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tion sometimes termed, Sant'
Oreste. On the summit was a
temple and grove dedicated to
Apollo, to whom an annual sacri-
fice was offered by a people of
the country, named Hirpii. The
sacrifice consisted in their passing
over heaps of red hot embers with-
out being injured by the fire.
Large fires of pine were also
kindled by them in honour of the
god. xi. 785.

SPARTA. The capital of Laco-
nia, and the residence of Menelaus
and Helen. From this city Paris
bore away the latter. ii. 577. x.
92. Hence

SPARTANUS, A, UM. Spartan. i.


SPIO. A sea-deity; one of the
Nereids. v. 826.

STEROPES. One of the Cyclopes.
See note on viii. 425, and also the
article CYCLOPES.

STHĚNĚLUS. I. A son of Capa-
neus. He was one of the Epigoni,
and also one of the suitors of
Helen. Sthenelus went to the
Trojan war, and, according to
Virgil, was in the number of those
who were shut up in the wooden
horse. ii. 261.-II. A Rutulian
chieftain, slain by Pallas, the son
of Euander. x. 388.-III. A Tro-
jan, slain by Turnus. xii. 341.

STROPHADES. Small islands off
the coast of Elis, in the Ionian
Sea. They were two in number,
and took their name from the cir-
cumstance of Zetes and Calaïs, the
sons of Boreas, having returned
thence (orpέow, "to turn ") after
they had driven the Harpies thither
from the table of Phineus. The
modern name of these islands is
Strivali. iii. 209.

nian; of or belonging to the river
Strymon. x. 265. 414. xi. 580.

STYGIUS, A, UM. Stygian; of
the Styx, or lower world. Hence
Stygius Jupiter means Pluto. iv.
638. So also Stygius Rex. vi. 252.
Stygius frater. x. 113. Again, Sty-
gia cymba is Charon's boat; Stygia
palus, the Styx itself, &c. vi. 323.
&c. From

STRYMON. A large river of
Thrace, forming at one time the
boundary of that country on the
side of Macedonia. Its banks
were much frequented by cranes.


STYX. A celebrated river of
the lower world, round which it
was said to flow nine times. The
gods held the waters of this river
in such veneration, that they al-
ways swore by them; an oath
which was deemed most binding in
its nature. If, however, any deity
ever violated an oath thus taken,
the punishment was deprivation of
nectar and ambrosia, and the loss
of all heavenly privileges, for the
space of ten whole years. vi. 134.
323. &c.

SUCRO. A Rutulian, slain by
Eneas. xii. 505.

SULMO. I. A Rutulian, slain
by Nisus. ix. 412.-II. A city of
the Peligni, about seven miles
south-east of Corfinium, now Sul-
mone. Virgil is supposed to refer
to this place at x. 517, where
others, however, think that he
alludes to an individual.

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TARQUINIUS (Superbus).

last king of Rome, dethroned for
his haughtiness and tyranny. viii.
647. See also note on vi. 818.
TARQUITUS. Son of Faunus,
by the nymph Dryope. x. 550.
TARTAREUS, A, UM. Tartarean.

vi. 295. 395. 581. &c. From

Gulf of Cabes. They were both | thrown in the earlier Roman times.
dangerous to the ancient mariners, viii. 347. 652.
from the shoals and quicksands
with which they abounded; and
the Syrtis Minor is still an object
of apprehension to navigators, from
the variations and uncertainties of
the tide on a flat and shelving coast.
The name Syrtis is commonly
derived from the Greek σúpw, "to
drag," in allusion to the agitation
of the sand by the force of the
tides. It comes, however, more
probably, from the term sert,
which still exists in Arabic as the
name for a desert tract or region:
for the term Syrtis does not appear
to have been confined to the mere
gulfs themselves, but to have been
extended also to the desert country
adjacent, which is still, at the pre-
sent day, called Sert. i. 146. iv.
41. v. 51.


