb is very glaurises on beer during the act of ferment cous, subject to mildew. (Paxton's Bot. ation. (See Brewing and FERMENTATION.) Dict.; Smith's Eng. Flor. vol. ii. p. 218.) It contains a variety of components; among YEOMAN. A term applied to the first others, carbon, acetic and malic acids, or highest degree of cultivators in this alcohol, potassa, lime, a saccharine muci- country. The yeomen are properly freelaginous extract, gluten, and water. holders, and such as cultivate their own

Yeast is an article of the greatest im lands. This term has been derived from portance in domestic economy, forming a various words by different authors. Dr. necessary ingredient in the manufacture of Johnson seems to incline to the word geman, bread, which would otherwise become heavy Frisick, a villager; Fortescue derives it and unwholesome. When put in contact from gemen, or yemen, Saxon for a comwith saccharine matters, at a temperature moner.

Sir Thomas Smith's definition of a between 50° and 60°, it causes fermentation, yeoman is, “a free-born Englishman who and changes the sugar into alcohol and may lay out of his own free lands in yearly carbonic acid. Yeast may be dried and revenue to the sum of 408. yet retain its properties, but a temperature YEW TREE. (Taxus.) A genus of of 212o destroys it.

ornamental evergreen trees, well adapted The yeast prepared by the Hungarians for underwood, as they thrive under the




YOUNG, ARTHUR. shade and drip of other trees; they are also dividual loss, has yet produced great vullie very ornamental when planted to form advantages. It has been remarked, indeed hedges. They will grow in any moist soil, of the writings of Arthur Young, that they but succeed best in loams and clays. They produced more private losses and more are chiefly propagated from seeds, which public benefit than those of any other should be sown as soon as ripe; but can author. A memoir of this extraordinary also be increased by cuttings formed of man was published soon after his death bi either one or two years' wood, and planted Dr. Paris, his friend and medical attendant,

or end of August. The common yew tree are, in the words of their author, tata (T. baccata) is the only indigenous species. (Brande's Journ. of Science, vol. ix. p.272) The trunk is straight, with a smooth deci His services to agriculture were in duous bark. Leaves two-ranked, crowded, portant, and they would have been stil linear, flat, about an inch long, dark green. more valuable if he had confined himselta Fruit drooping, consisting of a sweet, in- the improvement of the scienee of agricul ternally glutinous, scarlet berry. The leaves ture, and avoided all those many politic are fetid and very poisonous, and prove and party themes of which he was erer tar speedily fatal to cattle accidentally tasting ready to be the champion. This morbid them when young and tender. The berries feeling he carried with him to the Board of have a sweet mawkish taste, and may be Agriculture; and, in consequence, hoch eaten without danger. The wood of the Arthur Young and the board of which b yew tree, being of extremely slow growth, was long the chief spirit, experienced se is hard and tough, formerly highly valuable same fate, - they obtained the support of for making bows, but now chiefly used for only a section of the farmers of England fine cabinet-work or inlaying. It makes and they much too often laid themselve handsomer chairs than many exotic woods. open to the charge of being more intent (Paxton's Bot. Dict.; Smith's Eng. Flor. | upon the advancement of the interests of vol. iv. p. 253.)

their party than of those of practical agte YOKE. Á frame of wood fixed with culture. Thus the very first sentence i bows over the necks of oxen, whereby they the first volume of the Annals of AGTER are coupled together, and harnessed to the ture, published in 1790, is as follows:plough. It is sometimes written "yoak," "The parties of one country and the de and is composed -1. of a thick piece of bility of another having at last extinguis wood that passes over the neck, and is the torch of discord;" and the entire em strictly called the “yoke ;” 2. of a bow, comprehends hardly anything else than a which encompasses the neck; and 3. of the political survey of the state of the kingdor. “wreathings," or " stitchings," that serve and its possessions, fisheries, &c. It speaks to connect the whole. Besides these parts, with much zeal of the French Revolutie, there are employed a ring, denominated union with Ireland, customs, exports, trethe “yoke-ring,” and a chain for securing nage, produce of the taxes, population, It the traces.

tional debt, West Indian plantations « YOKE of land. The quantity of land | Great Britain ; indulges in all kinds so which a yoke of oxen can plough in a day. | visions ; gives a statement of what the Hence, in some parts of Kent, a little farm, | editor would do if he were made a kere from its only requiring a yoke of oxen to &c., &c.; and hardly a page is reserved f. till it, is called a “ yokelet."

practical agriculture, of which his work YOLK. See EĞg, and Wool.

