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language generally, and that of each particular writer, is acquired and improved. The chief value of Dr. Anthon's labours consists in the copiousness of the historical, mythological, and geographical information, which he brings together from various sources; and in the occasional, though by no means constant, elucidation of difficulties, obtained from the standard commentaries. It is thus that he develops the plan upon which he has edited the ENEID of VIRGIL:
"The present volume contains merely the Eneïd of Virgil, the Eclogues and Georgics having been reserved for a separate work. This arrangement will, it is presumed, be found an acceptable one to the student, since the Georgics are seldom read in our preparatory schools, but most commonly form part of a college course.
"The text of the edition which is here offered to the public is based upon that of Heyne; but in numerous instances changes of punctuation and new readings have been introduced from the latest and best authorities. The recent and excellent edition of Heyne by Wagner has been particularly followed.
"The notes accompanying the text have been made purposely copious, since Virgil is an author in the perusal of whom the young scholar stands in need of very frequent assistance. These notes will be found to contain all that is valuable in the commentaries of the latest European editors, such as Nöhden, Heinrich, Hohler, Thiel, For
biger, Valpy; but more especially Heyne and Wagner. Important aid has also been obtained from the excellent version of the first six books of the Eneïd, which has recently appeared from the London press and to the anonymous author of which the editor takes this opportunity of tendering his warmest acknowledgments.
"The Metrical Clavis is based on that of Dr. Carey, with such improvements, however, as the present condition of that branch of knowledge demanded: while the general Index will be found to contain all that is requisite for the young student in the perusal of the poem. For more extended information he will consult,
of course, the pages of a Classical Dictionary."
In order to adapt the work to the use of English students, it has been thought expedient to erase the greater portion of the translated passages; leaving only so much of this kind of assistance, as may be fairly supplied without fear of damping the ardour of inquiry, by removing every call upon the industry and judgment of the scholar. By this means, and by the curtailment of other apparent superfluities, the bulk of the Commentary has been so materially reduced, as to admit of the introduction of much additional matter of a less enervating character, and bearing, for the most part, upon peculiarities of language and construction. The Arguments, from Dryden, have also been prefixed to the several Books.
It may be proper to observe, that the present volume was fully prepared for the press some months ago, when its publication was delayed by the serious illness, and eventual death, of the late Mr. Thomas Tegg, at whose request it was undertaken. In the meantime, the work has been twice reproduced in other quarters; but that very circumstance would seem to render its appearance in the present form even more desirable. The mention of this delay affords an opportunity of offering a tribute of respect to the memory of one to whom the Literature of England owes a debt of no common gratitude; and whose enlarged views of commercial enterprise in general were carried out with corresponding energy, precision, and liberality. His loss. among the merchants of London may possibly be replaced; but many of his more immediate connexions and dependents will have long to regret an indulgent master and a sincere friend. Requiescat in pace!
LIFE OF VIRGIL.
PUBLIUS VIRGILIUS MARO was born at the village of Andes, a few miles distant from Mantua, about 70 B.C. His father was of low birth, having been, according to some authorities, a potter, or brick-maker; and, according to others, the hireling of a travelling merchant, named Maius, or Magus. He so ingratiated himself, however, with his master, that he received his daughter Maia in marriage, and was intrusted with the charge of a farm, which his father-in-law had acquired in the vicinity of Mantua. Our poet was the offspring of these humble parents. The studies of Virgil commenced at Cremona, where he remained till he assumed the toga virilis. At the age of sixteen he removed to Mediolanum; and, shortly after, to Neapolis, where he laid the foundation of that multifarious learning which shines so conspicuously in the Æneid. During his residence in this city he perused the most celebrated Greek writers; and here he also studied the Epicurean system of philosophy under Syro, a celebrated teacher of that sect. But Medicine and Mathematics were the sciences to which he was chiefly addicted; and to an early tincture of geometrical knowledge may perhaps, in some degree, be ascribed his ideas of luminous order and masterly arrangement, and that regularity of thought, as well as exactness of expression, by which all his writings were distinguished.
It does not seem certain, or even probable, that Virgil went at all to Rome from Naples. It rather appears that he returned to his native country, and to the charge of his paternal farm. While residing here, and turning his attention in part to poetic composition, he attracted the notice of Pollio, who had been appointed by Antony to the command of the district in which
the farm of Virgil lay. Pollio, observing his poetic talents, and pleased with his amiable manners, became his patron and protector; and as long as this chief continued in command of the Mantuan district, Virgil was relieved from all exaction, and protected in the peaceable possession of his property. This tranquillity, however, was destined to be rudely disturbed. Previously to the battle of Philippi, the triumvirs had promised to their soldiers the lands belonging to some. of the richest towns of the empire. Augustus returned to Italy in A.U.C. 712, after his victory at Philippi, and found it necessary, in order to satisfy these claims, to commence a division of lands in Italy, on a more extensive scale even than he had intended. Cremona, unfortunately, having espoused the cause of Brutus, became peculiarly obnoxious to the victorious party, and its territory was accordingly divided among the veteran soldiers of the triumvir. This territory, however, not proving sufficient, the deficiency was supplied from the neighbouring district of Mantua ; and the poet, no longer protected' by Pollio (whose power, it would seem, had been diminished in consequence of his too close adherence to Antony), was dispossessed of his little property under circumstances of peculiar violence. His personal safety was even endangered; and he was compelled, on one occasion, to escape the fury of the centurion Arrius by swimming over the Mincius.
At this juncture, Virgil had the good fortune to obtain the favour of Alphenus Varus, with whom he had studied philosophy at Naples under Syro the Epicurean, and who had now either succeeded Pollio in the command of the district, or was appointed by Augustus to superintend in that quarter the division of the lands. Under his protection Virgil twice repaired to Rome, where he was received not only by Mæcenas, but by Augustus himself, from whom he procured the restora tion of the patrimony of which he had been deprived. This happened in the commencement of the year A.U.C. 714; and during the course of that season, in gratitude for the favours he had received, he composed his eclogue entitled "Tityrus." The remaining eclogues, with the exception, perhaps, of the tenth, called "Gallus," were produced in the course of this and the following year.