TABURNUS. A lofty mountain
in Samnium, which closed the
Caudine Pass on the southern
side. Its southern declivities were
covered with olive-grounds. The
modern name is Taburno. xii.

TAGUS. A Rutulian. ix. 448.
TALUS. A Rutulian. xii. 513.
TANAÏS. A Rutulian. xii. 513.
TARCHON. An Etrurian chief-
tain, who aided Æneas against the
Rutuli. viii. 506. &c.

TARENTUM. A celebrated city
of Lower Italy, now Taranto. See
on iii. 551.

TARPEIA. One of the warlike
female attendants of Camilla. xi.

TARPEIUS, A, UM. Tarpeian. The
Tarpeian Rock (Tarpeia rupes)
formed part of the Mons Capitoli-
nus, on the steepest side, where it
overhung the Tiber. Hence the
Roman Capitol is called Tarpeia
sedes, and Tarpeia arx. From
this rock state criminals were

TARTARUS (in the plural Tar-
tara). The fabled place of punish-
ment in the lower world. iv. 243.
v. 734. vi. 135. &c.

TATIUS (Titus). King of the
Sabines, who reigned conjointly
with Romulus, when peace had
been concluded between the two
nations, after the war occasioned
by the rape of the Sabine females.
viii. 638.

TEGEEUS, A, UM. Tegaan; of
Tegæa, a city of Arcadia. It is
equivalent in viii. 459. to "Arca-
dian" generally. Tegæa lay in an
eastern direction from the southern
part of the Mænalian ridge. v.

ple originally occupying the islands
called Taphia, between Leucadia
and the coast of Acarnania. See
note on vii. 735.

TELLUS, or TERRA. The god-
dess of the earth. iv. 166. 178.

TELON. Father of Ebalus, by
the nymph Sebethis. vii. 734.

TĚNĚDOS. An island of the
Ægean, off the coast of Troas, and
about four and a half miles distant
from the mainland. The Greeks
retired to this island in order to
surprise the Trojans. ii. 21. 203.

TEREUS. A Phrygian, slain by
Camilla. xi. 675.

TETRICA. A rocky mountain in
the Sabine territory, now Monte
S. Giovanni. vii. 713.

TEUCER. I. An ancient king
of Troas, from whom the whole race
received the name of Teucri. He
gave his daughter in marriage to

nation. xii. 363.

Dardanus, i. 235. iii. 108.-II. | vi. 483.-II. Another of the same
Son of Telamon by Hesione, and
half-brother of Ajax. See note
on i. 619.

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THESEUS. King of Athens, and
son of Ægeus by Ethra. Next to
Hercules, he was the most cele-
brated hero of antiquity. Among
his numerous exploits, the one to
be mentioned here relates to the
attempted abduction of Proserpina
from the lower world. His friend
Pirithous wished to obtain the
queen of Pluto for his spouse, and
in this daring undertaking was as-
sisted by Theseus. The effort,
however, proved unsuccessful, and
both were placed by the monarch
of Hades upon an enchanted rock,
from which they could not arise.
Hercules at last released Theseus
from this captivity, but was obliged
to leave Pirithous sitting there, the
earth having quaked when he at-
tempted to remove him. For an
account of the adventure with the
Minotaur, consult that article. vi.
122. 393. 618.

THETIS. The mother of Achilles,
and one of the Nereïds. v. 825.

THOAS. I. A Grecian chieftain,
one of those concealed in the
wooden horse. ii. 262-II. A
Trojan, killed in Italy. x. 415.

THRACA. Same as Thracia, a
large country between the Strymon
and the Euxine, from west to east,
and between Mount Hamus and
the shores of the Ægean and Pro-
pontis from north to south. See
note on xii. 335. Orpheus is called
the bard of Thrace, but this refers
rather to what has been called Old
Thrace, the early seat of Grecian
civilization, and answering to the
region known in a later age as
Pieria. From the warlike dis-
positions of the people, it is called
Mavortia tellus in iii. 13. Hence

THRACES. The people of Thrace.
iii. 14.