to be “the annals." YOUNG, ARTHUR. A celebrated agris Arthur Young was the descendant os cultural writer and farmer; perhaps the respectable family, who had resided on the most popular author on rural affairs that estate at Bradfield Combust, near Burs this or any other country has produced. Edmund's, in the county of Suffolk, $ His characteristics were great zeal, enter more than two centuries; he was born in prise, and energy, with a copious flow of London, on the 7th of September, 1701 plain and intelligible language, which the His father, the Reverend Arthur You meanest capacity could readily comprehend; rector of Bradfield, had three childre and although he possessed few claims to be John, a daughter Elizabeth; the third ranked as a scientific farmer, yet he suc Arthur, subject of the present memoir, es ceeded by his labours in exciting a general was educated at Larenham, a school aber love of agriculture in the upper classes of six miles from Bradfield Hall. his countrymen, which has, since his day, Arthur Young was brought up for me never materially subsided. And this feel- cantile pursuits, in a merchant's counting ing, although attended, through a want of house at Lynn, where, at the age of seru practical information, with considerable in- | teen, he commenced his literary career i


YOUNG, ARTIIUR. celu writing a political pamphlet, entitled The | fate had fixed me upon land calculated to

Theatre of the present War in North Ame- swallow, without return, all that folly or rica; and then four novels—The Fair Ame- imprudence could bestow upon it.' It will rican, Sir Charles Beaufort, Lucy Watson, be here naturally asked, why he did not go and Julia Benson, or the Innocent Sufferer. to land decisively good? He answers the In 1763 he returned from the residence of question very satisfactorily. “It was on his uncle in London to his mother at Brad account of the houses ; for although I saw field Hall, without any prospect of a pur numerous farms that would have suited suit, profession, or employment. His whole well, they had wretched hovels on them.”

income, during the life of his mother, aris. Finding, about the year 1783, that his Silampoing from a copyhold farm of twenty acres, income was barely sufficient to meet his ex•

and producing only as many pounds, she penditure, he engaged to report the parliawas anxious that he should reside with her ; mentary debates for the Morning Post: this and, as the lease of her farm of eighty acres he continued to perform for several years; would shortly expire, she urged him to un and after the labours of the week, he walked dertake its cultivation, a scheme so much every Saturday evening to his farm, a disin unison with his taste and wishes, that he tance of seventeen miles from London, from did not long hesitate in accepting her pro- which he as regularly returned every Monposal, and he embarked as à farmer. day morning. This was the most anxious Young, eager,

and totally ignorant, as he and laborious part of his life : “ I worked," then was, of every necessary detail, it is not says he, “ more like a coalheaver, though surprising, as he used to say, that he should without his reward, than a man acting only have squandered large sumns, under golden from a predominant impulse.” In 1774, he dreams of improvements, especially as he published Political Arithmetic, a work which had a thirst for experiment, without a met with high consideration abroad, and was knowledge of what is demanded for its immediately translated into several lan

In this year (1765), he married guages. Mír. Young has left a memoran. Miss Martha Allen of Lynn, and in the dum, which states, that he received for his year 1767 undertook the management of different writings, in the interval between the farm of Samford Hall, in Essex, which the years 1766 and 1775, the sum of three consisted of about 300 acres of land. thousand pounds. Various unforeseen circumstances, and em In 1784, he commenced the publication barrassments from the want of capital, soon of his Annals of Agriculture, in which he induced him to give a hundred pounds to a appeared in the double capacity of editor farmer for taking the estate off his hands; and author, a work which he continued to and this farmer, by the advantages of capi- the period of his blindness: it extends to tal, realised a fortune upon it. It was here, forty-five volumes, octavo, and presents a uniting the plough and the pen, that he wrote vast store of information upon subjects of his work entitled, Political Essays on the Pre- agriculture and political economy. sent State of the British Empire, but which plan upon which it was conducted was one was not published until 1772, in one volume, / which ought to have ensured for it more quarto. He now advertised for another extensive and profitable pratronage, for, farm, and the knowledge which resulted instead of recording anonymous correspondfrom viewing the different estates that were ence, it refused admittance to any paper on this occasion presented to his notice, that had not the name and address of its furnished him with the materials for his author; it can accordingly boast of comtour, which he called The Six Weeks' Tour munications from the most exalted and enthrough the Southern Counties. By the lightened characters in Europe, at the head advice of his Suffolk bailiff, he hired a farm of whom stands our late most gracious of 100 acres in Hertfordshire; and, from sovereign, who transmitted to Mr. Young viewing it in an uncommonly favourable for publication an account of the farm of season, they were both deceived in the na Mr. Ducket, the able cultivator of Peterture of the soil. “I know not," said Young, sham, which is recorded in the seventh

what epithet to give this soil, sterility volume of the annals, under the signature falls short of the idea; a hungry vitrivlic of “Ralph Robinson.” During the progravel-I occupied, for nine years, the gress of this work he travelled (and he jaws of a wolf. 'A nabob's fortune would published a popular description of his sink in the attempt to raise good arable travels) over most parts of England, into crops, upon any extent, in such a country: Ireland, and in France. my experience and knowledge bad increased In 1793, animated as he always was by from travelling and from practice; but all the spirit of adventure, he could not resist an was lost when exerted upon such a spot. I opportunity that occurred for realising the hardly wonder at a losing account, after favourite speculation he had so long enter



