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We should fail to convey to our readers, in any adequate degree, our impression of the value of this book, were we to omit all notice of the two important Sacramental Lectures which are included in it; in the former of which, under the title of the History of the word Sacrament, Mr. Elliott presents his readers with a summary of sacramental doctrine as maintained in the four following successive periods, viz., (1) that which commenced with the death of St. John to A D. 400; (2) the Augustinian æra; (3) the Papal period; and (4), the period of the Reformation; and in the latter of which our author guards against the sacerdotal and sacrificial theories of some of the members of our own Reformed Church, and expounds and enforces the doctrine of the spiritual presence of Christ in the soul of the faithful communicant.
Mr. Elliott's small volume contains also some valuable Ap. pendices. In the first of these he gives an interesting extract from Hall's Chronicle, containing a notice of the infant confirmations of the Princess, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, and of the Prince Edward, afterwards King Edward VI. In the second Appendix, Mr. Elliott gives the judgment of the early Lutheran and Reformed Continental Churches on the Rite of Confirmation. The third Appendix contains a Tabular Sketch of the History of our Lord, and a Pauline Chronological Chart, together with some historic coincidences between the Acts and the Apostolic Epistles.* The fourth Appendix contains a critical notice of certain points on which Mr. Elliott's views on the subject of Confirmation differ from those contained in the manual of the present Bishop of Lincoln, and in that of the present Dean of Norwich. The fifth and last Appendix contains some remarks on a Review of the first edition of Mr. Elliott's Lectures, in the “ Churchman.”
We trust that this short, and necessarily very imperfect, sketch of the contents of these valuable Lectures may have the effect of contributing, in some small degree, to their wider circulation, and their more extensive usefulness.
* Mr. Elliott argues, from the direc- date assigned to the Epistle by Bishop tion contained in the Epistle to the Pearson, the city of Laodicea was sufColossians, that it should be read in ficiently restored for the purpose specithe Church of Laodicea, that that fied by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Epistle could not have been written Colossians; and consequently we see no later than the summer or autumn of sufficient reason, so far as this argument 60 A.D., because Laodicea was destroyed goes, for rejecting the chronology of by an earthquake in the sixth year of Bishop Pearson, who assigns the month the reign of Nero, i.e., between Oct. . of February, 61 A.D., as the date of St. 59 A.D. and Oct. 60 A.D. If, however, Paul's arrival in Rome. Canon Cook, the city of Laodicea began to be restored in the carefully prepared Chronological immediately after its destruction, as Table, prefixed to the last edition of his may fairly be inferred from the passage Commentary on the Acts, adopts March, to which Mr. Elliott refers in the An. 61 A.D., as the date of the Apostle's nals of Tacitus (xiv. 27), we see no reason for doubting that in 62 A.D., the Vol. 68.-No. 383.
arrival in Rome.
TH SLAVE TRADE IN EAST AFRICA.
(Concluded from p. 792.) We pass on from the consideration of such revolting scenes, to watch the future destiny of the unhappy slaves when brought down to the coast.
The port of Quiloa, or Kilwa, which we have mentioned, lies about 150 miles south of the island of Zanzibar, and is the great mainland mart or emporium where thousands are exposed for sale, and whence they are shipped for Zanzibar. The cost of the slaves purchased at Kilwa is about five dollars. Some attempt is there made to register the number exported for Zanzibar, by means of port clearances furnished by the authorities to the slavers; and it is from these registers that we are enabled to calculate the yearly consumption of slaves. To this part of our subject we shall presently return.
On arrival at Zanzibar, the majority of the slaves pass into the slave market. Many are at once consigned to their Arab purchasers, who have come down from Arabia with the northerly monsoon, and have hired houses for the reception of their purchases. For every slave thus brought to Zanzibar, the Sultan receives a royalty of two dollars, and it is therefore manifest that for any assistance he may offer in the suppression of the trade, he expects, as the lawyers say, “a valuable consideration."