THEMON. A Lycian. x. 126.
THERMODON. A river of Pon-
tus, rising in the mountains on the
confines of Armenia Minor, and
flowing into the Euxine through
the plains of Themiscyra. It is
frequently mentioned by the poets,
from the circumstance of the Ama-
zons having been fabled to have
dwelt at one time on its banks
near its mouth. xi. 659.

THREICIUS, A, UM. Also the
feminine, THREÏSSA. i. 316. iii. 51.
Thracian. Orpheus is called Threi-

THERON. A Rutulian. x. 312.

THERSILŎCHUS. I. A Trojan.cius sacerdos, for an explanation

of which consult previous article.
The Amazons, also, are called
"Thracian," for which see note on
xi. 659.

THRONIUS. A Trojan. x. 753.
THYBRIS. See Tiberis.
THYIAS. See on iv. 302.
THYMBER. A Rutulian. x. 391.
THYMBRÆUS, A, UM. Thymbrean.
An epithet of Apollo from Thym-
bra, a town of Troas, where he had
a grove and temple. iii. 85.

THYMBREUS. A Trojan. xii.


THYMBRIS. A Trojan. x. 124.
THYMETES. A Trojan. x. 123.
xii. 364.

TIBERINUS, A, UM. Of the Tiber.
i. 13. &c. See also the next article.
TIBERIS (called also Tibris,
Thybris, &c.). The Tiber, a cele-
brated river of Italy, on the banks
of which stood the city of Rome.
It is said to have been originally
called Albula, from the colour of
its waters; and afterwards Tiberis,
when Tiberinus, king of Alba, had
been drowned in it. It is more
probable, however, that Albula
was the Latin name of the river,
and Tiberis or Tibris the Tuscan
one. The Tiber rises in the Appen-
nines, above Arretium, now Arezzo;
and has a course of nearly 150
miles before it empties into the
Tuscan Sea at Ostia. It had up-
ward of forty tributaries. Rome
stood a short distance below its
junction with the Anio. This
stream is called also, in the lan-
guage of poetry, Tyrrhenus amnis,
the Tuscan river, from its water-
ing Etruria on one side in its
course; and likewise Lydius am-
nis, or Lydian river, on account of
the popular tradition which traced
the arts and civilization of Etruria
to Lydia in Asia Minor. ii. 782.
v. 83. 797. vii. 242. viii. 64. &c.
TĪBUR. An ancient town of
Latium, north-east of Rome, on
the banks of the Anio. It was
delightfully situated, on lofty

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ground, and a favourite country
residence for the wealthy Romans.
vii. 630. Tibur was founded, ac-
cording to one account, by the
sons of Amphiaraus. See note on
vii. 670.

TIBURS. Tiburtine; of Tibur.
In the plural Tiburles, the people,
or forces of Tibur. ix. 360. xi. 757.
TIBURTIUS, A, UM. Tiburtine;
of or belonging to Tibur. vii. 670

TIBURTUS. One of the founders
of Tibur. xi. 519. See note on
vii. 670.

TIMAVUS. A river of Italy,
falling into the Sinus Tergestinus,
or Gulf of Trieste. See note on
i. 244.

TIRYNTHIUS. Tirynthian; of
Tiryns or Tirynthus, a city of
Argolis, south-east of Argos, and
about twelve stadia from Nauplia.
Hercules was called "Tirynthian,”
from this having been his native
city, and his usual place of resi-
dence. vii. 662. viii. 228.
TISANDRUS. A Grecian chief;
one of those concealed in the
wooden horse. See note on ii. 261.
TISIPHONE. One of the Furies,
or ministers of divine vengeance,
who punished the wicked in Tar-
tarus. vi. 571. x. 761.

TITAN. Son of Cœlus and Terra,
and brother to Saturn and Hype-
rion. Virgil, however, applies the
term to the Sun, as the offspring of
Hyperion, one of the Titans. iv.
119. Hence

TITANIUS, A, UM. Titanian; of
the Titan race. vi. 580. See note
on vi. 725.