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YOUNG, ARTHUR. tained that of cultivating a large tract of resources of art, and he died without e waste land. He accordingly completed the tertaining the least suspicion of the malady purchase of 4,400 acres of waste in York- under which he suffered. Pious resignia. shire. But his fates had decreed other tion cheered him in his illness, and not a things for him. The Board of Agriculture murmur of complaint was heard to escape was established in the August of 1793, and his lips. On the 12th of April, in the yer he was immediately appointed its secre- | 1820, at his house in Sackville-Street, afte tary. An individual is rarely appointed to taking a glass of lemonade, and expressing an official situation on account of his pos- himself calm and easy, he expired. H sessing in an eminent degree those quali- remains were conveyed to Bradfield, and fications which its duties require; but in deposited in a vault in the church-Fard. the instance of Mr. Young this was un- I have thus offered a brief sketch of doubtedly the fact; his general and pro- the principal labours of Arthur Young, a found knowledge in agriculture was the man who filled a large space in the public only circumstance that marked him as the eye, for a long series of years, but when most proper person to fill a situation in name and talents appear to have ce every respect so important and honourable. manded still greater notice and respect “ The gratification," says he, "of being foreign countries than in his own. That he elected into so respectable a situation, in reflected lustre on the age and the courty which opportunities of still giving an humble in which he lived can be hardly denir. aid to the good cause of the plough could Of what other philosopher can it be sent scarcely fail of offering, would not permit that at one time he entertained, under bi me to decline the appointment; although, humble roof, pupils of seven different Di to a person established in the country, the tions, each of whom had been sent to his salary, with the residence annexed, was not for instructions in agriculture, by his ne that pecuniary object which has been re- spective government? I was lately it presented ; and I must have improved on formed by his daughter that the late Duke of bad principles indeed, if it would not, in a | Bedford breakfasted at Bradfield on ood few years, have turned out a more profit the mornings of a Newmarket race-uzeto able speculation. (The salary was 4001. ing, and was met by pupils from Russia per annum, with a house free from all | France, America, Naples, Poland, Sicily charge.) What a change in the destination and Portugal. His numerous works se of a man's life! Instead of entering, as I distinguished by vivacity of thought, quickproposed, the solitary lord of 4,000 acres, in ness of imagination, bias to calculation, a. the keen atmosphere of lofty rocks and fondness for political speculation ; and hai mountain torrents, with a little creation they been less successful, posterity Data rising gradually around me, making the perhaps have regarded these traits of

give way to industrious population, active and energetic, though remote and tranquil;

two blades of grass to grow where not one was found before behold me at a desk, in the smoke, the fog, the din of Whitehall. "Society has charms;' true, and so has solitude to a mind employed. The die, however, is cast, and my steps may still be, metaphorically, said to be in the furrow."

At the Board, Arthur Young continued, to his death, zealously employed on all occasions as its secretary, in the service of Agriculture; - old age at last crept on; he became blind, and afflicted with the complaint which caused his death. He was attended (concludes Dr. Paris) by Mr. Wilson, Mr. Chilver, and myself; and although the incurable nature of his disease defied every hope of permanent relief, yet his sufferings were greatly palliated by the

sources of fallacy and disappointment.

Arthur Young's published works are 1. The Farmer's Letters. 1767. 8vo. I vol. A beteet vol. 1771. 8vo. 2. A Six Weeks' Tour through Southern Counties of England and Wales. 1764-. *** 3. A Treatise on Hogs. 1769. Svo. 4. A Six Your Tour through the North of England. 1770. 4 vol. *** 5. The Farmer's Guide. 1770 2 vols. Sra. Z Economy. 1770. 8vo. 7. A Course of Experimen. Agriculture. 1770, 2 vols. 4to. 8. "The Farmer's lo 1770 4 vols. 8vo. 9. Proposals for namberts People. 1771. 8vo. 10. Observations on Waste La 1772. 8vo. 11. Political Arithmetie. 1774. STOTour in Ireland. 1780. 2 vols. 8vo. 13. An Essasa Coleseed. 8vo. 14. Annals of Agriculture. 8. 9 to 1804. 44 vols, 15. On the Wool Question. 1787. 16. The Example of a Farmer. 1793. 810. 17. Trat in France. 1792, 1794. 4to. 18. The Agriculture of Sw folk. 1797. 8vo. 19. The Agriculture of Liacolas 1799. 8vo. 20. On the Application of Waste Land 1 8vo. 21. The Farmer's Kalendar. 1800-4. 8vo. 4 rols. * Essay on Manders. 1804. Sro. 23. View of the ACTES ture of Essex, 1806-7. 2 vols. 80. 94. Report als closures. 1807-9. 8vo. 25. View of Agriculture of 05. fordshire. 1808. 8vo. 26. View of the Agriculture al Sussex. 1808. 8vo. 27. On the Board of Agricola 1809. 8vo. 28. On the Husbandry of Bakesell. Arbut not, and Duckett. 1811. 8vo. 29. On Moder. 1812 852 30. Essay on Manures. Nicholson's Journal, vol. IILI p. 120.

(Waki's BiWilkers.)


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