We again turn to the testimony of Dr. Livingstone, and at this time, when there is so much uncertainty as to the safety of our great traveller, the mind naturally recurs to the state of suspense almost hopeless, save for the firm opinion expressed by Sir R. Murchison, which followed on the report of his death given by the Johanna men at Zanzibar. Great was the rejoicing at the tidings of his safety, and hearty were the congratulations offered to their president by the members of the Geographical Society at the meeting at which Dr. Livingstone's letter announcing his safety was read. While all who spoke claimed him as the great geographer, the African explorer, the undaunted traveller, there was one present who, having himself, with Livingstone, witnessed some of the horrors of the East African Slave-trade, endeavoured to impress upon the fashionable and learned assembly, that Livingstone had other objects in view beside the mere solution of geographical problems that he was a true philanthropist, and that one of the causes nearest to his heart was the suffering oppressed slave. The appeal fell on ears geographical, geological, and polite, but unsympathizing, and it was evident that the harmony of the evening was not to be marred by the mention of so uncomfortable and unscientific a subject as the woes of the slave. However interesting Africa's land and lakes and rivers may be to the man of science, the condition of Africa's sons seems to appeal only to a few unenlightened enthusiasts, whose hopes and prayers and efforts form fit subject for scoff and sneer. But the friend of the slave was the truest exponent of Livingstone's character and views; and it is deeply interesting to see the traveller, as we may picture him to ourselves, sitting down in Lat. 11° 18° South, Long. 37° 10' East, to write a long report, dated 11th June, 1866, to the Earl of Clarendon on the slavetrade. Again, writing from Lake Nyassa in the following month of August, he returns to the subject, and makes suggestions for the suppression of the trade; and again, in a letter dated 1st February, 1867, written from Bembo, about 500 miles from the spot where he formed his first report, he devotes the greater part of his space to the slave-trade, and concludes with a regret that the geographical notes must be so scanty.
With this digression, the object of which was mainly to enhance the value of Dr. Livingstone's testimony on the subject, we return to the island of Zanzibar and its slave mart, to which point we have followed the slave. “This,” says Dr. Livingstone, (in the report dated 11th June, 1866, received on the 18th April, 1868), “is now almost the only spot in the world where 100 to 300 slaves are daily exposed for sale in open market. This disgraceful scene I several times personally witnessed, and the purchasers were Arabs or Persians, whose dhows lay anchored in the harbour, and these men ,were daily at their occupation examining the teeth, gait, and limbs of the slaves, as openly as horse dealers engage in their business in England.”
The thought may here occur to many of our readers, possibly unfamiliar with the subject, “ This may all be true, but is it not a small insignificant trade you are describing-an annual caravan of perhaps 300 or 400 slaves ?” A few words on the present extent and results of the trade will, we regret to say, reveal a very different state of things. We have stated that Quiloa, or Kilwa, is the principal mainland export harbour, and that here proper clearances are furnished to the slavers. In a letter dated Zanzibar, 4th March, 1868, Consul Churchill states that for the five years terminating September, 1867, there had been exported from Quiloa 97,253 registered slaves. He states also, that from 3000 to 4000 annually are smuggled from various parts of the mainland ; so that we may swell the above total to about 115,000 slaves in five years who have reached the coast, and have been shipped for Zanzibar, Arabia, and other places, Nor is this enormous total the measure of the misery and sin which accompanies the trade. Let us again recur to the statement of the Indian sepoy. He says, “When we passed up with Dr. Livingstone, the wayside stunk with corpses; it was so when we passed down again ;' and out of the 300 slaves who started on that fearful march, 100 were left murdered on the bloody track. Dr. Livingstone, in Chap. xix. of the “Zambesi and its Tributaries,” says,
“Would that we could give a comprehensive account of the horrors of the Slave-trade, with an approximation to the number of lives it yearly destroys: for we feel sure that, were even half the truth told and recognised, the feelings of men would be so thoroughly roused, that this devilish traffic in human flesh would be put down at all risks; but neither we, nor any one else, have the statistics necessary for a work of this kind. Let us state what we know of one portion of Africa, and then every reader who believes our tale can apply the ratio of the known misery to find out the unknown. Let it not be supposed for an instant, that those taken out of the country represent all the victims; they are but a very small section of the sufferers. Besides those actually captured, thousands are killed and die of their wounds and famine, driven from their villages by the slave raid ; thousands in internecine war waged for slaves with their own clansmen and neighbours, slain by the lust of gain, which is stimulated by the slave purchasers. The many skeletons we have seen amongst rocks and woods, by the little pools, and along the paths of the wilderness, attest the awful sacrifice of human life which must be attributed, directly or indirectly, to this trade of hell. We would ask our countrymen to believe us when we say, as we conscientiously can, that it is our deliberate opinion, from what we know and have seen, that not one-fifth of the victims of the slave-trade ever become slaves. Taking the Shiré valley as an average, we should say, not even onetonth arrive at their destination."