TITHONIUS, A, UM. Tithonian;
of Tithonus, an epithet applied to
Aurora, as the spouse of Tithonus.
viii. 384.

TITHŌNUS. Son of Laomedon,
king of Troy. He was so beautiful
that Aurora became enamoured of
him, and carried him away. She
now besought Jove to confer on
him immortality. The sovereign
of Olympus assented, and Tithonus

became exempt from death; but
Aurora, having forgotten to have
youth joined to the gift, began in
time to observe old age creeping
over the limbs of her beautiful
consort, and eventually, out of com-
passion, changed him, when quite
decrepid, into a TETTI, or cicada.
iv. 585.

TITYOS. A celebrated giant,
who attempted to offer violence to
Latona, but was slain by the shafts
of Apollo and Diana. As a pun-
ishment after death, he lay ex-
tended in Tartarus, covering with
his vast frame nine whole jugera,
while a vulture kept feeding upon
his liver and entrails, which were
continually reproduced for that
purpose. vi. 595.

TMARIUS, A, UM. Tmarian. See
note on v. 620.

TMARUS. A Rutulian. ix. 685.
TOLUMNIUS. An augurand chief
tain on the side of the Latins. xi.
429. xii. 258. 460.

TORQUATUS. See on vi. 824.
TRINACRIA. A name given to
Sicily. Hence

TRIVIA. A surname given to
Diana, because she presided over,
and was particularly worshipped
at, places where three roads met.
vi. 13. &c.

TROĂDES. Plural of Troas.
Trojan females. v. 613.

TROJA, or ILIUM. I. One of
the most renowned cities of anti-
quity, the capital of Troas, in
Asia Minor. It appears, from
Homer, to have stood in the im-
mediate vicinity of the sources
of the Scamander, on a rising
ground between that river and the
Simois. No remains of it, how-
ever, exist at the present day.
Troy was taken by the Greeks
after a ten years' siege, and razed
to the ground. The walls of this
city were fabled to have been built
by Neptune and Apollo. i. 375.
&c.-II. A new city, built by
Æneas, in Sicily. v. 756.-III. Ă
martial sport, so called. v. 602.
See note on v. 550.

TROJĀNUS, A, UM. Trojan; of
Troy. i. 19. &c.

TROILUS. Son of Priam and
Hecuba, slain by Achilles during
the Trojan war. He was remark-

TRINACRIUS, A, UM. Sicilian.
Sicily was called Trinacria, from
its three promontories (Tρεiç, äк-able for youthful beauty. i. 474.
pai), Pelorus, Pachynus, and Li- TROŤUS, A, UM. Trojan. i. 596.
lybæum. iii. 384. &c.

TRITON. I. A sea-deity, son
of Neptune and Amphitrite, and
trumpeter to his father. See note
on i. 144.—II. A vessel so named.
x. 209.-III. Tritōnes (plural)
were inferior deities of the sea. v.

appellation of Minerva. Accord-
ing to some, she was so called be-
cause she first revealed herself in
the vicinity of the Lake Triton or
Tritonis, in Africa, inland from
the Syrtis Minor. According, how-
ever, to a better etymology, which
connects Minerva with the moon,
the epithet in question refers to
the three phases of that planet. ii.


TROS. I. Son of Erichthonius,
and grandson of Dardanus.
married Callirhoë, the daughter of
the Scamander, by whom he had
Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes.
See note on i. 380. He gave name,
as some assert, to the country of
Troas.-II. Trojan. An adjec-
tive. Same as Trojanus. i. 574.
vi. 52. &c.

TULLA. A warlike female com-
panion of Camilla. xi. 656.

king of Rome. He succeeded
Numa, and was of a warlike dispo-
sition. vi. 814. viii. 644.

TURNUS. King of the Rutuli,
son of Daunus and Venilia. He
made war against Eneas, who was

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