Again, in his report to Lord Clarendon, dated the 20th August, 1866, he speaks of "a tract of very fine, well-watered, buť depopulated country, which took us eight days' hard marching to cross”:
“It was about 100 miles broad, and so long, there was no possibility of going round either end. It bore all the marks of having been densely peopled at some former period. The ridges in which the natives plant grain and beans were everywhere visible; and from the number of calcined clay pipes used in furnaces, it is evident that they worked extensively in iron. The country was very beautiful, mountainous, well-wooded, and watered. I counted in one day's march fifteen running burns, though it was the dry season, and some were from four to ten yards broad. The sound of gushing water, though not associated in our minds with Africa, became quite familiar. It was too cold to bathe in with pleasure, the elevation above the sea being between 3000 and 4000 feet.
“ The process of depopulation to which I have adverted goes on annually. The coast Arabs from Kilwa come up with plenty of ammunition and calico to the tribe called Waigau or Ajawa, and say that they want slaves. Marauding parties immediately start off to the Manganja or Wanyassa villages, and, having plenty of powder and guns, overpower and bring back the chief portion of the inhabitants. Those who escape usually die of starvation. This process is identical with that of which we formerly saw so much in the lands of the Portuguese in the Shiré valley. I cannot write about it without a painful apprehension that to persons at a distance I must appear guilty of exaggeration. But I beg your Lordship to remember, whenever my statements have been tested on the spot, they have been found within, not beyond, the truth. Even the grand Victoria sales were put down at less than half their size."
“We have been told by General Rigby, formerly Consul at Zanzibar, that the old slaves still living there state that their homes were in the country bordering on the sea; while now the slave hunter has to penetrate for 400 or 500 miles into the interior, through a country once populous and fertile, but now a waste, ére he can secure the victims for his traffic. We leave our readers to form their own conclusions as to the awful sacrifice of human life caused by the Slave-trade on the East Coast of Africa, and proceed to answer the question which must naturally occur to every one,'Has nothing been done by our Government to put a stop to this miserable traffic ?'”
Within the last ten years, more attention has been given by our authorities to the subject; and, in addition to the watch maintained by our small squadron, various measures have been urged upon the Sultan, the adoption of which, it was thought, would materially aid the efforts of our cruisers. But it is a fact, that as yet po palpable check has been placed on the trade. The reason assigned by Dr. Livingstone for this failure is the treaty protection afforded by us over the first and most difficult half of the sea voyage, under the policy to which expression was given by Lord Russell, in a despatch dated 14th March, 1864. In that despatch he says, that Her Majesty's Government do not claim the right to interfere in the status of domestic slavery in Zanzibar, nor with the bona fide transport of slaves from one portion of the Sultan's territory to another, so long as this latter traffic shall not be made a cloak to cover the foreign Slave-trade. The limits of this article prevent our giving at length the arguments adduced by Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Churchill for a reconsideration of the policy of our Government in this matter,—they are to be found in the pamphlet published by the Church Missionary Society;it will be sufficient for cur purpose to say, that they point out the absurdity of supposing that an export trade of 20,000 slaves annually is needed to maintain the status of domestic